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1.
  • Munthe, Christian, 1962- (författare)
  • Etiska aspekter på regenerativ medicin Ethical aspects on regenerative medicine
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: SNIB-konferensen 2003, Chalmers tekniska högskola, Göteborg, 16-18 maj 2003.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Inom den regenerativa medicinen strävar man efter att ersätta skadat eller sjukligt biologiskt mänskligt material (celler, organ, kroppsdelar) med nya biologiska komponenter. Området aktualiserar en rad etiska frågeställningar vad gäller (1) produktionen av ersättningsmaterialet (t.ex. embryonala stamceller eller införskaffande av transplantationsvävnad från donatorer), (2) risker i samband med försök på människa (genmodifierat material, material från djur), samt (3) gränserna för hur långt man bör gå i denna slags försök att förlänga människans livsspann. Föredraget ger en kort översikt över dessa frågeställningar, ståndpunkter och argument i debatten kring dem.
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2.
  • Munthe, Christian, 1962-, et al. (författare)
  • The Return of Lombroso? Ethical Aspects of (Visions of) Preventive Forensic Screening
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Public Health Ethics. - 1754-9973 .- 1754-9981. ; 8:3, s. 270-283
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The vision of legendary criminologist Cesare Lombroso to use scientific theories of individual causes of crime as a basis for screening and prevention programmes targeting individuals at risk for future criminal behaviour has resurfaced, following advances in genetics, neuroscience and psychiatric epidemiology. This article analyses this idea and maps its ethical implications from a public health ethical standpoint. Twenty-seven variants of the new Lombrosian vision of forensic screening and prevention are distinguished, and some scientific and technical limitations are noted. Some lures, biases and structural factors, making the application of the Lombrosian idea likely in spite of weak evidence are pointed out and noted as a specific type of ethical aspect. Many classic and complex ethical challenges for health screening programmes are shown to apply to the identified variants and the choice between them, albeit with peculiar and often provoking variations. These variations are shown to actualize an underlying theoretical conundrum in need of further study, pertaining to the relationship between public health ethics and the ethics and values of criminal law policy.
3.
  • Michelgård Palmquist, Åsa, 1973- (författare)
  • Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Studies in Anxiety Disorders
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Anxiety disorders are very common and the primary feature is abnormal or inappropriate anxiety. Fear and anxiety is often mediated by the amygdala, a brain structure rich in substance P (SP) and neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptors. To learn more about how the human amygdala is modulated by fear and anxiety in event-triggered anxiety disorders and to investigate if the SP/NK1 receptor system is affected, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) ([15O]-water; Study I and II) and the SP/NK1 receptor system ([11C]GR205171; Study III and IV) were studied with positron emission tomography (PET). In Study I we investigated the neural correlates of affective startle modulation in persons with specific phobia by measuring rCBF during exposure to fearful and non-fearful pictures, paired and unpaired with acoustic startle stimuli. Fear-potentiated startle was associated with activation of the affective part of the anterior cingulate cortex and the left amygdaloid–hippocampal area. In Study II short-term drug treatment effects on rCBF in patients diagnosed with social phobia was evaluated, comparing the NK1 receptor antagonist GR205171 to the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram and placebo. Social anxiety and neural activity in the medial temporal lobe including the amygdala was significantly reduced by both drugs but not placebo. In Study III we investigated if activity in the SP/NK1 receptor system in the amygdala would be affected by fear provocation in individuals with specific snake or spider phobia. Fear provocation was associated with a decreased uptake of the NK1 antagonist [11C]GR205171 in the amygdala, possibly explained by an increase in endogenous SP release occupying the NK1 receptors. Study IV was conducted to explore the resting state NK1 receptor availability in PTSD patients as compared to healthy controls. Increased resting state binding of the tracer [11C]GR205171 in the amygdala of patients with PTSD suggested an increased amount of available receptors. In summary, fear and fear-potentiated startle modulates the human amygdala, possibly through the SP/NK1 receptor system.
4.
  • Trägårdh, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • Risk Profiles of Female Perpetrators of Severe Violence
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: 13th Nordic Symposium on Forensic Psychiatry. August 20-22, 2019, Gothenburg.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Female offenders without a severe mental disorder show more criminogenic factors than those with. Both groups are characterized by mental health problems. We need to further characterize female offenders. Background Offenders of lethal/severe violence are in a majority of cases male, about 90% (Falk et al., 2014), and research has to a considerable extent focused on male violent offenders. Although less is known about female violent offenders than male offenders, previous research has indicated significant differences between male and female offenders of lethal/severe violence (Trägårdh et al., 2016; Yourstone et al., 2008). Since a majority of female perpetrators of lethal violence undergo a forensic psychiatric investigation (RPU/FPI), these documents contains important information about this group. Purpose The aim of this ongoing study is to characterize female perpetrators of severe violent crimes, and to compare female perpetrators sentenced to forensic psychiatric compulsory care with those sentenced to correctional treatment. Method This is an exploratory and descriptive study with a cross-sectional design. All forensic evaluations (FPI) made in Sweden between 2000-2014 (from The National Board of Forensic Medicine/RMV), and the subsequent court verdicts, in cases where women had used lethal/severe violence (n≈180) where used as the basis for data collection in this study. The present preliminary analyses (2-tests and ANOVA) contains approx. 26% (n=47) of the total group. Group differences were investigated regarding: Mental health (FPI) Risk factors (HCR-20 and PCL-R) Victim relation (FPI) Criminal behavior (FPI) Results Female offenders with and without a Severe mental disorder (SMD) seems to differ in some respects. For female offenders with a SMD, the crime was more likely to have been conducted in a less criminal context (see Table). For female offenders without a SMD, the following characteristics were more frequently present: Victim gender – male Substance abuse + Under the influence of substance (offender and victim) Previous violence between victim and offender Previous registered criminality Also, several common features between the SMD and non-SMD group of female offenders were found. The majority of all female offenders had: Previous psychiatric contact and diagnoses Previously attempted suicide No previously registered criminality Conclusions Preliminary results of the female perpetrators who had underwent a FPI seems to identify both substantial differences and similarities between those with versus without a SMD, where those without show more criminogenic factors. Both groups were also characterized by a high amount of mental illness. Also, these results supports previous research that female and male offenders of severe violence differ in important ways. Since a majority of female perpetrators of lethal violence undergo a forensic psychiatric investigation, these results should be generalizable to this group as a whole in Sweden. Based on these results, a great need to further characterize female offenders of severe/lethal violence remain.
5.
  • Lind, Marcus, et al. (författare)
  • Thrombomodulin as a marker for bleeding complications during warfarin treatment
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Archives of Internal Medicine. - 0003-9926. ; 169:13, s. 1210-1215
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The major adverse effect of warfarin treatment is hemorrhage. Several risk factors for bleeding complications are also risk factors for thromboembolic events, making the clinical decision to initiate or withhold anticoagulant treatment difficult. Specific markers that solely identify patients at high risk of bleeding would have great clinical impact. This study aimed to test if thrombomodulin (TM) concentrations were associated with bleeding complications, cardiovascular events, or mortality in long-term anticoagulant-treated patients. METHODS: In a longitudinal cohort study we followed up 719 patients receiving warfarin treatment for a mean duration of 4.2 years. All bleeding complications causing hospitalization were registered and classified. Soluble TM antigen (sTM) concentration in plasma was measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. RESULTS: During the follow-up time, 113 clinically relevant bleeding events and 73 major bleeding events occurred. Increased concentration of sTM was associated with both clinically relevant bleeding and major bleeding events after adjustment for age. In the multivariable models, hazard ratios for the highest tertiles compared with the lowest were 2.29 (95% confidence interval, 1.35-3.89) and 2.33 (95% confidence interval, 1.21-4.48), respectively. No association between sTM concentration and nonfatal ischemic cardiovascular events or all-cause mortality was found. CONCLUSIONS: Increased levels of sTM are associated with bleeding complications during warfarin treatment but not with cardiovascular events or all-cause mortality. Soluble TM antigen concentration has potential as a new specific marker to identify patients at high risk of bleeding during warfarin treatment.
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6.
  • Saulo, Eleonor C., et al. (författare)
  • Willingness and ability to pay for artemisinin-based combination therapy in rural Tanzania
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Malaria Journal. - London : BioMed Central. - 1475-2875. ; 7, s. 227
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to analyse willingness to pay (WTP) and ability to pay (ATP) for ACT for children below five years of age in a rural setting in Tanzania before the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) as first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria. Socio-economic factors associated with WTP and expectations on anti-malaria drugs, including ACT, were also explored. Methods Structured interviews and focus group discussions were held with mothers, household heads, health-care workers and village leaders in Ishozi, Gera and Ishunju wards in north-west Tanzania in 2004. Contingent valuation method (CVM) was used with "take-it-or-leave-it" as the eliciting method, expressed as WTP for a full course of ACT for a child and households' opportunity cost of ACT was used to assess ATP. The study included descriptive analyses with multivariate adjustment for potential confounding factors. Results Among 265 mothers and household heads, 244 (92%, CI = 88%–95%) were willing to pay Tanzanian Shillings (TSh) 500 (US$ 0.46) for a child's dose of ACT, but only 55% (49%–61%) were willing to pay more than TSh 500. Mothers were more often willing to pay than male household heads (adjusted odds ratio = 2.1, CI = 1.2–3.6). Socio-economic status had no significant effect on WTP. The median annual non-subsidized ACT cost for clinical malaria episodes in an average household was calculated as US$ 6.0, which would represent 0.9% of the average total consumption expenditures as estimated from official data in 2001. The cost of non-subsidized ACT represented 7.0% of reported total annual expenditure on food and 33.0% of total annual expenditure on health care. "Rapid effect," "no adverse effect" and "inexpensive" were the most desired features of an anti-malarial drug. Conclusion WTP for ACT in this study was less than its real cost and a subsidy is, therefore, needed to enable its equitable affordability. The decision taken in Tanzania to subsidize Coartem® fully at governmental health care facilities and at a consumer price of TSh 300–500 (US$ 0.28–0.46) at special designated shops through the programme of Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets (ADDOs) appears to be well founded.
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7.
  • Molinaro, Angela, et al. (författare)
  • Insulin-Driven PI3K-AKT Signaling in the Hepatocyte Is Mediated by Redundant PI3Kα and PI3Kβ Activities and Is Promoted by RAS.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Cell Metabolism. - 1550-4131 .- 1932-7420. ; 29:6, s. 1400-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) activity is aberrant in tumors, and PI3K inhibitors are investigated as cancer therapeutics. PI3K signaling mediates insulin action in metabolism, but the role of PI3K isoforms in insulin signaling remains unresolved. Defining the role of PI3K isoforms in insulin signaling is necessary for a mechanistic understanding of insulin action and to develop PI3K inhibitors with optimal therapeutic index. We show that insulin-driven PI3K-AKT signaling depends on redundant PI3Kα and PI3Kβ activities, whereas PI3Kδ and PI3Kγ are largely dispensable. We have also found that RAS activity promotes AKT phosphorylation in insulin-stimulated hepatocytes and that promotion of insulin-driven AKT phosphorylation by RAS depends on PI3Kα. These findings reveal the detailed mechanism by which insulin activates AKT, providing an improved mechanistic understanding of insulin signaling. This improved model for insulin signaling predicts that isoform-selective PI3K inhibitors discriminating between PI3Kα and PI3Kβ should be dosed below their hyperglycemic threshold to achieve isoform selectivity.
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8.
  • Bin Kaderi, Mohamed Arifin, 1978- (författare)
  • Assessment of Novel Molecular Prognostic Markers in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The clinical course of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is highly heterogeneous, which has prompted the search for biomarkers that can predict prognosis in this disease. The IGHV gene mutation status and certain genomic aberrations have been identified as reliable prognostic markers of clinical outcome for this disorder. However, the search for more feasible prognostic markers in CLL is still being pursued. Recently, certain single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the GNAS1, BCL2 and MDM2 genes and the RNA expression levels of the LPL, ZAP70, TCL1, CLLU1 and MCL1 genes were suggested as novel prognostic markers in CLL. In papers I-III, we performed genotyping analyses of the GNAS1 T393C, BCL2 -938C>A and MDM2 SNP309 polymorphisms in 268-418 CLL patients and related the genotypes with clinical data. Association studies between the polymorphisms and established prognostic markers (i.e. IGHV mutation status, genomic aberrations, CD38 expression) were also performed. Our studies did not find any significant relationship between these SNPs with either clinical outcome or other known prognostic markers in CLL. In paper IV, we measured the RNA expression levels of LPL, ZAP70, TCL1, CLLU1 and MCL1 in 252 CLL cases and correlated these levels with clinical outcome. Here, we verified that high expression of all these RNA-based markers, except MCL1, were associated with an unfavourable prognosis. We also confirmed a close relationship between IGHV mutation status and the RNA-based markers, especially for LPL and CLLU1 expression. Among the RNA-based markers, multivariate analysis revealed LPL expression as the strongest independent prognostic marker for overall survival and time to treatment. Furthermore, the RNA-based markers could add further prognostic information to established markers in subgroups of patients, with LPL expression status giving the most significant results. In summary, data from papers I-III could not verify the GNAS1 T393C, BCL2 -938C>A and MDM2 SNP309 polymorphisms as prognostic markers in CLL. Future SNP markers must hence be confirmed in large, independent cohorts before being proposed as prognostic marker in CLL. In paper IV, we conclude that LPL expression appears to be the strongest among the RNA-based markers for CLL prognostication. Further efforts to standardize LPL quantification are required before it can be applied in the clinical laboratory to predict clinical outcome in this disease.
9.
  • Gerlee, Philip, 1980-, et al. (författare)
  • Scientific Models Red Atoms, White Lies and Black Boxes in a Yellow Book
  • 2016
  • Bok (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • A zebrafish, the hull of a miniature ship, a mathematical equation and a food chain - what do these things have in common? They are examples of models used by scientists to isolate and study particular aspects of the world around us. This book begins by introducing the concept of a scientific model from an intuitive perspective, drawing parallels to mental models and artistic representations. It then recounts the history of modelling from the 16th century up until the present day. The iterative process of model building is described and discussed in the context of complex models with high predictive accuracy versus simpler models that provide more of a conceptual understanding. To illustrate the diversity of opinions within the scientific community, we also present the results of an interview study, in which ten scientists from different disciplines describe their views on modelling and how models feature in their work. Lastly, it includes a number of worked examples that span different modelling approaches and techniques. It provides a comprehensive introduction to scientific models and shows how models are constructed and used in modern science. It also addresses the approach to, and the culture surrounding modelling in different scientific disciplines. It serves as an inspiration for model building and also facilitates interdisciplinary collaborations by showing how models are used in different scientific fields.The book is aimed primarily at students in the sciences and engineering, as well as students at teacher training colleges but will also appeal to interested readers wanting to get an overview of scientific modelling in general and different modelling approaches in particular.
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10.
  • Magnusson, Marie, et al. (författare)
  • A placebo-controlled study of retinal blood flow changes by pentoxifylline and metabolites in humans.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 1365-2125. ; 61:2, s. 138-147
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIM: To investigate the possible effects of pentoxifylline metabolites on retinal blood flow in humans. METHODS: A randomized, placebo-controlled, four-period cross-over study that was observer blinded and partly blinded for the eight participants. On one occasion a placebo was given as an intravenous (i.v.) infusion over 100 min. On the other three occasions pentoxifylline was administered as i.v. infusions over 100 min at a rate of 3 mg min(-1). Before two of the pentoxifylline infusions the subjects were pretreated with either ciprofloxacin or rifampicin. Retinal blood flow was measured by scanning laser doppler flowmetry (SLDF) in a selected area of the central temporal retina before, during and until 5 h after the end of infusion. Blood samples for concentration analyses of pentoxifyllin, R-M1, S-M1, M4 and M5 were taken serially and areas under the curves (AUCs) were calculated. Linear mixed models were used for the statistical analyses. RESULTS: Mean AUCs (ng h ml(-1)) were significantly increased for pentoxifylline (1964 vs. 1453) and S-M1 (5804 vs. 4227), but not R-M1 when pentoxifylline was co-administered with ciprofloxacin. The mean AUC for M5 was significantly reduced when subjects were pretreated with rifampicin (2041 vs. 3080). Pentoxifylline with and without pretreatment with rifampicin significantly increased retinal blood flow assessed as mean flow, pulsation (i.e. 1-systole/diastole), and diastolic flow (but not during systole), compared with placebo. The increases over placebo were more pronounced on diastolic flow, 9.7% (95% confidence interval 4.2, 15.5) than on mean flow, 4.6% (1.1, 8.3) after pentoxifylline administration. With pentoxifylline after rifampicin pretreatment the corresponding differences were 11.7% (5.8, 17.9) and 5.1% (1.4, 7.8) over placebo, respectively. After co-administration of pentoxifylline and ciprofloxacin we saw only a nonsignificant trend towards increased flow during diastole, but a significant decrease in pulsation. When AUCs for pentoxifylline and its metabolites were used as regressor variables to retinal mean flow we found that pentoxifylline, R-M1 and M5 had coefficients with a positive sign indicating that they enhanced the retinal blood flow. In contrast, S-M1 and M4 had coefficients with negative sign and thus appeared to decrease the blood flow in subjects treated with pentoxifylline. CONCLUSION: The R-M1 and M5 metabolites of pentoxifylline contributed significantly to the effects of pentoxifylline on retinal blood flow.
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