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Sökning: AMNE:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP Klinisk medicin Psykiatri)

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  • Westius, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • View of life in persons with dementia
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Dementia. - London : Sage. - 1471-3012. ; 8:4, s. 481-499
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To study the view of life in dementia. The view of life of an individual is defined as a conception of reality, a central system of values and a basic emotional attitude.Method: Interviews with persons (N = 21) with mild to moderate dementia of the Alzheimer’s type. The interview data were interpreted with a phenomenological hermeneutical method.Results: Despite their cognitive deterioration it was possible to understand the view of life of the participants in the frame of their life story. Their view of life seemed to guide them towards selecting mainly emotionally powerful and value-oriented memories. No exceptional characteristics that could be traced to their dementia disease were found in the participants’ views of life. Conclusions: The view of life of the participants with mild to moderate dementia was vital for their life story and was not erased by dementia.Implications: In order to respect people with dementia as persons, caregivers should strive for gaining some knowledge of their view of life.
  • Westius, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Views of life and sense of identity in people with Alzheimer's disease
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Ageing & Society. - Cambridge, United Kingdom : Cambridge university press. - 0144-686X. ; 30:7, s. 1257-1278
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Making it possible for people with Alzheimer's disease to retain a sense of identity during the process of the disease poses a great challenge to care-givers, professionals and family carers. The aim of this study is to elucidate the role of the view of life of people with Alzheimer's in framing their sense of identity. Is their view of life a vital aspect of their sense of identity? ‘View of life’ was interpreted as a vital aspect of sense of identity, understood as the individual's beliefs about their life history and about the attributes that characterised them. Twenty-one people with mild to moderate stages of Alzheimer's disease were interviewed about their life story. The narratives were interpreted using a phenomenological hermeneutic method. By telling their life story, the participants also narrated their view of life, i.e. their conception of reality, their central system of values and their basic emotional attitudes. By their own accounts, the origins of the narrators' central values and basic emotional attitudes were established in early life. They also expressed a sense of meaningfulness and continuity when looking back on their lives. The findings suggest that for a care-giver or confidant, having knowledge of a person with dementia's view of life is valuable when seeking to confirm that person's sense of identity.
  • Edvardsson, Bo, 1944- (författare)
  • Tankefel inom vardag, yrkesliv och politik
  • 2009
  • Annan publikation (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • Syftet är att klargöra begreppet tankefel och att beskriva några vanliga exempel på tankefel. Tankefel har en omfattande förekomst och omfattande konsekvenser för enskilda och samhälle.
  • Bjerkenstedt, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Support for limited brain availability of tyrosine in patients with schizophrenia
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology. - 1461-1457. ; 9:2, s. 247-255
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Several mechanisms have been suggested to account for altered dopaminergic neurotransmission in schizophrenia. The brain is the only organ for which amino-acid transport is limited and competition for transport over the blood-brain barrier (BBB) occurs at physiological plasma concentrations. One line of research suggests that patients with schizophrenia have altered brain levels of the essential amino acid tyrosine, the precursor for the synthesis of dopamine. The most common hypothesis is that less tyrosine is available because of competition with elevated levels of other amino acids. By consequence, the synthesis of dopamine in the brain will decrease. In contrast, another line of evidence suggests a change in the affinity for one of the transport proteins. A limitation of this research has been that the systems for amino-acid transport across the BBB have not been fully characterized at a molecular or functional level. The L system is the major system for transport of tyrosine across cell membranes including the BBB. The A system is also involved in this transport. Earlier in-vitro studies using fibroblasts have demonstrated a normal L system in schizophrenia but nevertheless reduced tyrosine transport. The combination of molecular research, fibroblast techniques, and brain imaging provides a new basis for clinical research on the role of amino-acid membrane transport in schizophrenia.
  • Paulson-Karlsson, Gunilla, et al. (författare)
  • Anorexia nervosa : treatment satisfaction
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of Family Therapy. - Oxford, United Kingdom : Blackwell. - 0163-4445. ; 28:3, s. 293-306
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Patient satisfaction plays a central role in treatment alliance and outcome. Investigating patient expectations and experiences of treatment sheds light on its importance. This study examines adolescent anorexia nervosa patients and their parents' satisfaction with family-based treatment. Patients and parents answered a questionnaire at the eighteen-month follow-up focusing on expectations and experiences of treatment, therapists, aims of treatment and accomplishment. The results show that 73 per cent of the patients and 83 per cent of the parents felt that their pre-treatment expectations had been fulfilled. The majority agreed that individual patient sessions and parental sessions were of great help, while the patients valued family therapy sessions as being less helpful than did parents. In overall terms, parents were more pleased with the therapists than were the patients. These data suggest that family-based treatment with individual sessions for patients, in parallel with parental sessions combined with family sessions, corresponds well to patients' and parents' treatment expectations.
  • Johansson, Per, et al. (författare)
  • Reduced cerebrospinal fluid concentration of interleukin-12/23 subunit p40 in patients with cognitive impairment.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: PloS one. - 1932-6203. ; 12:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The role of inflammation in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other cognitive disorders is unclear. In a well-defined mono-center population, we measured cytokines and chemokines in paired serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. Methods Consecutive patients with AD (n = 30), stable mild cognitive impairment (SMCI, n = 11), other dementias (n = 11), and healthy controls (n = 18) were included. None of the subjects was treated with glucocorticoids, cholinesterase inhibitors, or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Serum and CSF concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, IL-12/23 p40, IL-15, IL-16, vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), and three chemokines were measured using a multiplex panel. Results After correction for multiple comparisons, only CSF IL-12/23 p40 concentration differed significantly between the total patient group (n = 52) and controls (n = 18; p = 0.002). Further analyses showed that CSF IL-12/23 p40 concentration was decreased in all patient subgroups (AD, other dementias, and SMCI) compared to healthy controls (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, and p < 0.05, respectively). In the total study population (n = 70), CSF IL-12/23 p40 concentrations correlated positively with CSF concentrations of β-amyloid1-42 (Aβ1–42) and phosphorylated tau protein (P-tau) whereas in AD patients (n = 30), CSF IL-12/23 p40 only correlated positively with CSF P-Tau (r = 0.46, p = 0.01). Conclusions Most cytokines and chemokines were similar in patients and controls, but CSF IL-12/23 subunit p40 concentration was decreased in patients with cognitive impairment, and correlated with markers of AD disease status. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of CSF IL-12/23 p40 in other dementias and SMCI.
  • Nevonen, Lauri, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of a new Internet-based self-help guide for patients with bulimic symptoms in Sweden.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Nordic journal of psychiatry. - 0803-9488. ; 60:6, s. 463-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The current study evaluated a new Internet-based self-help guide based on cognitive-behavioural therapy for patients with bulimic symptoms. Thirty-eight participants from a waiting list at an eating-disorder outpatient unit were assessed pre-treatment, post-treatment and at a 2-month follow-up using the Rating of Anorexia and Bulimia interview-revised version, an anamnesis questionnaire, the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2) and Symptom Check List-90-Revised (SCL-90R). The SCL-90R Global Severity Index and most EDI-2 subscales showed significant differences from pre-to post-treatment and the 2-month follow-up, apart from ineffectiveness, impulse regulation and social insecurity. Expert ratings revealed a significant reduction in vomiting, dietary restraints and weight phobia, with the exception of binge eating from pre-treatment to the 2-month follow-up. Exercise increased significantly, indicating that participants changed their method of compensation. An Internet-based self-help guide for bulimic symptoms is a promising new tool and can be used effectively as the first step in a stepped-care model. Further evaluations with randomized controlled trials are necessary.
  • Paterson, R. W., et al. (författare)
  • A targeted proteomic multiplex CSF assay identifies increased malate dehydrogenase and other neurodegenerative biomarkers in individuals with Alzheimer's disease pathology.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Translational psychiatry. - 2158-3188. ; 6:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. Biomarkers are required to identify individuals in the preclinical phase, explain phenotypic diversity, measure progression and estimate prognosis. The development of assays to validate candidate biomarkers is costly and time-consuming. Targeted proteomics is an attractive means of quantifying novel proteins in cerebrospinal and other fluids, and has potential to help overcome this bottleneck in biomarker development. We used a previously validated multiplexed 10-min, targeted proteomic assay to assess 54 candidate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in two independent cohorts comprising individuals with neurodegenerative dementias and healthy controls. Individuals were classified as 'AD' or 'non-AD' on the basis of their CSF T-tau and amyloid Aβ1-42 profile measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; biomarkers of interest were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses. In all, 35/31 individuals in Cohort 1 and 46/36 in Cohort 2 fulfilled criteria for AD/non-AD profile CSF, respectively. After adjustment for multiple comparisons, five proteins were elevated significantly in AD CSF compared with non-AD CSF in both cohorts: malate dehydrogenase; total APOE; chitinase-3-like protein 1 (YKL-40); osteopontin and cystatin C. In an independent multivariate orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), these proteins were also identified as major contributors to the separation between AD and non-AD in both cohorts. Independent of CSF Aβ1-42 and tau, a combination of these biomarkers differentiated AD and non-AD with an area under curve (AUC)=0.88. This targeted proteomic multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-based assay can simultaneously and rapidly measure multiple candidate CSF biomarkers. Applying this technique to AD we demonstrate differences in proteins involved in glucose metabolism and neuroinflammation that collectively have potential clinical diagnostic utility.
  • Palmqvist, Sebastian, et al. (författare)
  • Detailed comparison of amyloid PET and CSF biomarkers for identifying early Alzheimer disease
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Neurology. - American Academy of Neurology. - 1526-632X. ; 85:14, s. 1240-1249
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective:To compare the diagnostic accuracy of CSF biomarkers and amyloid PET for diagnosing early-stage Alzheimer disease (AD).Methods:From the prospective, longitudinal BioFINDER study, we included 122 healthy elderly and 34 patients with mild cognitive impairment who developed AD dementia within 3 years (MCI-AD). -Amyloid (A) deposition in 9 brain regions was examined with [F-18]-flutemetamol PET. CSF was analyzed with INNOTEST and EUROIMMUN ELISAs. The results were replicated in 146 controls and 64 patients with MCI-AD from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative study.Results:The best CSF measures for identifying MCI-AD were A42/total tau (t-tau) and A42/hyperphosphorylated tau (p-tau) (area under the curve [AUC] 0.93-0.94). The best PET measures performed similarly (AUC 0.92-0.93; anterior cingulate, posterior cingulate/precuneus, and global neocortical uptake). CSF A42/t-tau and A42/p-tau performed better than CSF A42 and A42/40 (AUC difference 0.03-0.12, p < 0.05). Using nonoptimized cutoffs, CSF A42/t-tau had the highest accuracy of all CSF/PET biomarkers (sensitivity 97%, specificity 83%). The combination of CSF and PET was not better than using either biomarker separately.Conclusions:Amyloid PET and CSF biomarkers can identify early AD with high accuracy. There were no differences between the best CSF and PET measures and no improvement when combining them. Regional PET measures were not better than assessing the global A deposition. The results were replicated in an independent cohort using another CSF assay and PET tracer. The choice between CSF and amyloid PET biomarkers for identifying early AD can be based on availability, costs, and doctor/patient preferences since both have equally high diagnostic accuracy.Classification of evidence:This study provides Class III evidence that amyloid PET and CSF biomarkers identify early-stage AD equally accurately.
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