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Träfflista för sökning "AMNE:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP Klinisk medicin Oto-rhino-laryngologi) "

Sökning: AMNE:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP Klinisk medicin Oto-rhino-laryngologi)

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  • Löfqvist, Anders (författare)
  • Vowel-related tongue movements in speech: Straight or curved paths? (L).
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. - : American Institute of Physics (AIP). - 1520-8524. ; 129:3, s. 1149-1152
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper examines tongue movements between the two vowels in sequences of vowel-labial consonant-vowel, addressing the question whether the movement is a straight line or a curved path. Native speakers of Japanese and Italian served as subjects. The linguistic material consisted of words where the bilabial consonant was either long or short. The inclusion of words with different consonant lengths was motivated by earlier findings that the tongue movement is often longer when the consonant is long, which may be due to a more curved movement path. Tongue movements were recorded using a three-transmitter magnetometer system. To assess the movement path, the movement magnitude was calculated in two ways, as a straight line, the Euclidean distance, and as the actual path, obtained by summing the individual Euclidean distances between successive samples from movement onset to offset. The ratio between the path and the Euclidean distance is 1 when the movement is a straight line and greater than 1 when the path is curved. Results show that in virtually all 21 cases examined the ratio was very close to 1 and in most cases 1.2 or less. There was no reliable influence of consonant length on the ratio.
  • Kanerva, Mervi, et al. (författare)
  • Sunnybrook and House-Brackmann Systems in 5397 Facial Gradings
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery. - : Mosby. - 0194-5998 .- 1097-6817. ; 144:4, s. 570-574
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives. To study the correlation between Sunnybrook and House-Brackmann facial grading systems at different time points during the course of peripheral facial palsy. Study Design. Prospective multicenter trial. Setting. Seventeen otorhinolaryngological centers. Subjects and Methods. Data are part of the Scandinavian Bell's palsy study. The facial function of 1920 patients with peripheral facial palsy was assessed 5397 times with both Sunnybrook and House-Brackmann (H-B) facial grading systems. Grading was done at initial visit, at days 11 to 17 of palsy onset, and at 1 month, 2 months, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months. Statistical evaluation was by Spearman correlation coefficient and box plot analysis. Results. Spearman correlation coefficient varied from -0.81 to -0.96, with the weakest correlation found at initial visit. Box plot analysis for all assessments revealed that Sunnybrook scores were widely spread over different H-B grades. With 50% of the results closest to the median, Sunnybrook composite scores varied in H-B grades as follows: H-B I, 100; H-B II, 71 to 90; H-B III, 43 to 62; H-B IV, 26 to 43; H-B V, 13 to 25; and H-B VI, 5 to 14. Conclusion. Gradings correlated better in follow-up assessments than at initial visit. As shown by the wide overlap of the grading results, subjective grading systems are only approximate. However, a conversion table for Sunnybrook and H-B gradings was obtained and is included in the article. It can be used for further development of facial grading systems.
  • Bruce, Barbro (författare)
  • Problems of language and communication in children; Identification and intervention
  • 2007
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis addresses identification and intervention of language and communication problems in children. The issue of identification is addressed in study I by investigating communicative ability in 18-month-old children, and in study II by exploring the prevalence of language and communication problems in children with complex problems, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The issue of intervention is addressed in studies III and IV by analysing verbal interaction in conversations, in which one of the participants is a child with specific language impairment (SLI). Study III explores how dialogues between children with SLI and typically developing peers (TLD) representing the same age (age peers), and the same language level (language peers) respectively, differ with respect to responsiveness, assertiveness and reciprocity. Study IV investigates interactional style and elicitation strategies of speech/language pathologists (SLP) during intervention, and how these factors influence the child with SLI. The results from study I show that receptive skills and symbolic play at 18 months of age are significantly associated with language ability three years later. Study II, in which language skills in children with ADHD were explored, indicates that language ability plays an important role for all other aspects of children's development and behaviour, with the exception of motor skills. Use of language and language comprehension caused these children many more problems than structural aspects of language production. Furthermore, reading and writing problems were found to be very frequent. Study III shows that dialogues between children with SLI and TLD age peers are characterized by more responsiveness and topic coherence than dialogues between children with SLI and TLD language peers. However, the children with SLI were more assertive, i.e., introduced more topics, in dialogues with language peers. Study IV indicates that the children with SLI talked more and had a higher mean length of utterance (MLU) in the free conversational context, whereas the individually selected grammatical targets occurred more often in the training context. In the conversational context the SLPs linked, i.e., attended, more to the child's focus and gave more feedback, while in the training context the individually selected grammatical targets occurred more often and the children were more frequently asked to follow instructions. The results have important clinical implications. First; screening procedures at Child Health Care (CHC) centres should be recommended to focus on receptive language skills and play behaviour, and not only on size of vocabulary at 18 months of age. Second; language skills, in particular language comprehension, language use and literacy skills were found to cause children with ADHD problems, and should therefore be assessed. Third; it is of great value for children with SLI to be in mixed groups with peers representing different ages and language levels, and to avoid the risk of not being selected as playmates. Fourth; increased awareness of how interactional style and elicitation strategies influence the developing language skills in children with SLI can be used in intervention planning, depending on the goals of the specific intervention procedures for the individual child.
  • Lyberg Åhlander, Viveka, et al. (författare)
  • Hoarseness as a Sign of Possible Nonspecific Mucosal Hyperreactivity in Vocal Tract.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of voice : official journal of the Voice Foundation. - : Elsevier. - 1557-8658. ; 23, s. 707-715
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of the present paper was to evaluate the possible impact of methacholine challenge on the voice and vocal tract in 10 patients reporting hoarseness due to presumable hyperreactivity to some environmental factors. Ten age and gender-matched healthy subjects served as controls. Methacholine was used for hypersensitivity challenge and saline solution (0.9% NaCl) as control substance. Subjects were examined on two separate challenge occasions testing either methacholine in increasing doses (3, 6, 12 mg) or NaCl. Voice recordings, videolaryngoscopy, and measurement of nasal secretion were performed before and after each sniffing session. Subjective complaints were documented. Data were statistically analyzed with three-way analysis of variance and group comparisons performed. Perceptual analysis of voice recordings showed an increase of the grade of voice disorder in patients after exposure to both substances. Moreover, one of the patients became aphonic and another severely dysphonic after NaCl. No voice quality changes were detected in controls. The videolaryngoscopy findings divergent from normal did not increase in any group. Nasal secretion was significantly higher after sniffing of methacholine than NaCl in both groups. The frequency of subjective complaints was equal in both groups after both substances. However, there was a qualitative difference in the character of the symptoms: the patients complained of throat, vocal, and nasal symptoms whereas the controls complained exclusively of nasal symptoms. The study supports the view that vocal dysfunction after exposure to non-specific environmental irritating factors may be triggered mainly by emotional mechanisms such as off-warding reaction or dissociative disorder.
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