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Sökning: AMNE:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP Medicinska grundvetenskaper Fysiologi)

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  • Michelgård Palmquist, Åsa, 1973- (författare)
  • Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Studies in Anxiety Disorders
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Anxiety disorders are very common and the primary feature is abnormal or inappropriate anxiety. Fear and anxiety is often mediated by the amygdala, a brain structure rich in substance P (SP) and neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptors.</p> <p>To learn more about how the human amygdala is modulated by fear and anxiety in event-triggered anxiety disorders and to investigate if the SP/NK1 receptor system is affected, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) ([<sup>15</sup>O]-water; Study I and II) and the SP/NK1 receptor system ([<sup>11</sup>C]GR205171; Study III and IV) were studied with positron emission tomography (PET).</p> <p>In <strong>Study I</strong> we investigated the neural correlates of affective startle modulation in persons with specific phobia by measuring rCBF during exposure to fearful and non-fearful pictures, paired and unpaired with acoustic startle stimuli. Fear-potentiated startle was associated with activation of the affective part of the anterior cingulate cortex and the left amygdaloid–hippocampal area.</p> <p>In <strong>Study II</strong> short-term drug treatment effects on rCBF in patients diagnosed with social phobia was evaluated, comparing the NK1 receptor antagonist GR205171 to the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram and placebo. Social anxiety and neural activity in the medial temporal lobe including the amygdala was significantly reduced by both drugs but not placebo.</p> <p>In <strong>Study III</strong> we investigated if activity in the SP/NK1 receptor system in the amygdala would be affected by fear provocation in individuals with specific snake or spider phobia. Fear provocation was associated with a decreased uptake of the NK1 antagonist [<sup>11</sup>C]GR205171 in the amygdala, possibly explained by an increase in endogenous SP release occupying the NK1 receptors.</p> <p><strong>Study IV</strong> was conducted to explore the resting state NK1 receptor availability in PTSD patients as compared to healthy controls. Increased resting state binding of the tracer [<sup>11</sup>C]GR205171 in the amygdala of patients with PTSD suggested an increased amount of available receptors.</p> <p>In summary, fear and fear-potentiated startle modulates the human amygdala, possibly through the SP/NK1 receptor system.</p>
  • Ruiz, Jonatan R., et al. (författare)
  • Homocysteine levels in children and adolescents are associated with the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677C&gt;T genotype, but not with physical activity, fitness or fatness : the European Youth Heart Study
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Nutrition. - Cambridge : Cambridge university press. - 0007-1145 .- 1475-2662. ; 97:2, s. 255-262
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>To examine the associations of total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) with physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and fatness in children and adolescents, a cross-sectional study of 301 children (9–10 years old) and 379 adolescents (15–16 years old) was conducted. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured with a maximal ergometer bike test. Body fat was derived from the sum of five skinfold thicknesses. Genotyping for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C&gt;T polymorphism was done by DNA sequencing. Fasting tHcy level was the outcome variable. Multiple regressions were used to determine the degree to which variance in tHcy was explained by physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and body fat, after controlling for potential confounders including MTHFR 677C&gt;T genotype. tHcy levels were neither associated with any measure of level and pattern of physical activity nor with data on cardiorespiratory fitness, or body fat, in any age group after controlling for potential confounders including MTHFR 677C&gt;T and even when subgroups 677TT and 677CC+CT were analysed separately. Mean values of tHcy were significantly higher in the TT subgroup compared with CC and CT subgroups in children (TT 7·4 μmol/l, CC 6·3 μmol/l, CT 6·6 μmol/l, <em>P</em> &lt; 0·001 and <em>P</em> = 0·019, respectively) and adolescents (TT 16·9 μmol/l, CC 8·3 μmol/l, CT 9·0 μmol/l, both <em>P</em> &lt; 0·001). The results suggest that physical activity, fitness and body fat are not associated with tHcy levels in children and adolescents, even after controlling for presence of the MTHFR 677C&gt;T genotype, the main influence on tHcy levels in these subjects.</p>
  • Eliason, Gabriella, 1975-, et al. (författare)
  • Alterations in the muscle-to-capillary interface in patients with different degrees of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Respiratory research (Online). - London, United Kingdom : BioMed Central. - 1465-9921 .- 1465-993X. ; 11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>Background:</strong> It is hypothesized that decreased capillarization of limb skeletal muscle is implicated in the decreased exercise tolerance in COPD patients. We have recently demonstrated decreased number of capillaries per muscle fibre (CAF) but no changes in CAF in relation to fibre area (CAFA), which is based on the diffusion distance between the capillary and muscle fibre. The aim of the current study is to investigate the muscle-to-capillary interface which is an important factor involved in oxygen supply to the muscle that has previously been suggested to be a more sensitive marker for changes in the capillary bed compared to CAF and CAFA.</p><p><strong>Methods</strong><em>: </em>23 COPD patients and 12 age-matched healthy subjects participated in the study. Muscle-to-capillary interface was assessed in muscle biopsies from the tibialis anterior muscle using the following parameters:</p><p>1) The capillary-to-fibre ratio (C:F<sub>i</sub>) which is defined as the sum of the fractional contributions of all capillary contacts around the fibre</p><p>2) The ratio between C:F<sub>i</sub> and the fibre perimeter (CFPE-index)</p><p>3) The ratio between length of capillary and fibre perimeter (LC/PF) which is also referred to as the index of tortuosity.</p><p>Exercise capacity was determined using the 6-min walking test.<strong><em> </em></strong></p><p><strong>Results: </strong>A positive correlation was found between CFPE-index and ascending disease severity with CFPE-index for type I fibres being significantly lower in patients with moderate and severe COPD. Furthermore<em>, </em>a positive correlation was observed between exercise capacity and CFPE-index for both type I and type IIa fibres.</p><p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>It can be concluded that the muscle-to-capillary interface is disturbed in the tibialis anterior muscle in patients with COPD and that interface is strongly correlated to increased disease severity and to decreased exercise capacity in this patient group.</p><p> </p>
  • Eliason, Gabriella, et al. (författare)
  • Physical activity patterns in patients with different degrees of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  • ????
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p><strong>Purpose</strong>: It has previously been suggested that exercise capacity is decreased in COPD patients and that it is associated with degree of disease. The reduced exercise capacity may plausibly be due to low levels of physical activity in this patient group. In the present study we aimed to assess exercise capacity and physical activity in different stages of COPD and to examine the associations between exercise capacity, pulmonary function and degree of physical activity.</p><p><strong>Methods: </strong>44 COPD patients and 17 healthy subjects participated in the study. Exercise capacity was assessed using the 6 minute walking test and physical activity was assessed using a uniaxial accelerometer worn all waking hours during seven days.<strong></strong></p><p><strong>Results: </strong>Mean exercise capacity was significantly lower in COPD patients compared to healthy subjects. Mean physical activity level and time spent at least moderately active were significantly lower in patients with moderate and severe COPD compared to healthy subjects while no differences in time spent sedentary were observed between the study groups. Pulmonary function, mean physical activity level and time spent at least moderately physically active were significantly associated with exercise capacity in the patients.<strong></strong></p><p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>Patients<strong> </strong>with moderate and severe COPD are significantly less physically active compared to healthy subjects. Furthermore, mean physical activity level as well as physical activity of at least moderate intensity are positively associated with exercise capacity in COPD patients while time spent sedentary is not which stresses an important role of physical activity on exercise capacity in this patient group. </p>
  • Norrman, Eva, et al. (författare)
  • Optimization of image process parameters through factorial experiments using a flat panel detector
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Physics in Medicine and Biology. - Bristol : IOP publishing. - 0031-9155 .- 1361-6560. ; 52:17, s. 5263-5276
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>In the optimization process of lumbar spine examinations, factorial experiments were performed addressing the question of whether the effective dose can be reduced and the image quality maintained by adjusting the image processing parameters. A 2(k)-factorial design was used which is a systematic and effective method of investigating the influence of many parameters on a result variable. Radiographic images of a Contrast Detail phantom were exposed using the default settings of the process parameters for lumbar spine examinations. The image was processed using different settings of the process parameters. The parameters studied were ROI density, gamma, detail contrast enhancement (DCE), noise compensation, unsharp masking and unsharp masking kernel (UMK). The images were computer analysed and an image quality figure (IQF) was calculated and used as a measurement of the image quality. The parameters with the largest influence on image quality were noise compensation, unsharp masking, unsharp masking kernel and detail contrast enhancement. There was an interaction between unsharp masking and kernel indicating that increasing the unsharp masking improved the image quality when combined with a large kernel size. Combined with a small kernel size however the unsharp masking had a deteriorating effect. Performing a factorial experiment gave an overview of how the image quality was influenced by image processing. By adjusting the level of noise compensation, unsharp masking and kernel, the IQF was improved to a 30% lower effective dose.</p>
  • Andersson, Ingemar, 1950- (författare)
  • Rehabilitering vid långvarig smärta
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Smärta och smärtbehandling. - 2. - Stockholm : Liber. - 9789147084135 ; s. 401-409
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Eliason, Gabriella, et al. (författare)
  • Physical performance and muscular characteristics in different stages of COPD
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports. - Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Inc.. - 0905-7188 .- 1600-0838. ; 19:6, s. 865-870
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>This study has examined exercise capacity and muscle morphology in patients with different severities of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Twenty-three patients and 12 healthy matched controls were recruited. Based on the severity of airflow obstruction, patients were divided into two subgroups. Exercise capacity was determined using a 6-min walk test. Muscle fiber composition, fiber area and number of satellite cells/muscle fiber were determined in muscle biopsies using immunohistochemistry. A progressive decline in exercise capacity was noted with ascending disease severity. Furthermore, a correlation between reduction in exercise capacity and changes in muscle fiber composition was observed in COPD. The group with severe and very severe COPD had a lower proportion of type I and a higher proportion of type IIa fibers compared with the other groups. In severe and very severe COPD, a reduction in fiber area of type IIa fibers was also seen. The number of satellite cells/muscle fiber did not differ between the groups. In conclusion, a decline in exercise capacity occurs already in mild and moderate COPD, indicating that the 6-min walk test is a reliable indicator of disease severity. Furthermore, changes in skeletal muscle morphology are associated with disease severity while muscle regenerative capacity is not altered.</p>
  • Andersson, Christin, et al. (författare)
  • Increasing CSF phospho-tau levels during cognitive decline and progression to dementia
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Neurobiology of Aging. - 0197-4580 .- 1558-1497. ; 29:10, s. 1466-1473
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>BACKGROUND: Little is known about longitudinal changes of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers during cognitive decline in neurodegenerative disease progression.</p> <p>OBJECTIVE: To investigate longitudinal changes in CSF biomarkers--total-tau (T-tau), phospho-tau (P-tau) and beta-amyloid (Abeta42)--during cognitive decline.</p> <p>METHODS: Forty memory clinic patients (47.5% females), aged 61.3+/-7.6 (S.D.) years, non-demented at baseline, underwent lumbar puncture and neuropsychological testing at two occasions. Baseline mean MMSE-score was 28.3+/-1.8. Patients were divided into three groups based on baseline memory functioning; severely impaired (SIM), moderately impaired (MIM) and no impairment (NIM).</p> <p>RESULTS: There was a significant increase in P-tau in the SIM-group during follow-up, while P-tau in MIM and NIM did not change. Eighty-three percent of the SIM-patients converted to dementia (80% AD), while most MIM- and NIM-patients remained non-demented. T-tau- and Abeta42-levels did not change in any of the memory groups during follow-up.</p> <p>CONCLUSION: Increasing P-tau levels during cognitive decline and conversion to dementia suggest that P-tau may be useful as a longitudinal marker of the neurodegenerative process.</p>
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