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1.
  • Friberg, Örjan, et al. (författare)
  • Incidence, microbiological findings, and clinical presentation of sternal wound infections after cardiac surgery with and without local gentamicin prophylaxis
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. - Berlin : Springer. - 0934-9723. ; 26:2, s. 91-97
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sternal wound infection (SWI) is a serious complication after cardiac surgery. In a previous randomized controlled trial, the addition of local collagen-gentamicin in the sternal wound before wound closure was found to significantly reduce the incidence of postoperative wound infections compared with the routine intravenous prophylaxis of isoxazolyl-penicillin only. The aims of the present study were to analyse the microbiological findings of the SWIs from the previous trial as well as to correlate these findings with the clinical presentation of SWI. Differences in clinical presentation of SWIs, depending on the causative agent, could be identified. Most infections had a late, insidious onset, and the majority of these were caused by staphylococci, predominantly coagulase-negative staphylococci. The clinically most fulminant infections were caused by gram-negative bacteria and presented early after surgery. Local administration of gentamicin reduced the incidence of SWIs caused by all major, clinically important bacterial species. Propionibacterium acnes was identified as a possible cause of SWI and may be linked to instability in the sternal fixation. There was no indication of an increase in the occurrence of gentamicin-resistant bacterial isolates in the treatment group. Furthermore, the addition of local collagen-gentamicin reduced the incidence of SWIs caused by methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci. This technique warrants further evaluation as an alternative to prophylactic vancomycin in settings with a high prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
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2.
  • Ruiz, Jonatan R., et al. (författare)
  • High cardiovascular fitness is associated with low metabolic risk score in children : the European Youth Heart Study
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Pediatric Research. - Baltimore, Md : Williams and Wilkins Co. - 0031-3998. ; 61:3, s. 350-355
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of the present study was to examine the associations of cardiovascular fitness (CVF) with a clustering of metabolic risk factors in children, and to examine whether there is a CVF level associated with a low metabolic risk. CVF was estimated by a maximal ergometer bike test on 873 randomly selected children from Sweden and Estonia. Additional measured outcomes included fasting insulin, glucose, triglycerides, HDLC, blood pressure, and the sum of five skinfolds. A metabolic risk score was computed as the mean of the standardized outcomes scores. A risk score <75th percentile was considered to indicate a low metabolic risk. CVF was negatively associated with clustering of metabolic risk factors in children. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed a significant discriminatory accuracy of CVF in identifying the low/high metabolic risk in girls and boys (p < 0.001). The CVF level for a low metabolic risk was 37.0 and 42.1 mL/kg/min in girls and boys, respectively. These levels are similar to the health-related threshold values of CVF suggested by worldwide recognized organizations. In conclusion, the results suggest a hypothetical CVF level for having a low metabolic risk, which should be further tested in longitudinal and/or intervention studies. Abbreviations: AUC, area under the curve CVF, cardiovascular fitness ROC, receiver operating characteristic
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3.
  • Nilsson, Johan B., et al. (författare)
  • The influence of acute-phase levels of haemostatic factors on reperfusion and mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction treated with streptokinase
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis. - Berlin : Springer. - 0929-5305. ; 26:3, s. 188-195
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The fibrinolytic system and von Willebrand factor (vWF) have been shown to play a role as risk factors for myocardial infarction. We performed this prospective cohort study to determine if components in the fibrinolytic system or vWF before or during treatment of AMI with streptokinase (SK) could predict reperfusion, recurrent ischaemia, reinfarction or mortality at one year, or mortality at five years. Reperfusion and recurrent ischaemia were assessed by continuous vectorcardiography. The setting was Umeå university hospital and Skellefteå county hospital, Sweden. Results 139 patients were included; successful reperfusion was obtained in 53%. tPA activity, PAI-activity, PAI-mass concentration and vWF were analysed immediately on arrival and after 4 and 10 h. High fibrinolytic activity, measured as tPA activity > 25 U/L after the start of treatment, was associated with reperfusion. No significant associations between pre-treatment levels of the fibrinolytic variables or vWF and reperfusion or recurrent ischaemia were found. Elevated levels of PAI-1 mass concentration and PAI-1 activity after the start of SK treatment were associated with a higher risk for death at one year, but not at five years. High levels of vWF were associated with worse prognosis but not when corrected for age. Conclusion Pre-treatment levels of PAI-1, vWF and tPA activity showed no association with reperfusion or recurrent ischaemia. Elevated levels of PAI-1 activity after the start of treatment were associated with worse prognosis.
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4.
  • Lindahl, Bernt, et al. (författare)
  • A randomized lifestyle intervention with 5-year follow-up in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance : pronounced short-term impact but long-term adherence problems
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - 1403-4948. ; 37:4, s. 434-442
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS: To compare data on cardiovascular risk factor changes in lipids, insulin, proinsulin, fibrinolysis, leptin and C-reactive protein, and on diabetes incidence, in relation to changes in lifestyle.METHODS: The study was a randomized lifestyle intervention trial conducted in northern Sweden between 1995 and 2000, in 168 individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and body mass index above 27 at start. The intensive intervention group (n = 83) was subjected to a 1-month residential lifestyle programme. The usual care group (n = 85) participated in a health examination ending with a single counselling session. Follow-up was conducted at 1, 3 and 5 years.RESULTS: At 1-year follow-up, an extensive cardio-metabolic risk factor reduction was demonstrated in the intensive intervention group, along with a 70% decrease of progress to type 2 diabetes. At 5-year follow-up, most of these beneficial effects had disappeared. Reported physical activity and fibre intake as well as high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were still increased, and fasting insulin and proinsulin were lower.CONCLUSIONS: The intervention affected several important cardio-metabolic risk variables beneficially, and reduced the risk for type 2 diabetes, but the effects persisted only as long as the new lifestyle was maintained. Increased physical activity seemed to be the behaviour that was most easy to preserve.
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5.
  • Elfström, Peter, 1974-, et al. (författare)
  • Cardiomyopathy, pericarditis and myocarditis in a population-based cohort of inpatients with coeliac disease
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - Oxford : Blackwell Publishing. - 0954-6820. ; 262:5, s. 545-554
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: We investigated the risk of myocarditis, cardiomyopathy, and pericarditis in patients with celiac disease (CD) from a general population cohort.Subjects and methods: Through the Swedish national registers we identified 9363 children and 4969 adults with a diagnosis of CD (1964–2003). These individuals were matched with upto five reference individuals for age, sex, calendar year and county (n = 69 851). Cox regression estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for later heart disease. Main outcome measures: Myocarditis, cardiomyopathy (any or dilated), and pericarditis defined according torelevant international classification of disease codes in the Swedish national inpatient register.Results: Celiac disease diagnosed in childhood was not associated with later myocarditis (HR = 0.2; 95% CI = 0.0–1.5), cardiomyopathy of any type (HR = 0.8; 95% CI = 0.2–3.7), or pericarditis (HR = 0.4; 95% CI = 0.1–1.9). Restricting our analyses to adulthood CD and heart disease diagnosed from 1987 and onwards in departments of cardiology ⁄ internal medicine, we found no association between CD and later myocarditis (HR = 2.1; 95% CI = 0.4–11.7), dilated cardiomyopathy (HR = 1.7; 95% CI = 0.4– 6.5) or pericarditis (HR = 1.5; 95% CI = 0.5–4.0).Conclusion: This study found no association between CD, later myocarditis, cardiomyopathy or pericarditis
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6.
  • Osika, Walter, et al. (författare)
  • Sex differences in peripheral artery intima, media and intima media thickness in children and adolescents
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Atherosclerosis. - Amsterdam : Elsevier. - 0021-9150. ; 203:1, s. 172-177
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective Males have higher coronary heart disease (CHD) lifetime risk and increased magnitude of atherosclerosis, compared with women. Using very high-resolution ultrasound, we have shown that the intima thickness (IT) of radial and dorsal pedal arteries, measured separately from the media thickness (MT), increases with age. We wanted to test whether there is already a difference between the sexes in childhood for IT, MT and intima media thickness (IMT) in the radial and dorsal pedal arteries. Methods and results A total of 252 children (age 14.5 years S.D. ± 1.0 girls/boys 139/113) from two schools in Gothenburg, Sweden, participated in the study. The high-resolution (55 MHz) ultrasound measurements showed that boys had larger values than girls for the radial IT (0.057 ± 0.010 mm vs. 0.054 ± 0.008 mm, P = 0.007), MT (0.176 ± 0.033 vs. 0.153 ± 0.025, P = 0.031), IMT (0.232 ± 0.035 vs. 0.207 ± 0.026, P = 0.000), and for dorsal pedal artery MT (0.160 ± 0.039 vs. 0.149 ± 0.034, P = 0.022) and IMT (0.222 ± 0.041 vs. 0.209 ± 0.037, P = 0.016). Conclusion With this new very high-resolution ultrasound technique, we demonstrated in a large study population of children, that both intimal and medial arterial wall layers were thicker in boys than in girls. These findings may constitute an “early background” explaining why CHD starts sooner in men compared with women.
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7.
  • Thuresson, Marie, et al. (författare)
  • Thoughts, actions, and factors associated with prehospital delay in patients with acute coronary syndrome
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Heart & Lung. - Amsterdam : Elsevier. - 0147-9563. ; 36:6, s. 398-409
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective The objective was to study patients’ interpretations, thoughts, and actions after symptom onset in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in total and in relation to gender, age, history of coronary artery disease, type of syndrome, and residential area and its influence on prehospital delay. Setting We performed a national survey comprising intensive cardiac care units at 11 hospitals in Sweden. Method A total of 1939 patients with diagnosed ACS and symptom onset outside hospital completed a questionnaire containing standardized questions within 3 days after admission. Results Three-quarters of the patients interpreted their symptoms as cardiac in origin, and the most common reason was that they knew someone who had had an acute myocardial infarction. The majority contacted a family member, whereas only 3% directly called for an ambulance. Interpreting the symptoms as cardiac in origin and severe pain were major reasons for deciding to seek medical care. Approaching someone after symptom onset and the belief that the symptoms were cardiac in origin were factors associated with a shorter prehospital delay, whereas taking medication to relieve pain resulted in the opposite. The reaction pattern was influenced by gender, age, a history of coronary artery disease, and the type of ACS, but to a lesser extent by residential area. Conclusions Interpreting symptoms as cardiac in origin and approaching someone after symptom onset were major reasons for a shorter prehospital delay in ACS.
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8.
  • Wall, Kent, et al. (författare)
  • Thirty-year electrocardiographic follow-up after repair of tetralogy of Fallot or atrial septal defect
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Electrocardiology. - South Burlington, Vt. : Research in Electrocardiology, Inc.. - 0022-0736. ; 40:2, s. 214-217
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Knowledge about long-term electrocardiographic changes after surgery for congenital heart disease is limited. METHODS: Eleven patients with corrected tetralogy of Fallot (ToF) and 14 with corrected atrial septal defect (ASD) were followed up at 20 and 30 years after surgery. RESULTS: Approximately 50% of the ASD group developed prolonged QRS duration. In the ToF group, 7 increased QRS duration by more than 20 milliseconds. Nearly all had right bundle-branch block, and 30% of them also had bifascicular block. Two in the ASD group developed first grade atrioventricular block. Five ASD and 6 ToF had prolonged corrected QT duration in the late postoperative phase. CONCLUSIONS: Even after primarily good results of surgery in congenital heart disease, unknown late effects may occur not only in complex lesions such as ToF but also after ASD correction. Regular medical checkups are important after surgical correction in congenital heart disease.
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9.
  • Israelsson, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Health status and psychological distress among in-hospital cardiac arrest survivors in relation to gender
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Resuscitation. - Elsevier. - 0300-9572. ; 114, s. 27-33
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIM: To describe health status and psychological distress among in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) survivors in relation to gender.METHODS: This national register study consists of data from follow-up registration of IHCA survivors 3-6 months post cardiac arrest (CA) in Sweden. A questionnaire was sent to the survivors, including measurements of health status (EQ-5D-5L) and psychological distress (HADS).RESULTS: Between 2013 and 2015, 594 IHCA survivors were included in the study. The median values for EQ-5D-5L index and EQ VAS among survivors were 0.78 (q1-q3=0.67-0.86) and 70 (q1-q3=50-80) respectively. The values were significantly lower (p<0.001) in women compared to men. In addition, women reported more problems than men in all dimensions of EQ-5D-5L, except self-care. A majority of the respondents reported no problems with anxiety (85.4%) and/or symptoms of depression (87.0%). Women reported significantly more problems with anxiety (p<0.001) and symptoms of depression (p<0.001) compared to men. Gender was significantly associated with poorer health status and more psychological distress. No interaction effects for gender and age were found.CONCLUSIONS: Although the majority of survivors reported acceptable health status and no psychological distress, a substantial proportion reported severe problems. Women reported worse health status and more psychological distress compared to men. Therefore, a higher proportion of women may be in need of support. Health care professionals should make efforts to identify health problems among survivors and offer individualised support when needed.
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10.
  • Thuresson, Marie, et al. (författare)
  • Factors that influence the use of ambulance in acute coronary syndrome.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: American heart journal. - 1097-6744. ; 156:1, s. 170-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: National guidelines recommend activation of the emergency medical service by patients who have symptoms of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). In spite of this, only 50% to 60% of persons with myocardial infarction initiate care by using the emergency medical service. The aim of this study was to define factors influencing the use of ambulance in ACS. METHODS: The method used in this study was a national survey comprising intensive cardiac care units at 11 hospitals in Sweden; 1,939 patients with diagnosed ACS and symptom onset outside the hospital completed a questionnaire a few days after admission. RESULTS: Half of the patients went to the hospital by ambulance. Factors associated with ambulance use were knowledge of the importance of quickly seeking medical care and calling for an ambulance when having chest pain (odds ratio [OR] 3.61, 95% CI 2.43-5.45), abrupt onset of pain reaching maximum intensity within minutes (OR 2.08, 1.62-2.69), nausea or cold sweat (OR 2.02, 1.54-2.65), vertigo or near syncope (OR 1.63, 1.21-2.20), ST-elevation ACS (OR 1.58, 1.21-2.06), increasing age (per year) (OR 1.03, 1.02-1.04), previous history of heart failure (OR 2.48, 1.47-4.26), and distance to the hospital of >5 km (OR 2.0, 1.55-2.59). Those who did not call for an ambulance thought self-transport would be faster or did not believe they were sick enough. CONCLUSIONS: Symptoms, patient characteristics, ACS characteristics, and perceptions and knowledge were all associated with ambulance use in ACS. The fact that knowledge increases ambulance use and the need for behavioral change pose a challenge for health-care professionals.
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