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1.
  • Friberg, Örjan, et al. (författare)
  • Incidence, microbiological findings, and clinical presentation of sternal wound infections after cardiac surgery with and without local gentamicin prophylaxis
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. - Berlin : Springer. - 0934-9723 .- 1435-4373. ; 26:2, s. 91-97
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sternal wound infection (SWI) is a serious complication after cardiac surgery. In a previous randomized controlled trial, the addition of local collagen-gentamicin in the sternal wound before wound closure was found to significantly reduce the incidence of postoperative wound infections compared with the routine intravenous prophylaxis of isoxazolyl-penicillin only. The aims of the present study were to analyse the microbiological findings of the SWIs from the previous trial as well as to correlate these findings with the clinical presentation of SWI. Differences in clinical presentation of SWIs, depending on the causative agent, could be identified. Most infections had a late, insidious onset, and the majority of these were caused by staphylococci, predominantly coagulase-negative staphylococci. The clinically most fulminant infections were caused by gram-negative bacteria and presented early after surgery. Local administration of gentamicin reduced the incidence of SWIs caused by all major, clinically important bacterial species. Propionibacterium acnes was identified as a possible cause of SWI and may be linked to instability in the sternal fixation. There was no indication of an increase in the occurrence of gentamicin-resistant bacterial isolates in the treatment group. Furthermore, the addition of local collagen-gentamicin reduced the incidence of SWIs caused by methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci. This technique warrants further evaluation as an alternative to prophylactic vancomycin in settings with a high prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
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2.
  • Khoshnood, Ardavan (författare)
  • Prehospital Diagnosis and Oxygen Treatment in ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • IntroductionPaper I: An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was constructed to identify ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) and predict the need for Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI). Paper II, III and IV: Studies suggest that O2 therapy may be harmful in STEMI patients. We therefore conducted the SOCCER study to evaluate the effects of O2 therapy in STEMI patients.MethodsPaper I: 560 ambulance ECGs sent to the Cardiac Care Unit (CCU), was together with the CCU physicians interpretation and decision of conducting an acute PCI or not collected, and compared with the interpretation and PCI decision of the ANN. Paper II, III, IV: Normoxic (≥94%) STEMI patients accepted for acute PCI were in the ambulance randomized to standard care with 10 L/min O2 or room air. A subset of the patients underwent echocardiography for determination of the Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction (LVEF) and the Wall Motion Score Index (WMSI). All patients had a Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (CMRI) to evaluate Myocardial area at Risk (MaR), Infarct Size (IS) and Myocardial Salvage Index (MSI).ResultsPaper I: The area under the ANN’s receiver operating characteristics curve for STEMI detection as well as predicting the need of acute PCI were very good.Paper II, III, IV: No significant differences could be shown in discussing MaR, MSI or IS between the O2 group (n=46) and the air group (n=49). Neither could any differences be shown for LVEF and WMSI at the index visit as well after six months between the O2 group (n=46) and the air group (n=41)ConclusionsPaper I: The results indicate that the number of ECGs sent to the CCU could be reduced with 2/3 as the ANN would safely identify ECGs not being STEMI.Paper II, III, IV: The results suggest that it is safe to withhold O2 therapy in normoxic, stable STEMI patients.
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3.
  • Elfström, Peter, 1974-, et al. (författare)
  • Cardiomyopathy, pericarditis and myocarditis in a population-based cohort of inpatients with coeliac disease
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - Oxford : Blackwell Publishing. - 0954-6820 .- 1365-2796. ; 262:5, s. 545-554
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: We investigated the risk of myocarditis, cardiomyopathy, and pericarditis in patients with celiac disease (CD) from a general population cohort.Subjects and methods: Through the Swedish national registers we identified 9363 children and 4969 adults with a diagnosis of CD (1964–2003). These individuals were matched with upto five reference individuals for age, sex, calendar year and county (n = 69 851). Cox regression estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for later heart disease. Main outcome measures: Myocarditis, cardiomyopathy (any or dilated), and pericarditis defined according torelevant international classification of disease codes in the Swedish national inpatient register.Results: Celiac disease diagnosed in childhood was not associated with later myocarditis (HR = 0.2; 95% CI = 0.0–1.5), cardiomyopathy of any type (HR = 0.8; 95% CI = 0.2–3.7), or pericarditis (HR = 0.4; 95% CI = 0.1–1.9). Restricting our analyses to adulthood CD and heart disease diagnosed from 1987 and onwards in departments of cardiology ⁄ internal medicine, we found no association between CD and later myocarditis (HR = 2.1; 95% CI = 0.4–11.7), dilated cardiomyopathy (HR = 1.7; 95% CI = 0.4– 6.5) or pericarditis (HR = 1.5; 95% CI = 0.5–4.0).Conclusion: This study found no association between CD, later myocarditis, cardiomyopathy or pericarditis
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4.
  • Vuorinen, Miika, et al. (författare)
  • Changes in vascular factors 28 years from midlife and late-life cortical thickness
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Neurobiology of Aging. - 0197-4580 .- 1558-1497. ; 34:1, s. 100-109
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We assessed midlife blood pressure (BP), body mass index, total cholesterol, and their changes over time in relation to cortical thickness on magnetic resonance imaging 28 years later in 63 elderly at risk of dementia. Participants in the population-based Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging, and Dementia study were first examined at midlife. A first follow-up was conducted after 21 years, and a second follow-up after an additional 7 years. Magnetic resonance images from the second follow-up were analyzed using algorithms developed at McGill University, Montreal, Canada. Midlife hypertension was related to thinner cortex in several brain areas, including insular, frontal, and temporal cortices. In elderly with thinner insular cortex, there was a continuous decline in systolic BP and an increase in pulse pressure after midlife, while in elderly with thicker insular cortex the decline in systolic BP started at older ages, paralleled by a decline in pulse pressure. No associations were found between body mass index, cholesterol, or apolipoprotein E ε4 allele and cortical thickness in this group of elderly at risk individuals.
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5.
  • Nord, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Levodopa Pharmacokinetics in Brain after Both Oral and Intravenous Levodopa in One Patient with Advanced Parkinson’s Disease
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Advances in Parkinsons Disease. - : Scientific Research Publishing Inc. - 2169-9712 .- 2169-9720. ; 6:2, s. 52-66
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: One patient received oral levodopa during a study aiming for better understanding of the basal ganglia and of the mechanisms of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) with and without intravenous (IV) levodopa infusion in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). The results from oral and IV levodopa treatment are presented.Methods: Five patients with advanced PD were included in the original study. During planned STN DBS surgery microdialysis probes were implanted in the right putamen and in the right and left globus pallidus interna (Gpi). During the study, microdialysis was performed continuously and STN DBS, with and without IV levodopa infusion, was performed according to a specific protocol. After DBS surgery, but before STN DBS was started, one patient received oral levodopa/ benserazide and entacapone tablets out of protocol due to distressing parkinsonism.Results: The levodopa levels increased prompt in the central nervous system after the first PD medication intakes but declined after the last. Immediately the levodopa seemed to be metabolized to dopamine (DA) since the levels of DA correlated well with levodopa concentrations. Left STN DBS seemed to further increase DA levels in left Gpi while right STN DBS seemed to increase DA levels in the right putamen and right Gpi. There was no obvious effect on levodopa levels.Conclusions: The results indicate that PD patients still have capacity to metabolize levodopa to DA despite advanced disease with on-off symptoms and probably pronounced nigral degeneration. STN DBS seems to increase DA levels with a more pronounced effect on ipsilateral structures in striatum.
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6.
  • Lindahl, Bernt, et al. (författare)
  • A randomized lifestyle intervention with 5-year follow-up in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance : pronounced short-term impact but long-term adherence problems
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - 1403-4948 .- 1651-1905. ; 37:4, s. 434-442
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS: To compare data on cardiovascular risk factor changes in lipids, insulin, proinsulin, fibrinolysis, leptin and C-reactive protein, and on diabetes incidence, in relation to changes in lifestyle. METHODS: The study was a randomized lifestyle intervention trial conducted in northern Sweden between 1995 and 2000, in 168 individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and body mass index above 27 at start. The intensive intervention group (n = 83) was subjected to a 1-month residential lifestyle programme. The usual care group (n = 85) participated in a health examination ending with a single counselling session. Follow-up was conducted at 1, 3 and 5 years. RESULTS: At 1-year follow-up, an extensive cardio-metabolic risk factor reduction was demonstrated in the intensive intervention group, along with a 70% decrease of progress to type 2 diabetes. At 5-year follow-up, most of these beneficial effects had disappeared. Reported physical activity and fibre intake as well as high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were still increased, and fasting insulin and proinsulin were lower. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention affected several important cardio-metabolic risk variables beneficially, and reduced the risk for type 2 diabetes, but the effects persisted only as long as the new lifestyle was maintained. Increased physical activity seemed to be the behaviour that was most easy to preserve.
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7.
  • Lind, Marcus, et al. (författare)
  • Thrombomodulin as a marker for bleeding complications during warfarin treatment
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Archives of Internal Medicine. - : American Medical Association. - 0003-9926 .- 1538-3679. ; 169:13, s. 1210-1215
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The major adverse effect of warfarin treatment is hemorrhage. Several risk factors for bleeding complications are also risk factors for thromboembolic events, making the clinical decision to initiate or withhold anticoagulant treatment difficult. Specific markers that solely identify patients at high risk of bleeding would have great clinical impact. This study aimed to test if thrombomodulin (TM) concentrations were associated with bleeding complications, cardiovascular events, or mortality in long-term anticoagulant-treated patients. METHODS: In a longitudinal cohort study we followed up 719 patients receiving warfarin treatment for a mean duration of 4.2 years. All bleeding complications causing hospitalization were registered and classified. Soluble TM antigen (sTM) concentration in plasma was measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. RESULTS: During the follow-up time, 113 clinically relevant bleeding events and 73 major bleeding events occurred. Increased concentration of sTM was associated with both clinically relevant bleeding and major bleeding events after adjustment for age. In the multivariable models, hazard ratios for the highest tertiles compared with the lowest were 2.29 (95% confidence interval, 1.35-3.89) and 2.33 (95% confidence interval, 1.21-4.48), respectively. No association between sTM concentration and nonfatal ischemic cardiovascular events or all-cause mortality was found. CONCLUSIONS: Increased levels of sTM are associated with bleeding complications during warfarin treatment but not with cardiovascular events or all-cause mortality. Soluble TM antigen concentration has potential as a new specific marker to identify patients at high risk of bleeding during warfarin treatment.
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8.
  • Nerpin, Elisabet, 1962- (författare)
  • The Kidney in Different Stages of the Cardiovascular Continuum
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Patients with chronic kidney disease are at higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The complex, interaction between the kidney and the cardiovascular system is incompletely understood, particularly at the early stages of the cardiovascular continuum.The overall aim of this thesis was to clarify novel aspects of the interplay between the kidney and the cardiovascular system at different stages of the cardiovascular continuum; from risk factors such as insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress, via sub-clinical cardiovascular damage such as endothelial dysfunction and left ventricular dysfunction, to overt cardiovascular death.This thesis is based on two community-based cohorts of elderly, Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM) and Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS).The first study, show that higher insulin sensitivity, measured with euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp technique was associated to improve estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in participants with normal fasting plasma glucose, normal glucose tolerance and normal eGFR. In longitudinal analyses, higher insulin sensitivity at baseline was associated with lower risk of impaired renal function during follow-up. In the second study, eGFR was inversely associated with different inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, serum amyloid A) and positively associated with a marker of oxidative stress (urinary F2-isoprostanes). In line with this, the urinary albumin/creatinine ratio was positively associated with these inflammatory markers, and negatively associated with oxidative stress.In study three, higher eGFR was associated with better endothelial function as assessed by the invasive forearm model. Further, in study four, higher eGFR was significantly associated with higher left ventricular systolic function (ejection fraction). The 5th study of the thesis shows that higher urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) and lower eGFR was independently associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular mortality. Analyses of global model fit, discrimination, calibration, and reclassification suggest that UAER and eGFR add relevant prognostic information beyond established cardiovascular risk factors in participants without prevalent cardiovascular disease.Conclusion: this thesis show that the interaction between the kidney and the cardiovascular system plays an important role in the development of cardiovascular disease and that this interplay begins at an early asymptomatic stage of the disease process.
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9.
  • Lindqvist, A, et al. (författare)
  • Artery blood pressure oscillation after active standing up: an indicator of sympathetic function in diabetic patients
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Clinical Physiology. - : Wiley Online Library. - 1365-2281. ; 17:2, s. 159-169
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dynamic artery blood pressure (Finapres) response to active standing up, normally consisting of initial rise, fall and recovery above the baseline (overshoot), was compared with the early steady-state artery blood pressure level to measure sympathetic vasomotor function in healthy subjects (n = 23, age 35 +/- 9 years; mean +/-SD) and in type I diabetic patients without autonomic neuropathy (AN) (group 1: n = 18, 38 +/- 13 years), with AN but no cardiovascular drugs (group 2a: n = 7, 44 +/- 11 years) and with both AN and cardiovascular drugs (group 2b: n = 10, 47 +/- 7 years). Systolic and diastolic overshoot were similar in the control (15 +/- 13/15 +/- 11 mmHg) and group 1 subjects. Systolic overshoot disappeared in 57% of patients in group 2a (-1 +/- 9 mmHg; P < 0.03), whereas artery blood pressure still overshot in diastole (8 +/- 7 mmHg; NS). Systolic overshoot disappeared in all patients in group 2b (-22 +/- 22 mmHg; P < 0.0006) and diastolic overshoot disappeared in 60% of these patients (-6 +/- 16 mmHg; P = 0.0006). Systolic early steady-state level was not lower in group 2a than in group 1 (NS), but it was impaired in group 2b (P < 0.006), in which six diabetic patients had a pathological response beyond the age-related reference values. There was a strong association between the overshoot and steady-state levels (P for chi 2 < 0.001, n = 58). Overshoot of the control subjects and patients in group 2b correlated to their respective steady-state blood pressure levels (r > or = 0.76; P < or = 0.001). In conclusion, baroreceptor reflex-dependent overshoot of the artery blood pressure after active standing up diminishes with the development of AN and it is associated with the early steady-state level of the artery blood pressure.
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10.
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