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1.
  • Pourhamidi, Kaveh, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of clinical tools and their diagnostic use in distal symmetric polyneuropathy
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Primary Care Diabetes. - Elsevier. - 1878-0210. ; 8:1, s. 77-84
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: To compare the diagnostic usefulness of tuning fork, monofilament, biothesiometer and skin biopsies in peripheral neuropathy in individuals with varying glucose metabolism. Methods: Normoglycaemic, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) individuals were recruited. Nerve conduction studies (NCS) and thermal threshold tests were performed. Vibrotactile sense was tested with a biothesiometer and a 128-Hz tuning fork. Touch/pressure perception was examined with a 10-g monofilament. Skin biopsies were performed and intraepidermal nerve fibres were quantified. Distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSPN) was defined as neuropathy disability score >= 2 and abnormal NCS. Thermal threshold tests were used to define small nerve fibre neuropathy (sDSPN) in cases where NCS (large nerve fibres) were normal. Results: The prevalence of DSPN and sDSPN in the whole group (n = 119) was 18% and 23%, respectively. For the biothesiometer, a cut-off of >= 24.5V had a sensitivity of 82% and specificity of 70% (AUC = 0.81, 95% CI 0.71-0.91) when evaluating DSPN. An intraepidermal nerve fibre density cut-off of <= 3.39 fibres/mm showed a sensitivity of 74% and specificity of 70% in the detection of sDSPN, whereas the sensitivity of the tuning fork and the biothesiometer were relatively low, 46% and 67%, respectively. When combining skin biopsies with the tuning fork, 10 more sDSPN cases were identified. Adding skin biopsy to the combination of the tuning fork and biothesiometer increased the sensitivity of finding sDSPN cases, but not DSPN, from 81% to 93%. Conclusion: Using a biothesiometer in clinical routine might be a sensitive method to detect large nerve fibre dysfunction in the lower extremity, whereas skin biopsies in combination with methods measuring vibrotactile sense could increase the diagnostic sensitivity of detecting peripheral neuropathy at an early stage. (C) 2013 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
2.
  • Toschke, Audré M., et al. (författare)
  • Paternal smoking is associated with a decreased prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus among offspring in two national British birth cohort studies (NCDS and BCS70)
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Perinatal Medicine. - Berlin : Walter de Gruyter. - 0300-5577. ; 35:1, s. 43-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AB Aims: An association between paternal age and type 1 diabetes (IDDM) among their offspring was recently reported as well as transgenerational responses in humans. This paper aims to assess the association of markers for prenatal exposures with IDDM. Methods: We analysed data from two birth cohorts in Great Britain on 5214 cohort members from the National Child Development Study (NCDS) and 6068 members of the 1970 British Birth Cohort Study (BCS70) with full information on IDDM and explanatory variables using multivariate logistic regression. Results: IDDM prevalence was 0.7% (95% CI 0.5-1.0%; n = 38) in the NCDS and 0.4% (95% CI 0.3-0.6%; n = 27) in the BCS70 cohort. Paternal age was not associated with IDDM possibly due to lack of sample power. Unex-pectedly, a lowered prevalence of IDDM was observed among offspring of smoking fathers in both cohorts, with a combined odds ratio of 0.44 (95% CI 0.25-0.75). This association could not be explained by maternal smoking prior to, during or after pregnancy, number of siblings, parental social class, maternal and paternal age, or cohort. Maternal smoking in pregnancy did not alter the IDDM prevalence among offspring. Conclusions: This unexpected finding may be explained by germ-line mutations or other mechanisms associated with paternal smoking. This phenomenon should be investigated and these results should not be used as a justification for smoking. Paternal exposures may be important in determining IDDM risk.
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3.
  • Pourhamidi, Kaveh, 1985-, et al. (författare)
  • Association between symptoms of neuropathy, nerve conduction and levels of heat shock protein 27 in type 2 diabetes
  • 2010
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and aims: Increased levels of serum HSP27 (sHSP27) are associated with distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSPN) in type 1 diabetic patients. However, the association between nerve function and sHSP27 has not been studied in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Thus, our objectives were to investigate the association between nerve conduction in the legs, symptoms of distal polyneuropathy and sHSP27 levels. Methods: Subjects were consecutively recruited from the population-based Västerbotten Intervention Program; controls (n=39, m/f=19/20, mean age=61± 0.6 years), IGT (n=29, m/f=15/14, mean age=61± 0.8 years), T2D (n=51, m/f=30/21, mean age=61± 1.3 years). Nerve conduction studies were performed. Z-scores for motor conduction velocity (CV) of the peroneal nerve, and the sensory CV and amplitude of the sural nerve were measured and compiled into a composite Z-score of the right leg (Z-score leg). Neurological Disability Score (NDS), including examination of sensory perception, reflexes and muscle strength, were used to evaluate symptoms of neuropathy in the leg. NDS and Z-score leg were categorized into tertiles, respectively. sHSP27 levels were measured and divided into low and high levels. Results: Subjects in the highest NDS tertile had lower sHSP27 levels (328 ± 287 pg/mL) compared to subjects in the lowest NDS tertile (558 ± 404 pg/mL, p=0.04). Subjects in the lowest tertile of Z-score leg were in the lowest sHSP27 group (63%) compared to the subjects in the highest group (38%, p=0.034). The highest tertile of Z-score leg was associated with high levels of sHSP27 (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.2; 11.5, p=0.02); adjusted for age and sex. However, this association was attenuated when adjusted for T2D status (OR 3.1, 95% CI 0.9; 9.9, p=0.06). Conclusion: In summary, increased sHSP27 levels were associated with an increasing Z-score of the leg; thus, a better nerve conduction, and fewer symptoms using the whole study population. The attenuation of the association when including diabetic status indicates an altered HSP27 production in T2D patients compared to controls and subjects with IGT.
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4.
  • Lewerin, C., et al. (författare)
  • Low holotranscobalamin and cobalamins predict incident fractures in elderly men: the MrOS Sweden.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA. - 1433-2965. ; 25:1, s. 131-140
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • SummaryIn a population-based study on cobalamin status and incident fractures in elderly men (n  = 790) with an average follow-up of 5.9 years, we found that low levels of metabolically active and total cobalamins predict incident fractures, independently of body mass index (BMI), bone mineral density (BMD), plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), and cystatin C.IntroductionCobalamin deficiency in elderlies may affect bone metabolism. This study aims to determine whether serum cobalamins or holotranscobalamin (holoTC; the metabolic active cobalamin) predict incident fractures in old men.MethodsMen participating in the Gothenburg part of the population-based Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Sweden cohort and without ongoing vitamin B medication were included in the present study (n = 790; age range, 70–81 years).ResultsDuring an average follow-up of 5.9 years, 110 men sustained X-ray-verified fractures including 45 men with clinical vertebral fractures. The risk of fracture (adjusted for age, smoking, BMI, BMD, falls, prevalent fracture, tHcy, cystatin C, 25-OH-vitamin D, intake of calcium, and physical activity (fully adjusted)), increased per each standard deviation decrease in cobalamins (hazard ratio (HR), 1.38; 95 % confidence intervals (CI), 1.11–1.72) and holoTC (HR, 1.26; 95 % CI, 1.03–1.54), respectively. Men in the lowest quartile of cobalamins and holoTC (fully adjusted) had an increased risk of all fracture (cobalamins, HR = 1.67 (95 % CI, 1.06–2.62); holoTC, HR = 1.74 (95 % CI, 1.12–2.69)) compared with quartiles 2–4. No associations between folate or tHcy and incident fractures were seen.ConclusionsWe present novel data showing that low levels of holoTC and cobalamins predicting incident fracture in elderly men. This association remained after adjustment for BMI, BMD, tHcy, and cystatin C. However, any causal relationship between low cobalamin status and fractures should be explored in a prospective treatment study.
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5.
  • Backman, Olof, et al. (författare)
  • Gastric Bypass Surgery Reduces De Novo Cases of Type 2 Diabetes to Population Levels : A Nationwide Cohort Study From Sweden
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Annals of Surgery. - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0003-4932. ; 269:5, s. 895-902
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine long-term changes in pharmacological treatment of type 2 diabetes after primary Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, in patients with and without pharmacological treatment of diabetes preoperatively.SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Several studies have shown that gastric bypass has good effect on diabetes, at least in the short-term. This study is a nationwide cohort study using Swedish registers, with basically no patients lost to follow-up during up to 7 years after surgery.METHODS: The effect of RYGB on type 2 diabetes drug treatment was evaluated in this nationwide matched cohort study. Participants were 22,047 adults with BMI ≥30 identified in the nationwide Scandinavian Surgical Obesity Registry, who underwent primary RYGB between 2007 and 2012. For each individual, up to 10 general population comparators were matched on birth year, sex, and place of residence. Prescription data were retrieved from the nationwide Swedish Prescribed Drug Register through September 2015. Incident use of pharmacological treatment was analyzed using Cox regression.RESULTS: Sixty-seven percent of patients with pharmacological treatment of type 2 diabetes before surgery were not using diabetes drugs 2 years after surgery and 61% of patients were not pharmacologically treated up to 7 years after surgery. In patients not using diabetes drugs at baseline, there were 189 new cases of pharmacological treatment of type 2 diabetes in the surgery group and 2319 in the matched general population comparators during a median follow-up of 4.6 years (incidence: 21.4 vs 27.9 per 10,000 person-years; adjusted hazard ratio 0.77, 95% confidence interval 0.67-0.89; P &lt; 0.001).CONCLUSIONS: Gastric bypass surgery not only induces remission of pharmacological treatment of type 2 diabetes but also protects from new onset of pharmacological diabetes treatment. The effect seems to persist in most, but not all, patients over 7 years of follow-up.
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6.
  • Lodefalk, Maria, 1968-, et al. (författare)
  • Food habits, energy and nutrient intake in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes mellitus
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Diabetic Medicine. - Oxon, United Kingdom : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0742-3071. ; 23:11, s. 1225-1232
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS: The aims were to describe the food habits of adolescents with Type 1 diabetes (Type 1 DM) and to compare them with healthy control subjects; to describe the distribution of energy-providing nutrients in patients and compare it with current recommendations and previous reports; and finally, to investigate associations between dietary intake and glycaemic control. METHODS: One hundred and seventy-four adolescents with Type 1 DM and 160 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects completed a validated food frequency questionnaire, and 38 randomly chosen patients completed a prospective 4-day food record. RESULTS: Patients ate more regularly, and more often ate fruit and fruit juice, potatoes and root vegetables, meat, fish, egg, offal and sugar-free sweets than control subjects. Control subjects more often ate ordinary sweets and snacks. Patients chose coarse rye bread and dairy products with less fat to a greater extent than control subjects. Patients were heavier than control subjects. The intake of saturated fat was higher in patients compared with recommendations and, for boys with diabetes, the intake of protein was higher than recommended. Patients with poorer glycaemic control ate vegetables, fruit and fish less often than patients with better control. CONCLUSIONS: The food habits of adolescents with Type 1 DM were healthier than those of control subjects. The intake of energy-providing nutrients was in line with current recommendations and showed improvements compared with previous reports, with the exception of fibre intake. The association between dietary intake and glycaemic control needs further investigation in prospective studies.
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7.
  • Johansson, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • Patients' experiences of support for learning to live with diabetes to promote health and well-being A lifeworld phenomenological study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being. - CoAction Publishing. - 1748-2623. ; 11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Learning to live with diabetes in such a way that the new conditions will be a normal and natural part of life imposes requirements on the person living with diabetes. Previous studies have shown that there is no clear picture of what and how the learning that would allow persons to incorporate the illness into their everyday life will be supported. The aim of this study is to describe the phenomenon of support for learning to live with diabetes to promote health and well-being, from the patient’s perspective. Data were collected by interviews with patients living with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The interviews were analysed using a reflective lifeworld approach. The results show that reflection plays a central role for patients with diabetes in achieving a new understanding of the health process, and awareness of their own responsibility was found to be the key factor for such a reflection. The constituents are responsibility creating curiosity and willpower, openness enabling support, technology verifying bodily feelings, a permissive climate providing for participation and exchanging experiences with others. The study concludes that the challenge for caregivers is to create interactions in an open learning climate that initiates and supports reflection to promote health and well-being.
8.
  • Lindahl, Bernt, et al. (författare)
  • A randomized lifestyle intervention with 5-year follow-up in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance : pronounced short-term impact but long-term adherence problems
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - 1403-4948. ; 37:4, s. 434-442
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS: To compare data on cardiovascular risk factor changes in lipids, insulin, proinsulin, fibrinolysis, leptin and C-reactive protein, and on diabetes incidence, in relation to changes in lifestyle.METHODS: The study was a randomized lifestyle intervention trial conducted in northern Sweden between 1995 and 2000, in 168 individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and body mass index above 27 at start. The intensive intervention group (n = 83) was subjected to a 1-month residential lifestyle programme. The usual care group (n = 85) participated in a health examination ending with a single counselling session. Follow-up was conducted at 1, 3 and 5 years.RESULTS: At 1-year follow-up, an extensive cardio-metabolic risk factor reduction was demonstrated in the intensive intervention group, along with a 70% decrease of progress to type 2 diabetes. At 5-year follow-up, most of these beneficial effects had disappeared. Reported physical activity and fibre intake as well as high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were still increased, and fasting insulin and proinsulin were lower.CONCLUSIONS: The intervention affected several important cardio-metabolic risk variables beneficially, and reduced the risk for type 2 diabetes, but the effects persisted only as long as the new lifestyle was maintained. Increased physical activity seemed to be the behaviour that was most easy to preserve.
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9.
  • Särnblad, S, et al. (författare)
  • Dietary fat intake predicts 1-year change in body fat in adolescent girls with type 1 diabetes
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Diabetes Care. - 0149-5992. ; 29:6, s. 1227-1230
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether objectively measured physical activity and dietary macronutrient intake differentially predict body fat in adolescent girls with type 1 diabetes and control girls.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study comprised 23 girls (12-19 years) with type 1 diabetes and 19 age-matched healthy control girls. At baseline, physical activity and energy intake were assessed for 7 consecutive days by accelerometry and a structured food diary, respectively. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and after 1 year.RESULTS: Fat intake was positively related to a 1-year change in percentage body fat (P = 0.006), after adjustment for total energy intake. No significant interaction was observed (case-control group x main exposure), indicating that the association between fat intake and gain in body fat was similar in both groups. Physical activity did not predict gain in body fat; however, total physical activity was positively associated with a gain in lean body mass (P &lt; 0.01). Girls treated with six daily dosages of insulin increased their percentage of body fat significantly more than those treated with four daily injections (P &lt; 0.05).CONCLUSIONS: In this prospective case-control study, we found that fat intake predicted gain in percentage of body fat in both adolescent girls with type 1 diabetes and healthy control girls. The number of daily insulin injections seems to influence the accumulation of body fat in girls with type 1 diabetes.
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10.
  • Jansson, Stefan P. O., et al. (författare)
  • Mortality trends in subjects with and without diabetes during 33 years of follow up
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Diabetes Care. - Alexandria, USA : American Diabetes Association. - 0149-5992. ; 33:3, s. 551-556
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Mortality rates have declined substantially over the past decades in the general population, but the situation among diabetic subjects is less clear. The aim of this study was to analyze mortality trends in diabetic and nondiabetic subjects during 1972–2004.Research design and methods: Since 1972, all patients with diabetes are entered in a diabetes register at Laxå Primary Health Care Center; 776 incident cases were recorded up to 2001. The register has been supplemented with a nondiabetic population of 3,880 subjects and with data from the National Cause of Death Register during 1972 to 2004.Results: During the 33-year follow-up period, 233 (62.0%) diabetic women and 240 (60.0%) diabetic men and 995 (52.9%) nondiabetic women and 1,082 (54.1%) nondiabetic men died. The age-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality among diabetic and nondiabetic subjects was 1.17 (P &lt; 0.0021) for all, 1.22 (P &lt; 0.007) for women, and 1.13 (P = 0.095) for men. The corresponding cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality HRs were 1.33 (P &lt; 0.0001), 1.41 (P &lt; 0.0003), and 1.27 (P &lt; 0.0093), respectively. The CVD mortality reduction across time was significant in nondiabetic subjects (P &lt; 0.0001) and in men with diabetes (P = 0.014) but not in diabetic women (P = 0.69). The results regarding coronary heart disease (CHD) were similar (P &lt; 0.0001, P &lt; 0.006, and P = 0.17, respectively). The CVD and CHD mortality rate change across time was fairly linear in all groups.Conclusions: Diabetic subjects had less mortality rate reduction during follow-up than nondiabetic subjects. However the excess mortality risk for diabetic subjects was smaller than that found in other studies.
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