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Sökning: AMNE:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP Klinisk medicin Kirurgi)

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1.
  • Stattin, Pär, et al. (författare)
  • Surveillance and deferred treatment for localized prostate cancer : Population based study in the National Prostate Cancer Register of Sweden
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Urology. - Baltimore : Williams and Wilkins. - 0022-5347. ; 180:6, s. 2423-2430
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: To what extent active surveillance and deferred treatment for localized risk prostate cancer are used is unclear. We assessed the use of surveillance and of deferred treatment in a population based, nationwide cohort in Sweden. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the National Prostate Cancer Register of Sweden, with a 98% coverage vs the compulsory Swedish Cancer Registry, we identified 8,304 incident cases of prostate cancer in 1997 to 2002 with age younger than 70 years, clinical local stage T1 or 2, N0 or Nx, M0 or Mx and serum prostate specific antigen less than 20 ng/ml. Data were extracted from medical charts for 7,782 of these men (94%) at a median of 4 years after diagnosis. RESULTS: Primary treatment was surveillance for 2,065 men (26%), radical prostatectomy for 3,722 (48%), radiotherapy for 1,632 (21%) and hormonal treatment for 363 (5%). Men on surveillance had lower local tumor stage, grade and prostate specific antigen, and were older than those who received active primary treatment (p <0.001). After a median surveillance of 4 years 711 men (34%) on surveillance had received deferred treatment, which was radical prostatectomy for 279 (39%), radiotherapy for 212 (30%) and hormonal treatment for 220 (30%). CONCLUSIONS: Surveillance was a common treatment for patients younger than 70 years with localized prostate cancer in Sweden in 1997 to 2002, 26% of men with localized prostate cancer started surveillance and after a median followup of 4 years, 66% of these men remained on surveillance.
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2.
  • Adolfsson, Jan, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical characteristics and primary treatment of prostate cancer in Sweden between 1996 and 2005 : Data from the national prostate cancer register in Sweden
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology. - Stockholm : Taylor & Francis. - 0036-5599. ; 41:6, s. 456-477
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective. The incidence of prostate cancer is rising rapidly in Sweden and there is a need to better understand the pattern of diagnosis, tumor characteristics and treatment. Material and methods. Between 1996 and 2005, all new cases of adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland were intended to be registered in the National Prostate Cancer Register (NPCR). This register contains information on diagnosing unit, date of diagnosis, cause of diagnosis, tumor grade, tumor stage according to the TNM classification in force, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels at diagnosis and primary treatment given within the first 6 months after diagnosis. Results. In total, 72 028 patients were registered, comprising >97% of all pertinent incident cases of prostate cancer in the Swedish Cancer Register (SCR). During the study period there was a considerable decrease in median age at the time of diagnosis, a stage migration towards smaller tumors, a decrease in median serum PSA values at diagnosis, a decrease in the age-standardized incidence rate of men diagnosed with distant metastases or with a PSA level of >100 ng/ml at diagnosis and an increase in the proportion of tumors with Gleason score ≤6. Relatively large geographical differences in the median age at diagnosis and the age-standardized incidence of cases with category T1c tumors were observed. Treatment with curative intent increased dramatically and treatment patterns varied according to geographical region. In men with localized tumors and a PSA level of <20 ng/ml at diagnosis, expectant treatment was more commonly used in those aged ≥75 years than in those aged <75 years. Also, the pattern of endocrine treatment varied in different parts of Sweden. Conclusions. All changes in the register seen over time are consistent with increased diagnostic activity, especially PSA testing, resulting in an increased number of cases with early disease, predominantly tumors in category T1c. The patterns of diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer vary considerably in different parts of Sweden. The NPCR continues to be an important source for research, epidemiological surveillance of the incidence, diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer
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3.
  • Hörer, Tal M., 1971-, et al. (författare)
  • Complications but not obesity or diabetes mellitus have impact on the intraperitoneal lactate/pyruvate ratio measured by microdialysis
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. - 1502-7708. ; 45:1, s. 115-121
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Studies have shown a higher risk of postoperative complications in diabetic and obese patients. An increased intraperitoneal lactate/pyruvate ratio as measured by microdialysis has been reported before postoperative complications have been discovered. It is not known whether diabetes or obesity have any influence on the intraperitoneal metabolism (lactate/pyruvate ratio, glucose, glycerol) in relation to major abdominal surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the postoperative intraperitoneal and subcutaneous carbohydrate and fat metabolism as measured by microdialysis in obese and diabetic patients after major abdominal surgery without postoperative complications.Material and methods: Seven obese patients (body mass index > 30 kg/m(2)) and six diabetic but non-obese patients were studied up to 48 h after major abdominal surgery and were compared with 31 non-diabetic, non-obese patients, all without complications. Microdialysis was performed to measure glucose, lactate, pyruvate and glycerol intraperitoneally and subcutaneously. The lactate/pyruvate ratio was calculated.Results: The lactate/pyruvate ratio did not differ between the groups. In the diabetic patients, glucose levels were higher intraperitoneally at both Days 1 and 2 compared to controls. Higher glycerol levels were found subcutaneously in obese patients at Day 2. CONCLUSIONS: The lactate/pyruvate ratio does not increase intraperitoneally after non-complicated major abdominal surgery in diabetic and obese patients. Obese patients have increased release of free fatty acids and glycerol subcutaneously, while diabetic patients show higher glucose levels intraperitoneally than controls.
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4.
  • Sarve, Hamid, et al. (författare)
  • Quantification of bone remodeling in the proximity of implants
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns (CAIP07). - Berlin : Springer. - 978-3-540-74271-5 ; s. 253-260
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In histomorphometrical investigations of bone tissue modeling around screw-shaped implants, the manual measurements of bone area and bone-implant contact length around the implant are time consuming and subjective. In this paper we propose an automatic image analysis method for such measurements. We evaluate different discriminant analysis methods and compare the automatic method with the manual one. The results show that the principal difference between the two methods occurs in length estimation, whereas the area measurement does not differ significantly. A major factor behind the dissimilarities in the results is believed to be misclassification of staining artifacts by the automatic method.
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5.
6.
  • Jansson, Kjell, et al. (författare)
  • Postoperative on line monitoring with intraperitoneal microdialysis is a sensitive clinical method for measuring increased anaerobic metabolism that correlates to the cytokine response
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. - 0036-5521. ; 39:5, s. 434-439
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Visceral ischaemia and cytokine release are early stages in the development of shock and multiorgan failure. Because of lack of methods to measure anaerobic metabolism or visceral hypoxia in the early phase, diagnosis is not usually established until shock and organ failure are evident. Methods: Nineteen patients were studied postoperatively after major abdominal gastrointestinal surgery. A microdialysis catheter was placed intraperitoneally before closure of the abdomen. Analysis of glucose, pyruvate and lactate was performed every second hour and the ratio between lactate and pyruvate was calculated. Peritoneal fluid was collected from a peritoneal drainage for analysis of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF‐α) and interleukin 10 (IL‐10). Results: Sixteen of the patients had a normal postoperative course; the lactate/pyruvate ratio started at the level of 20 immediately postoperatively and decreased significantly during the first 45 postoperative hours (P = 0.007). A similar pattern was recorded for peritoneal TNF‐α, which decreased correspondingly (P = 0.003). A correlation coefficient of 0.303 (P < 0.001) between lactate/pyruvate ratio and TNF‐α was found. After an initial short increase, IL‐10 decreased over time (P < 0.001). Three of the patients had abnormalities in the microdialysis results, cytokines and clinical outcome. These patients are presented separately. Conclusions: A normal postoperative course results in a decrease in the intraperitoneal lactate/pyruvate ratio, TNF‐α and IL‐10. A correlation between the intraperitoneal lactate/pyruvate ratio and TNF‐α was found which suggests that intraperitoneal microdialysis is a sensitive, indirect method in analysing the postoperative intraperitoneal inflammatory response. A complicated postoperative course was preceded by increase of the peritoneal lactate/pyruvate ratio interpreted as splanchnic hypoxia and also an increased TNF‐α level.
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7.
  • Reigstad, O., et al. (författare)
  • Improved bone ingrowth and fixation with a thin calcium phosphate coating intended for complete resorption
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of biomedical materials research. Part B, Applied biomaterials. - 1552-4973. ; 83B:1, s. 9-15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bonit is claimed to be a resorbable electrochemically deposited calcium phosphate coating consisting mainly of brushite, which is a hydroxyapatite precursor. This study involved a comparison of Ti6Al4V screw-shaped implants with and without a 15 +/- 5 microm Bonit coating in rabbit tibia and femur, after 6 and 12 weeks of insertion. The biomechanical removal torque test showed significantly increased values for the coated implants after 12 weeks (p < 0.05) but not after 6 weeks of integration. Higher bone-implant contact was found for the coated implants in the tibia after 6 weeks and for both tibial and femoral screws after 12 weeks (p < 0.05). There was no difference in the inflammatory reaction around the implants, and possible grains of the coating could be detected after 6 weeks, but not after 12 weeks of follow-up. This unloaded short-term study has shown promising results for the easily applicable and resorbable coat (Bonit) compared to uncoated titanium-alloy implants.
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8.
  • Thor, Andreas, et al. (författare)
  • Early bone formation in human bone grafts treated with platelet-rich plasma : preliminary histomorphometric results
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. - Amsterdam : Elsevier. - 0901-5027. ; 36:12, s. 1164-1171
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on early and late bone healing after autogenous maxillary sinus grafting. Eleven patients were subjected to sinus augmentation with particulated autogenous bone bilaterally with the addition of PRP in one side. Platelet counts in baseline whole blood and PRP were registered. Biopsies were taken in the grafted bone of the sinus area with trephine at 3 months (nine patients) and simultaneously a micro-implant was installed in the same region. The micro-implants with surrounding bone were retrieved by biopsy at 6 months (seven patients). Undecalcified cut and ground sections were histomorphometrically analysed. Quantification of new and old bone in all biopsies was performed. The results of this histological study showed that significantly more new bone was formed at PRP-treated sites compared to controls after 3 months of healing. After 6 months, this effect could no longer be observed. This is in accordance with previous studies showing that PRP has a rather low regenerative capacity but may influence the early phase of bone healing. The additional value of PRP in autogenous bone grafts in the maxillary sinus is questionable.
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9.
  • Friberg, Örjan, et al. (författare)
  • Incidence, microbiological findings, and clinical presentation of sternal wound infections after cardiac surgery with and without local gentamicin prophylaxis
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. - Berlin : Springer. - 0934-9723. ; 26:2, s. 91-97
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sternal wound infection (SWI) is a serious complication after cardiac surgery. In a previous randomized controlled trial, the addition of local collagen-gentamicin in the sternal wound before wound closure was found to significantly reduce the incidence of postoperative wound infections compared with the routine intravenous prophylaxis of isoxazolyl-penicillin only. The aims of the present study were to analyse the microbiological findings of the SWIs from the previous trial as well as to correlate these findings with the clinical presentation of SWI. Differences in clinical presentation of SWIs, depending on the causative agent, could be identified. Most infections had a late, insidious onset, and the majority of these were caused by staphylococci, predominantly coagulase-negative staphylococci. The clinically most fulminant infections were caused by gram-negative bacteria and presented early after surgery. Local administration of gentamicin reduced the incidence of SWIs caused by all major, clinically important bacterial species. Propionibacterium acnes was identified as a possible cause of SWI and may be linked to instability in the sternal fixation. There was no indication of an increase in the occurrence of gentamicin-resistant bacterial isolates in the treatment group. Furthermore, the addition of local collagen-gentamicin reduced the incidence of SWIs caused by methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci. This technique warrants further evaluation as an alternative to prophylactic vancomycin in settings with a high prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
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10.
  • Landgren, Ola, et al. (författare)
  • Personal and family history of autoimmune diabetes mellitus and susceptibility to young-adult-onset Hodgkin lymphoma
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - 0020-7136. ; 118:2, s. 449-452
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Young-adult-onset (15-44 years of age) Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is believed to arise as a consequence of late primary infection in susceptible individuals. The properties of this susceptibility remain little understood. We have previously reported an increased occurrence of HL in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and among their offspring, suggesting that susceptibility to autoimmunity might be of importance also in the pathogenesis of HL. To explore this hypothesis, we assessed the association of personal and family history of diabetes mellitus, with risk of subsequent HL in a population-based case-control study, including as cases all individuals diagnosed with HL above 15 years of age 1964-1999 (n = 6,873) in Sweden, and matched population controls (n = 12,565). First-degree relatives of cases and controls were identified through linkage with the Multi-generation Register. We identified discharges listing diabetes mellitus through linkage with the Inpatient Register (1964-2000). We used odds ratios (OR) as measures of relative risk. Cases with young-adult-onset HL were less likely to have a personal (OR =0.5, 95% CI 0.2-1.1) or family (OR =0.7, 95% CI 0.6-0.8) history of diabetes mellitus. In contrast, HL diagnosed at older ages was neither associated with a personal (OR =1.0) nor family (OR =1.0) history of diabetes mellitus. These findings suggests that characteristics of the immune system associated with conditions such as diabetes mellitus type I are of importance in the pathogenesis of young-adult-onset HL. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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