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  • Ge, Chenjie, et al. (författare)
  • Enlarged Training Dataset by Pairwise GANs for Molecular-Based Brain Tumor Classification
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: IEEE Access. - 2169-3536. ; 8:1, s. 22560-22570
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper addresses issues of brain tumor subtype classification using Magnetic Resonance Images (MRIs) from different scanner modalities like T1 weighted, T1 weighted with contrast-enhanced, T2 weighted and FLAIR images. Currently most available glioma datasets are relatively moderate in size, and often accompanied with incomplete MRIs in different modalities. To tackle the commonly encountered problems of insufficiently large brain tumor datasets and incomplete modality of image for deep learning, we propose to add augmented brain MR images to enlarge the training dataset by employing a pairwise Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) model. The pairwise GAN is able to generate synthetic MRIs across different modalities. To achieve the patient-level diagnostic result, we propose a post-processing strategy to combine the slice-level glioma subtype classification results by majority voting. A two-stage course-to-fine training strategy is proposed to learn the glioma feature using GAN-augmented MRIs followed by real MRIs. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, experiments have been conducted on a brain tumor dataset for classifying glioma molecular subtypes: isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutation and IDH1 wild-type. Our results on the dataset have shown good performance (with test accuracy 88.82%). Comparisons with several state-of-the-art methods are also included.
  • Johansson, Per, et al. (författare)
  • Reduced cerebrospinal fluid concentration of interleukin-12/23 subunit p40 in patients with cognitive impairment.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: PloS one. - 1932-6203. ; 12:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The role of inflammation in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other cognitive disorders is unclear. In a well-defined mono-center population, we measured cytokines and chemokines in paired serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. Methods Consecutive patients with AD (n = 30), stable mild cognitive impairment (SMCI, n = 11), other dementias (n = 11), and healthy controls (n = 18) were included. None of the subjects was treated with glucocorticoids, cholinesterase inhibitors, or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Serum and CSF concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, IL-12/23 p40, IL-15, IL-16, vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), and three chemokines were measured using a multiplex panel. Results After correction for multiple comparisons, only CSF IL-12/23 p40 concentration differed significantly between the total patient group (n = 52) and controls (n = 18; p = 0.002). Further analyses showed that CSF IL-12/23 p40 concentration was decreased in all patient subgroups (AD, other dementias, and SMCI) compared to healthy controls (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, and p < 0.05, respectively). In the total study population (n = 70), CSF IL-12/23 p40 concentrations correlated positively with CSF concentrations of β-amyloid1-42 (Aβ1–42) and phosphorylated tau protein (P-tau) whereas in AD patients (n = 30), CSF IL-12/23 p40 only correlated positively with CSF P-Tau (r = 0.46, p = 0.01). Conclusions Most cytokines and chemokines were similar in patients and controls, but CSF IL-12/23 subunit p40 concentration was decreased in patients with cognitive impairment, and correlated with markers of AD disease status. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of CSF IL-12/23 p40 in other dementias and SMCI.
  • Pourhamidi, Kaveh, et al. (författare)
  • No difference in small or large nerve fiber function between individuals with normal glucose tolerance and impaired glucose tolerance
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Diabetes Care. - American Diabetes Association. - 0149-5992 .- 1935-5548. ; 36:4, s. 962-964
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>OBJECTIVE</strong> To assess small and large nerve fiber function in people with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and type 2 diabetes (T2D).</p><p><strong>RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS</strong> Participants were recruited consecutively from a population-based cohort: NGT (<em>n</em> = 39), IGT (<em>n</em> = 29), and T2D (<em>n</em> = 51). Electrophysiological measures included nerve conduction studies and thermal thresholds. Intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) in skin biopsies was calculated.</p><p><strong>RESULTS</strong> There was no difference between IGT and NGT in sural nerve conduction, IENFD, and thermal thresholds. IENFD was significantly lower in T2D (median = 2.8 fibers/mm [Interquartile range 1.1–4.7 fibers/mm]) than NGT individuals (4.5 fibers/mm [3.4–6.1 fibers/mm]; <em>P</em> &lt; 0.05). T2D participants had poorer nerve conduction and higher heat thresholds than NGT and IGT.</p><p><strong>CONCLUSIONS</strong> Large and small nerve function in people with IGT did not differ from those with NGT. Our finding does not support the existence of neuropathy in a prediabetic stage.</p>
  • Löf-Ohlin, Zarah M., et al. (författare)
  • Relative telomere length in patients with late-onset Alzheimer's dementia or vascular dementia
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: NeuroReport. - London : Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. - 0959-4965 .- 1473-558X. ; 19:12, s. 1199-1202
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Telomeres generally shorten with age. An accelerated shortening of the telomeres has been linked to several age-related disorders. We hypothesized that the relative length of telomeres could discriminate between patients with late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD). A quantitative real-time PCR method was used to calculate the relative telomere length in 76 age-matched and sex-matched, newly diagnosed late-onset AD or VaD patients recruited from our Memory Unit. No significant difference was found in the relative telomere length between AD and VaD cases neither in men (<em>P</em>=0.315) nor women (<em>P</em>=0.12). Thus, we could not confirm that the length of telomeres would predict which form of dementia, late-onset AD or VaD that develops.</p>
  • Montgomery, Scott M., et al. (författare)
  • Maternal smoking during pregnancy and multiple sclerosis amongst offspring
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Neurology. - Oxford : Blackwell. - 1351-5101 .- 1468-1331. ; 15:12, s. 1395-1399
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>INTRODUCTION: An association between parental smoking and multiple sclerosis (MS) in offspring has been reported. This study examined whether maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with MS in offspring.</p> <p>METHODS: Swedish general population registers provided prospectively recorded information on maternal smoking during pregnancy. The study identified 143 cases with MS diagnosed by 2006 and 1730 matched controls. Subjects were born since 1982 and individually matched by year of birth, age, sex and region of residence. Conditional logistic regression assessed the association of maternal smoking with MS in offspring with adjustment for socioeconomic index.</p> <p>RESULTS: Maternal smoking during pregnancy was not associated with MS in offspring, with an odds ratio (and 95% confidence interval) of 0.96 (0.65-1.44). When stratified by paediatric or later MS onset there was no association with maternal smoking in either stratum.</p> <p>CONCLUSION: It is unlikely that smoking during pregnancy represents a risk for early-onset MS amongst offspring.</p>
  • Vumma, Ravi (författare)
  • Functional Characterization of Tyrosine Transporters in fibroblast from Healthy Controls and Schizophrenic Patients
  • 2008
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>ABSTRACT</p> <p>Cultured human fibroblasts offer an advantageous system to investigate the amino acid transport properties without confounding the affects of disease state and its treatment in many systemic psychiatric disorders. In previous studies, fibroblast cells have been used to investigate the tyrosine transport across plasma membranes in patients with schizophrenia and autism with out characterizing the particular amino acid transporters.</p> <p>The importance of the major tyrosine transporters (system-L and system-A) was investigated in this study. Systemic functional characterization of tyrosine transport in fibroblasts from healthy controls and patients with schizophrenia, with respect to the system-L isoforms (LAT1, LAT2, LAT3, and LAT4) was performed.</p> <p>Ten (n=10) fibroblast cell lines from healthy controls and ten (n=10) from patients with schizophrenia were included in this study. Transport and uptake of [14-C] L-tyrosine in fibroblasts was measured using the cluster tray method in the absence and presence of different specific inhibitors. The maximal transport capacity, Vmax and the affinity constant of the tyrosine-binding site, Km, of LAT1 isoform were determined.</p> <p>The results of this study showed that tyrosine transport in fibroblasts is facilitated mainly by the system-L and LAT1 isoform is involved in 90% of total tyrosine uptake. LAT2 isoform seems to be functionally weak in uptake of tyrosine, as not more than 3% could be contributed by it. LAT3 and LAT4 contributed around 7%. System-A (ATA2 isoform) contributed around 10%. Alanine consequently inhibited the tyrosine transport by up to 60%. Tyrosine uptake and kinetics did not differ between patients and controls at the LAT1 isoform. Moreover, the affinity of LAT1 isoform for tyrosine was higher when compared to system-L. LAT1 is also involved in around 51% of uptake of alanine.</p> <p>In conclusion, the present thesis, confirms the presence of system-L with its isoform LAT1 as a main transporter of tyrosine in human fibroblast cells. The competition between tyrosine and alanine to get transported is shown to probably exist mainly at LAT1 isoform. Aberrant tyrosine transport observed in previous studies in patients with schizophrenia is probably not linked to the LAT1 isoform. This study gave further importance and established fibroblast cells as a suitable experimental model for studying amino acid transport properties in humans.</p> <p>Key words: Fibroblasts, Tyrosine and alanine transport, System-L, LAT1, LAT2, LAT3, LAT4, Schizophrenia, Precursor of Dopamine.</p>
  • Björkman, Kristoffer, et al. (författare)
  • Genotype-phenotype correlations in patients with complex I deficiency due to mutations in NDUFS1 and NDUFV1
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Euromit 2014, 15-19 juni, Tampere, Finland.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Objectives: To study genotype-phenotype correlations in genes encoding complex I electron input module subunits. Materials and methods: We studied five patients with isolated complex I deficiency, three with NDUFS1 mutations and two with NDUFV1 mutations. A literature review of all reported cases of mutations in the affected genes was performed. Results: The literature review revealed pathological mutations in NDUFS1 for 18 patients in 17 families and correspondingly in NDUFV1 for 26 patients in 19 families. Unpublished clinical data for our five patients were added. Our study showed quite variable clinical courses; death before two years of age was seen in 41% of patients while 18% were alive at seven years. There was a significant difference between the NDUFS1 and NDUFV1 groups for clinical onset and life-span. Mutations in NDUFS1 were linked to a worse clinical course with earlier onset and earlier death. Conclusions: Genotype-phenotype correlations in patients with mutations affecting the genes that encode the electron input module of complex I vary, but patients with NDUFS1 mutation tend to have a worse clinical course than patients with NDUFV1 mutation. Identifying the mutations is of importance for accurate prognostic information and genetic counseling.
  • Paterson, R. W., et al. (författare)
  • A targeted proteomic multiplex CSF assay identifies increased malate dehydrogenase and other neurodegenerative biomarkers in individuals with Alzheimer's disease pathology.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Translational psychiatry. - 2158-3188. ; 6:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. Biomarkers are required to identify individuals in the preclinical phase, explain phenotypic diversity, measure progression and estimate prognosis. The development of assays to validate candidate biomarkers is costly and time-consuming. Targeted proteomics is an attractive means of quantifying novel proteins in cerebrospinal and other fluids, and has potential to help overcome this bottleneck in biomarker development. We used a previously validated multiplexed 10-min, targeted proteomic assay to assess 54 candidate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in two independent cohorts comprising individuals with neurodegenerative dementias and healthy controls. Individuals were classified as 'AD' or 'non-AD' on the basis of their CSF T-tau and amyloid Aβ1-42 profile measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; biomarkers of interest were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses. In all, 35/31 individuals in Cohort 1 and 46/36 in Cohort 2 fulfilled criteria for AD/non-AD profile CSF, respectively. After adjustment for multiple comparisons, five proteins were elevated significantly in AD CSF compared with non-AD CSF in both cohorts: malate dehydrogenase; total APOE; chitinase-3-like protein 1 (YKL-40); osteopontin and cystatin C. In an independent multivariate orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), these proteins were also identified as major contributors to the separation between AD and non-AD in both cohorts. Independent of CSF Aβ1-42 and tau, a combination of these biomarkers differentiated AD and non-AD with an area under curve (AUC)=0.88. This targeted proteomic multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-based assay can simultaneously and rapidly measure multiple candidate CSF biomarkers. Applying this technique to AD we demonstrate differences in proteins involved in glucose metabolism and neuroinflammation that collectively have potential clinical diagnostic utility.
  • Lundin, Anna-Carin (författare)
  • Tendinosis in Trigger Finger
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Trigger finger is one of the most common hand conditions, with a prevalence of almost 3%. The aetiology remains unclear even though many causes have been suggested. The prevailing paradigm is that the pathogenesis of trigger finger is ascribed to primary changes in the first fibrous condensation of the tendon sheath (A1-pulley). Several studies have investigated pathology in the pulley, but few have investigated the tendon. The general aim of this thesis was to find out if there is pathology in the trigger finger tendon and to define it.</p><p>We first looked at trigger finger tendon biopsies in a light microscope, and found that they were histologically different from healthy tendons. They showed signs of micro-ruptures, collagen degradation, increased amounts of ground substance, both hyper- and hypo-cellular areas, round active cell nuclei and absence of inflammatory cells, all similar to tendinosis. The histological picture was further assessed by using a scoring system for Achilles tendinosis. The trigger finger tendons scored high, suggesting a similar histopathology.</p><p>Next, we performed a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) on trigger finger tendons. We assessed the mRNA expression of 10 genes, which have been described to be differently expressed in Achilles tendinosis (collagen 1 and 3, versican, decorin, biglycan, aggrecan, MMP-2, MMP-3, ADAMTS-5, and TIMP-3). The overall expression pattern agreed with previous studies on Achilles tendinosis, suggesting that the cellular function in trigger finger tendons is disturbed in a similar way as in Achilles tendinosis.</p><p>Recent experimental and observational research has suggested potential side effects of statin treatment on tendons, but firm evidence was lacking. We performed an epidemiological study on two large population-based cohorts. Statin use was found to increase the risk of both trigger finger and tendinosis in the shoulder and Achilles tendons, especially among men. This suggests a similar pathology in trigger finger and tendinosis.</p><p>We have also studied the time to treatment effect after a single injection of glucocorticoid in trigger finger. Our results suggest that 60-80% of patients can expect resolution of the triggering within 14 days, and half of them within seven days. This result allows correct information to be given to the patient and proper planning of follow-ups.</p><p>In conclusion, the pathology in trigger finger tendons is similar to tendinosis in other tendons.</p>
  • Åkerman, Linda, 1983- (författare)
  • Aspects of the Pre-Diabetic Period in Type 1 Diabetes
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease characterized by insulin deficiency, due to immune-mediated destruction of beta cells. Current knowledge regarding the period preceding disease onset comes, to a large extent, from studying risk cohorts based on relatives of T1D-patients, as they have an increased disease risk. Among T1D patients in general, however, few have the disease in their immediate family. It is therefore important to study risk cohorts from the general population as well. An ongoing autoimmune reaction can often be seen in the blood long before disease onset, by detection of autoantibodies directed towards beta cell antigens. By autoantibody screening among participants in the ABIS (All Babies in the South-east of Sweden) cohort, we could identify a group of children from the general population with increased risk for T1D, positive for multiple autoantibodies. They were enrolled in a 2-year prospective follow-up aiming to characterize the prediabetic period and to identify factors indicative of progression/non-progression to T1D. We assessed glucose homeostasis and autoantibody titers over time, and searched for risk-biomarkers by analyzing the expression of immune-related genes (Th1-Th2-Th3) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from these children, in comparison to healthy children and newly diagnosed T1D patients. In the same groups we also compared serum micro RNA (miRNA) profiles, knowing that miRNA molecules have desirable biomarker properties. We found that two specific autoantibodies, IA2A and ZnT8A, were detected at higher concentrations in risk-individuals who progressed to overt T1D during or after the follow-up period, compared to those who still have not. We also observed disturbed glucose homeostasis long before onset in the progressors, but it was seen among those who remain symptom free as well. Further, we found support for the possible role of insulin resistance as an accelerator of the disease process. For gene expression and serum miRNA, few differences were observed between risk-individuals and healthy children overall. However, for PBMC gene expression and serum miRNA both, there were associations to beta cell function and glucose homeostasis, and for miRNA also to islet autoantibodies. Although specific profiles for prediction of disease onset or identification of risk-individuals could not be found, these results are interesting and deserve to be evaluated further. As part of another sub-study within ABIS, the effects of physical activity on glucose homeostasis were assessed in healthy schoolchildren. The level of physical activity, measured by pedometers, was related to insulin resistance and beta cell-stress, and decreased physical activity was associated with increased insulin resistance and load on the insulin-producing beta cells, already at school-age.</p>
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