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1.
  • Elfström, Peter, 1974-, et al. (författare)
  • Hematopoietic cancer including lymphoma in celiac disease according to Marsh criteria 0-3
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: Celiac disease (CD) is associated with an increased risk of lymphoma, but it is unknown if borderline mucosal damage and latent CD are risk factors for lymphoma.Methods: We examined the risk of hematopoietic cancer in a nationwide population–based cohort of 28,800 individuals with biopsy-verified CD (villous atrophy, Marsh 3), 12,663 individuals with small intestinal inflammation (Marsh 1+2), and 3,551 with latent CD (positive antiendomysial, tissue transglutaminase or antigliadin test but normal mucosa on biopsy). The study participants were identified through all pathology departments (n=28) in Sweden and were biopsied in 1969-2006 (median: 1998). Cox regression estimated the hazard ratio (HR) for hematopoietic malignancies.Results: While biopsy-verified CD and intestinal inflammation were both statistically significantly associated with lymphoma (CD: HR = 3.18; 95% CI = 2.63-3.83; inflammation: 1.66; 1.28-2.17), latent CD was not (1.04; 0.44-2.43). CD was associated with both non-Hodgkin’s (NHL) and Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) (4.81; 3.81-6.07 and 4.39; 2.59-7.45 respectively). Risk estimates for NHL and HL were lower in inflammation (1.65; 1.15-2.38 and 1.48; 0.60-3.62 respectively) and latent CD (1.79; 0.74-4.34 and 1.08; 0.13-9.00 respectively). No increased risk of lymphoma was seen in children with a small intestinal biopsy. This study found no association between leukemia and small intestinal pathology.Conclusion: CD is associated with an increased risk of lymphoma. This risk increase was also seen in individuals with small intestinal inflammation. Latent CD is not associated with lymphoma of any kind, and positive CD serology alone cannot be used to predict future risk of lymphoma.
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2.
  • Ludvigsson, Jonas F., et al. (författare)
  • Effect of HLA DQ2, dietary exposure and coeliac disease on the development of antibody response to gliadin in children
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. - 0036-5521 .- 1502-7708. ; 41:8, s. 919-928
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of HLA DQ2, dietary history and development of coeliac disease (CD) on the induction of antibody response to wheat gliadin and cow's milk, beta-lactoglobulin between 1 and 2.5 years of age in children who developed CD and in healthy children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Infants participating in a birth cohort study (the ABIS study) in Sweden were studied. Thirty-nine children developed CD (=cases), confirmed through biopsy, during follow-up until 2.5-5 years of age. A total of 181 healthy control children were matched for duration of exclusive breast-feeding, birth-weight, gender, maternal smoking and season of birth. IgG and IgA antigliadin and anti-beta-lactoglobulin antibodies were measured using enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The effects of HLA-risk genotypes, DQ2 and DQ8, on CD were also considered. RESULTS: Children who developed CD had higher IgG and IgA antigliadin and anti-beta-lactoglobulin antibody levels at 1 year of age than controls (all comparisons: p<0.001). Similar differences were seen between cases with as yet undiagnosed CD by 1 year of age and controls, and also when cases were compared with HLA-matched controls. Higher levels of IgG and IgA antibodies to beta-lactoglobulin (p=0.003; p=0.001), but not to gliadin, were found in treated cases versus controls at 2.5 years of age. HLA-DQ2-positive healthy children had lower levels of IgG and IgA antigliadin antibodies than HLA-DQ2 negative controls at 1 year of age (p=0.004; p=0.012). CONCLUSIONS: Enhanced humoral response emerging not only to gliadin, but also to other food antigens seems to be primarily associated with CD. Poor induction of antibody response to wheat gliadin in healthy children with the HLA-DQ2 risk molecule could at least partly explain the genetic predisposition to gluten intolerance and CD.
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3.
  • Elfström, Peter, 1974-, et al. (författare)
  • Risk of primary adrenal insufficiency in patients with celiac disease
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - Chevy Chase, Md. : Endocrine Society. - 0021-972X .- 1945-7197. ; 92:9, s. 3595-3598
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: Earlier research has suggested a positive association between Addison’s disease (AD) and celiac disease (CD).Wehave here investigated the risk of AD in individuals with CD from a general population cohort.Methods: Through the Swedish national registers we identified 14,366 individuals with a diagnosis of CD (1964–2003) and 70,095 reference individuals matched for age, sex, calendar year, and county of residence. We used Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for subsequent AD. Analyses were restricted to individuals with more than 1 yr of follow-up and without AD prior to study entry or within 1 yr after study entry. Conditional logistic regression estimated the odds ratio for CD in individuals with prior AD.Results: There was a statistically significantly positive association between CD and subsequent AD [HR _ 11.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) _ 4.4 –29.6]. This risk increase was seen in both children and adults and did not change with adjustment for diabetes mellitus or socioeconomic status. When we restricted reference individuals to inpatients, the adjusted HR for AD was 4.6 (95% CI _ 1.9 –11.4). Individuals with prior AD were at increased risk of CD (odds ratio _ 8.6; 95% CI _ 3.4 –21.8).Conclusions: This study found a highly increased risk of AD in individuals with CD. This relationship was independent of temporal sequence. We therefore recommend that individuals with AD should be screened for CD. We also suggest an increased awareness of AD in individuals with CD.
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4.
  • Elfström, Peter, 1974-, et al. (författare)
  • Risk of Thyroid Disease in Individuals with Celiac Disease
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - 0021-972X .- 1945-7197. ; 93:10, s. 3915-3921
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: It has been suggested that celiac disease is associated with thyroid disease. Earlier studies, however, have been predominately cross-sectional and have often lacked controls. There is hence a need for further research. In this study, we estimated the risk of thyroid disease in individuals with celiac disease from a general population cohort.Methods: A total of 14,021 individuals with celiac disease (1964–2003) and a matched reference population of 68,068 individuals were identified through the Swedish national registers. Cox regression estimated the risk of thyroid disease in subjects with celiac disease. Analyses were restricted to individuals with a follow-up ofmorethan 1 yr and withnothyroid disease before study entry or within 1 yr after study entry. Conditional logistic regression estimated the odds ratio for subsequent celiac disease in individuals with thyroid disease.Results: Celiac disease was positively associated with hypothyroidism [hazard ratio (HR)_4.4;95% confidence interval (CI) _ 3.4 –5.6; P _ 0.001], thyroiditis (HR _ 3.6; 95% CI _1.9–6.7; P _ 0.001) and hyperthyroidism (HR_2.9;95%CI_2.0–4.2; P_0.001). The highest risk estimates were found in children (hypothyroidism, HR _ 6.0 and 95% CI _ 3.4 –10.6; thyroiditis, HR _ 4.7 and 95% CI _ 2.1–10.5; hyperthyroidism, HR _ 4.8 and 95% CI _ 2.5–9.4). In post hoc analyses, where the reference population was restricted to inpatients, the adjusted HR was 3.4 for hypothyroidism (95% CI_2.7– 4.4; P_0.001), 3.3 for thyroiditis(95%CI_1.5–7.7; P_0.001), and 3.1 for hyperthyroidism (95% CI _ 2.0–4.8; P _ 0.001).Conclusion: Celiac disease is associated with thyroid disease, and these associations were seen regardless of temporal sequence. This indicates shared etiology and that these individuals are more susceptible to autoimmune disease.
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5.
  • Elfström, Peter, 1974-, et al. (författare)
  • Cardiomyopathy, pericarditis and myocarditis in a population-based cohort of inpatients with coeliac disease
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - Oxford : Blackwell Publishing. - 0954-6820 .- 1365-2796. ; 262:5, s. 545-554
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: We investigated the risk of myocarditis, cardiomyopathy, and pericarditis in patients with celiac disease (CD) from a general population cohort.Subjects and methods: Through the Swedish national registers we identified 9363 children and 4969 adults with a diagnosis of CD (1964–2003). These individuals were matched with upto five reference individuals for age, sex, calendar year and county (n = 69 851). Cox regression estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for later heart disease. Main outcome measures: Myocarditis, cardiomyopathy (any or dilated), and pericarditis defined according torelevant international classification of disease codes in the Swedish national inpatient register.Results: Celiac disease diagnosed in childhood was not associated with later myocarditis (HR = 0.2; 95% CI = 0.0–1.5), cardiomyopathy of any type (HR = 0.8; 95% CI = 0.2–3.7), or pericarditis (HR = 0.4; 95% CI = 0.1–1.9). Restricting our analyses to adulthood CD and heart disease diagnosed from 1987 and onwards in departments of cardiology ⁄ internal medicine, we found no association between CD and later myocarditis (HR = 2.1; 95% CI = 0.4–11.7), dilated cardiomyopathy (HR = 1.7; 95% CI = 0.4– 6.5) or pericarditis (HR = 1.5; 95% CI = 0.5–4.0).Conclusion: This study found no association between CD, later myocarditis, cardiomyopathy or pericarditis
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6.
  • Rajani, Rupesh, et al. (författare)
  • Budd-Chiari syndrome in Sweden: epidemiology, clinical characteristics and survival - an 18-year experience
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Liver International. - Oxford : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1478-3231 .- 1478-3223. ; 29:2, s. 253-259
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The exact incidence and prevalence of Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) is unknown in the general population. Published reports differ in terms of the clinical characteristics, effects of therapy and survival. To investigate the epidemiology, clinical presentation and survival in patients with BCS. Retrospective multicentre study in Sweden reviewing the medical records of all patients with BCS 1986-2003, identified from the computerised diagnosis database of 11 hospitals, including all university hospitals and liver transplantation centres. Forty-three patients with BCS were identified, of whom nine (21%) had concomitant portal vein thrombosis. The mean age-standardised incidence and prevalence rates in 1990-2001 were calculated to be 0.8 per million per year and 1.4 per million inhabitants respectively. Myeloproliferative disorders (38%), thrombophilic factors (31%) and oral contraceptives (30%) were common aetiological factors. Two or more risk factors were present in 44%. In 23%, no risk factor was evident. The median follow-up time was 2.7 years. Seventy-two percent were on anticoagulant therapy during follow-up. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting, surgical shunting procedures and liver transplantation were performed in 4, 6 and 18 patients respectively. Nineteen patients died. The overall transplantation-free survival at 1, 5 and 10 years was 47, 28 and 17% respectively. Budd-Chiari syndrome is a rare disorder; the mean age-standardised incidence and prevalence rates in Sweden in 1990-2001 were calculated to be 0.8 per million per year and 1.4 per million inhabitants respectively. The presence of a myeloproliferative disorder was a common aetiological factor in our cohort and about half of the patients had a multifactorial aetiology. The transplantation-free survival was poor.
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7.
  • Gustafsson, U. O., et al. (författare)
  • Haemoglobin A1c as a predictor of postoperative hyperglycaemia and complications after major colorectal surgery
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Surgery. - Oxford : Blackwell. - 0007-1323 .- 1365-2168. ; 96:11, s. 1358-1364
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Hyperglycaemia following major surgery increases morbidity, but may be improved by use of enhanced-recovery protocols. It is not known whether preoperative haemoglobin (Hb) A1c could predict hyperglycaemia and/or adverse outcome after colorectal surgery. METHODS: Some 120 patients without known diabetes underwent major colorectal surgery within an enhanced-recovery protocol. HbA1c was measured at admission and 4 weeks after surgery. All patients received an oral diet beginning 4 h after operation. Plasma glucose was monitored five times daily. Patients were stratified according to preoperative levels of HbA1c (within normal range of 4.5-6.0 per cent, or higher). RESULTS: Thirty-one patients (25.8 per cent) had a preoperative HbA1c level over 6.0 per cent. These had higher mean(s.d.) postoperative glucose (9.3(1.5) versus 8.0(1.5) mmol/l; P < 0.001) and C-reactive protein (137(65) versus 101(52) mg/l; P = 0.008) levels than patients with a normal HbA1c level. Postoperative complications were more common in patients with a high HbA1c level (odds ratio 2.9 (95 per cent confidence interval 1.1 to 7.9)). CONCLUSION: Postoperative hyperglycaemia is common among patients with no history of diabetes, even within an enhanced-recovery protocol. Preoperative measurement of HbA1c may identify patients at higher risk of poor glycaemic control and postoperative complications.
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8.
  • Hörer, Tal M., 1971-, et al. (författare)
  • Complications but not obesity or diabetes mellitus have impact on the intraperitoneal lactate/pyruvate ratio measured by microdialysis
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. - 1502-7708. ; 45:1, s. 115-121
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Studies have shown a higher risk of postoperative complications in diabetic and obese patients. An increased intraperitoneal lactate/pyruvate ratio as measured by microdialysis has been reported before postoperative complications have been discovered. It is not known whether diabetes or obesity have any influence on the intraperitoneal metabolism (lactate/pyruvate ratio, glucose, glycerol) in relation to major abdominal surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the postoperative intraperitoneal and subcutaneous carbohydrate and fat metabolism as measured by microdialysis in obese and diabetic patients after major abdominal surgery without postoperative complications.Material and methods: Seven obese patients (body mass index > 30 kg/m(2)) and six diabetic but non-obese patients were studied up to 48 h after major abdominal surgery and were compared with 31 non-diabetic, non-obese patients, all without complications. Microdialysis was performed to measure glucose, lactate, pyruvate and glycerol intraperitoneally and subcutaneously. The lactate/pyruvate ratio was calculated.Results: The lactate/pyruvate ratio did not differ between the groups. In the diabetic patients, glucose levels were higher intraperitoneally at both Days 1 and 2 compared to controls. Higher glycerol levels were found subcutaneously in obese patients at Day 2. CONCLUSIONS: The lactate/pyruvate ratio does not increase intraperitoneally after non-complicated major abdominal surgery in diabetic and obese patients. Obese patients have increased release of free fatty acids and glycerol subcutaneously, while diabetic patients show higher glucose levels intraperitoneally than controls.
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9.
  • Lundin, Anna-Carin (författare)
  • Tendinosis in Trigger Finger
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Trigger finger is one of the most common hand conditions, with a prevalence of almost 3%. The aetiology remains unclear even though many causes have been suggested. The prevailing paradigm is that the pathogenesis of trigger finger is ascribed to primary changes in the first fibrous condensation of the tendon sheath (A1-pulley). Several studies have investigated pathology in the pulley, but few have investigated the tendon. The general aim of this thesis was to find out if there is pathology in the trigger finger tendon and to define it.We first looked at trigger finger tendon biopsies in a light microscope, and found that they were histologically different from healthy tendons. They showed signs of micro-ruptures, collagen degradation, increased amounts of ground substance, both hyper- and hypo-cellular areas, round active cell nuclei and absence of inflammatory cells, all similar to tendinosis. The histological picture was further assessed by using a scoring system for Achilles tendinosis. The trigger finger tendons scored high, suggesting a similar histopathology.Next, we performed a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) on trigger finger tendons. We assessed the mRNA expression of 10 genes, which have been described to be differently expressed in Achilles tendinosis (collagen 1 and 3, versican, decorin, biglycan, aggrecan, MMP-2, MMP-3, ADAMTS-5, and TIMP-3). The overall expression pattern agreed with previous studies on Achilles tendinosis, suggesting that the cellular function in trigger finger tendons is disturbed in a similar way as in Achilles tendinosis.Recent experimental and observational research has suggested potential side effects of statin treatment on tendons, but firm evidence was lacking. We performed an epidemiological study on two large population-based cohorts. Statin use was found to increase the risk of both trigger finger and tendinosis in the shoulder and Achilles tendons, especially among men. This suggests a similar pathology in trigger finger and tendinosis.We have also studied the time to treatment effect after a single injection of glucocorticoid in trigger finger. Our results suggest that 60-80% of patients can expect resolution of the triggering within 14 days, and half of them within seven days. This result allows correct information to be given to the patient and proper planning of follow-ups.In conclusion, the pathology in trigger finger tendons is similar to tendinosis in other tendons.
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10.
  • Åkerman, Linda, 1983- (författare)
  • Aspects of the Pre-Diabetic Period in Type 1 Diabetes
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease characterized by insulin deficiency, due to immune-mediated destruction of beta cells. Current knowledge regarding the period preceding disease onset comes, to a large extent, from studying risk cohorts based on relatives of T1D-patients, as they have an increased disease risk. Among T1D patients in general, however, few have the disease in their immediate family. It is therefore important to study risk cohorts from the general population as well. An ongoing autoimmune reaction can often be seen in the blood long before disease onset, by detection of autoantibodies directed towards beta cell antigens. By autoantibody screening among participants in the ABIS (All Babies in the South-east of Sweden) cohort, we could identify a group of children from the general population with increased risk for T1D, positive for multiple autoantibodies. They were enrolled in a 2-year prospective follow-up aiming to characterize the prediabetic period and to identify factors indicative of progression/non-progression to T1D. We assessed glucose homeostasis and autoantibody titers over time, and searched for risk-biomarkers by analyzing the expression of immune-related genes (Th1-Th2-Th3) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from these children, in comparison to healthy children and newly diagnosed T1D patients. In the same groups we also compared serum micro RNA (miRNA) profiles, knowing that miRNA molecules have desirable biomarker properties. We found that two specific autoantibodies, IA2A and ZnT8A, were detected at higher concentrations in risk-individuals who progressed to overt T1D during or after the follow-up period, compared to those who still have not. We also observed disturbed glucose homeostasis long before onset in the progressors, but it was seen among those who remain symptom free as well. Further, we found support for the possible role of insulin resistance as an accelerator of the disease process. For gene expression and serum miRNA, few differences were observed between risk-individuals and healthy children overall. However, for PBMC gene expression and serum miRNA both, there were associations to beta cell function and glucose homeostasis, and for miRNA also to islet autoantibodies. Although specific profiles for prediction of disease onset or identification of risk-individuals could not be found, these results are interesting and deserve to be evaluated further. As part of another sub-study within ABIS, the effects of physical activity on glucose homeostasis were assessed in healthy schoolchildren. The level of physical activity, measured by pedometers, was related to insulin resistance and beta cell-stress, and decreased physical activity was associated with increased insulin resistance and load on the insulin-producing beta cells, already at school-age.
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