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Träfflista för sökning "AMNE:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP Medicinsk bioteknologi Annan medicinsk bioteknologi) "

Sökning: AMNE:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP Medicinsk bioteknologi Annan medicinsk bioteknologi)

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1.
  • Enroth, Stefan, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of Long-Term Storage Time and Original Sampling Month on Biobank Plasma Protein Concentrations
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: EBioMedicine. - 2352-3964. ; 12, s. 309-314
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The quality of clinical biobank samples is crucial to their value for life sciences research. A number of factors related to the collection and storage of samples may affect the biomolecular composition. We have studied the effect of long-time freezer storage, chronological age at sampling, season and month of the year and on the abundance levels of 108 proteins in 380 plasma samples collected from 106 Swedish women. Storage time affected 18 proteins and explained 4.8–34.9% of the observed variance. Chronological age at sample collection after adjustment for storage-time affected 70 proteins and explained 1.1–33.5% of the variance. Seasonal variation had an effect on 15 proteins and month (number of sun hours) affected 36 proteins and explained up to 4.5% of the variance after adjustment for storage-time and age. The results show that freezer storage time and collection date (month and season) exerted similar effect sizes as age on the protein abundance levels. This implies that information on the sample handling history, in particular storage time, should be regarded as equally prominent covariates as age or gender and need to be included in epidemiological studies involving protein levels.
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2.
  • Petzold, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Towards an Ambient Assisted Living User Interaction Taxonomy
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: CHI '13 Extended Abstracts of the ACM International Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. - New York : ACM Press. - 9781450318990 ; , s. 49-54
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Extensive research in the field of ambient assisted living (AAL) provides profound knowledge about the design of AAL systems. However, more generic design characteristics for user interaction have not been formalized for this domain yet. Thus, we propose to develop a domain specific taxonomy for the design of user interaction in AAL systems. We adopted a systematic taxonomy development approach that combines an empirical and a pseudo-conceptual strategy. Six co-researchers from different disciplines conduct the iterative research process. Next to AAL systems existing taxonomies in the field of human-computer interaction are analyzed following the Delphi method. In this paper we present our research process and preliminary results from the first iteration. The final taxonomy allows classification and should support the analysis of user interaction utilized in AAL systems. Furthermore, it can deal as a practical design guideline.
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3.
  • Löfhede, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Classification of burst and suppression in the neonatal electroencephalogram
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neural Engineering. - : Institute of Physics Publishing Ltd.. - 1741-2560 .- 1741-2552. ; 5:4, s. 402-410
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fisher's linear discriminant (FLD), a feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) and a support vector machine (SVM) were compared with respect to their ability to distinguish bursts from suppressions in electroencephalograms (EEG) displaying a burst-suppression pattern. Five features extracted from the EEG were used as inputs. The study was based on EEG signals from six full-term infants who had suffered from perinatal asphyxia, and the methods have been trained with reference data classified by an experienced electroencephalographer. The results are summarized as the area under the curve (AUC), derived from receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for the three methods. Based on this, the SVM performs slightly better than the others. Testing the three methods with combinations of increasing numbers of the five features shows that the SVM handles the increasing amount of information better than the other methods.
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5.
  • Jonsson, Amanda, et al. (författare)
  • Chemical delivery array with millisecond neurotransmitter release
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Science Advances. - Washington : American Association for the Advancement of Science (A A A S). - 2375-2548. ; 2:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Technologies that restore or augment dysfunctional neural signaling represent a promising route to deeper understanding and new therapies for neurological disorders. Because of the chemical specificity and subsecond signaling of the nervous system, these technologies should be able to release specific neurotransmitters at specific locations with millisecond resolution. We have previously demonstrated an organic electronic lateral electrophoresis technology capable of precise delivery of charged compounds, such as neurotransmitters. However, this technology, the organic electronic ion pump, has been limited to a single delivery point, or several simultaneously addressed outlets, with switch-on speeds of seconds. We report on a vertical neurotransmitter delivery device, configured as an array with individually controlled delivery points and a temporal resolution of 50 ms. This is achieved by supplementing lateral electrophoresis with a control electrode and an ion diode at each delivery point to allow addressing and limit leakage. By delivering local pulses of neurotransmitters with spatiotemporal dynamics approaching synaptic function, the high-speed delivery array promises unprecedented access to neural signaling and a path toward biochemically regulated neural prostheses.
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6.
  • Matar, Amal (författare)
  • Considering a Baby? Responsible Screening for the Future : Ethical and social implications for implementation and use of preconception expanded carrier screening in Sweden
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Preconception expanded carrier screening is a novel technology that involves the offer of a screening test for many recessive diseases (via an expanded screening panel) to prospective parents, with no priori risk. Test positive couples have a number of reproductive choices; prenatal diagnosis and aborting affected fetus, IVF and preimplantation genetic diagnosis, sperm or ovum donation or simply accept the risk. The test had been piloted in studies and can potentially be implemented in Europe. Therefore, it seemed pertinent to evaluate stakeholders’ perspectives on ethical and social implications of implementing and using preconception ECS in Sweden.Two main stakeholders were examined; healthcare professionals and health policymaking experts, via a mix of qualitative methods for data collection and data analysis. In Study I, we employed in-depth interviews to collect data and content analysis to analyze it. In Studies III and IV, expert interviews were used to gather data while thematic analysis was utilized to interpret it. Furthermore, in Study II, an ethical concept namely; reproductive autonomy, was critically discussed within a setting that expects a couple to make a conjoint reproductive decision about preconception ECS, while each partner still upholds his or her individual autonomy.The main findings of the empirical studies (Studies I, III and IV) echo to a great extent the prevailing ethical and social debates associated with the novel technology. Respondents expressed concerns with reproductive autonomy, medicalization, prioritization of health resources, discrimination and long term societal changes. Furthermore, respondents emphasized the importance to observe Swedish values, such as human dignity, equality and solidarity, when assessing a preconception ECS program. In addition, they described practicalities of implementation and political considerations that are pertinent to the Swedish context. Finally, some respondents recognized the advantages of reduced suffering and decrease in fetal anomalies and abortion as a consequence of preconception ECS.Study II, proposed a notion of couple autonomy, where certain demands if met, a couple’s reproductive decision can be accepted by healthcare staff as autonomous.The findings, in this thesis, steer towards non implementation of preconception ECS in its current status within the publicly-funded healthcare system in Sweden. This is because healthcare providers and experts were of the opinion that it would not solve a medical need, threaten Swedish values and use up resources extensively.
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7.
  • Matthiesen, Isabelle, et al. (författare)
  • Continuous Monitoring Reveals Protective Effects of N‐Acetylcysteine Amide on an Isogenic Microphysiological Model of the Neurovascular Unit
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Small. - 1613-6810 .- 1613-6829. ; 17:32, s. 2101785-2101785
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Microphysiological systems mimic the in vivo cellular ensemble and microenvironment with the goal of providing more human-like models for biopharmaceutical research. In this study, the first such model of the blood-brain barrier (BBB-on-chip) featuring both isogenic human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived cells and continuous barrier integrity monitoring with <2 min temporal resolution is reported. Its capabilities are showcased in the first microphysiological study of nitrosative stress and antioxidant prophylaxis. Relying on off-stoichiometry thiol–ene–epoxy (OSTE+) for fabrication greatly facilitates assembly and sensor integration compared to the prevalent polydimethylsiloxane devices. The integrated cell–substrate endothelial resistance monitoring allows for capturing the formation and breakdown of the BBB model, which consists of cocultured hiPSC-derived endothelial-like and astrocyte-like cells. Clear cellular disruption is observed when exposing the BBB-on-chip to the nitrosative stressor linsidomine, and the barrier permeability and barrier-protective effects of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine amide are reported. Using metabolomic network analysis reveals further drug-induced changes consistent with prior literature regarding, e.g., cysteine and glutathione involvement. A model like this opens new possibilities for drug screening studies and personalized medicine, relying solely on isogenic human-derived cells and providing high-resolution temporal readouts that can help in pharmacodynamic studies.
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8.
  • Memedi, Mevludin, et al. (författare)
  • Validity and Responsiveness of At-Home Touch Screen Assessments in Advanced Parkinson's Disease
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics. - : IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.. - 2168-2194 .- 2168-2208. ; 19:6, s. 1829-1834
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to investigate if a telemetry test battery can be used to measure effects of Parkinson's disease (PD) treatment intervention and disease progression in patients with fluctuations. Sixty-five patients diagnosed with advanced PD were recruited in an open longitudinal 36-month study; 35 treated with levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) and 30 were candidates for switching from oral PD treatment to LCIG. They utilized a test battery, consisting of self-assessments of symptoms and fine motor tests (tapping and spiral drawings), four times per day in their homes during week-long test periods. The repeated measurements were summarized into an overall test score (OTS) to represent the global condition of the patient during a test period. Clinical assessments included ratings on unified PD rating scale (UPDRS) and 39-item PD questionnaire (PDQ-39) scales. In LCIG-naive patients, the mean OTS compared to baseline was significantly improved from the first test period on LCIG treatment until month 24. In LCIG-non naive patients, there were no significant changes in the mean OTS until month 36. The OTS correlated adequately with total UPDRS (rho = 0.59) and total PDQ-39 (0.59). Responsiveness measured as effect size was 0.696 and 0.536 for OTS and UPDRS, respectively. The trends of the test scores were similar to the trends of clinical rating scores but the dropout rate was high. Correlations betweenOTS and clinical rating scales were adequate indicating that the test battery contains important elements of the information of well-established scales. The responsiveness and reproducibility were better for OTS than for total UPDRS.
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9.
  • Nowak, Christoph, et al. (författare)
  • Metabolite profiles during an oral glucose tolerance test reveal new associations with clamp-measured insulin sensitivity
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Impaired insulin sensitivity (IS) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Metabolomic profiling during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) can reveal early pathogenic alterations in healthy individuals. Our aim was to identify IS biomarkers and gain new pathophysiologic insights by applying untargeted metabolomics to repeated OGTT plasma samples in association with a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp assessment. We studied 192 metabolites identified by non-targeted liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry in plasma samples taken at 0, 30, and 120 min during an OGTT in 470 non-diabetic 71-yr-old men. Insulin sensitivity was associated with 35 metabolites at one or more time points in multivariable-adjusted linear regression. The trajectories of nine metabolites during the OGTT were related to IS, six of which (oleic and palmitoleic acid, decanoyl- and dodecanoylcarnitine, deoxycholate-glycine and hexose) showed no associations with IS in the baseline fasting state. The strongest effects were detected for medium-chain acylcarnitines, which increased between 30-120 min in insulin-resistant individuals compared to those with normal IS. In this large community sample, we identified novel associations between clamp-measured IS and metabolite profiles that became apparent only after an oral glucose challenge. Associations of differential medium-chain acylcarnitine and monounsaturated fatty acid trajectories with IS provide new insights into the pathogenesis of insulin resistance.
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10.
  • Munthe, Christian, 1962 (författare)
  • Will IVF ever be the norm?
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Future of IVF - A Brave New World? ESHRE symposium, September 26-27, Stockholm.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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