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Träfflista för sökning "AMNE:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP Medicinska grundvetenskaper Läkemedelskemi) "

Sökning: AMNE:(MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP Medicinska grundvetenskaper Läkemedelskemi)

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  • Molinaro, Angela, et al. (författare)
  • Insulin-Driven PI3K-AKT Signaling in the Hepatocyte Is Mediated by Redundant PI3Kα and PI3Kβ Activities and Is Promoted by RAS.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Cell Metabolism. - 1550-4131 .- 1932-7420. ; 29:6, s. 1400-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) activity is aberrant in tumors, and PI3K inhibitors are investigated as cancer therapeutics. PI3K signaling mediates insulin action in metabolism, but the role of PI3K isoforms in insulin signaling remains unresolved. Defining the role of PI3K isoforms in insulin signaling is necessary for a mechanistic understanding of insulin action and to develop PI3K inhibitors with optimal therapeutic index. We show that insulin-driven PI3K-AKT signaling depends on redundant PI3Kα and PI3Kβ activities, whereas PI3Kδ and PI3Kγ are largely dispensable. We have also found that RAS activity promotes AKT phosphorylation in insulin-stimulated hepatocytes and that promotion of insulin-driven AKT phosphorylation by RAS depends on PI3Kα. These findings reveal the detailed mechanism by which insulin activates AKT, providing an improved mechanistic understanding of insulin signaling. This improved model for insulin signaling predicts that isoform-selective PI3K inhibitors discriminating between PI3Kα and PI3Kβ should be dosed below their hyperglycemic threshold to achieve isoform selectivity.
  • Greiff, Lennart, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of topical platelet activating factor on the guinea-pig tracheobronchial mucosa in vivo
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 0001-6772. ; 160:4, s. 387-391
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Platelet activating factor (PAF) has been reported to produce a variety of airway effects including epithelial damage and increased airway-lung absorption of hydrophilic tracers. The present study examines effects of PAF on the guinea-pig tracheobronchial mucosa in vivo. Vehicle with and without PAF (4.0 and 8.0 nmol) was superfused onto the tracheobronchial mucosa. The levels of 125I-albumin, previously given intravenously, were determined in tracheobronchial lavage fluids as an index of mucosal exudation of plasma. The mucosa was also examined by scanning electron microscopy. In separate animals, 99mTc-DTPA (a low molecular weight, 492 Da, hydrophilic tracer) was superfused onto the mucosal surface through an oro-tracheal catheter, together with vehicle or PAF (8.0 nmol). A gamma camera determined the disappearance rate of 99mTc-DTPA from the airways as an index of mucosal absorption. PAF produced dose-dependent mucosal exudation of plasma up to 20-fold greater than control (P < 0.001). However, PAF did not damage the epithelium and the absorption ability of the airway mucosa was unaffected. The results, in contrast to previous reports, suggest that PAF may not readily damage the airway mucosa even at large exudative doses of the agent. The present finding support the view that the plasticity of the epithelial junctions allows the creation of valve-like paracellular pathways for unidirectional clearance of extravasated plasma into the airway lumen. We suggest that endogenous PAF may participate in first line respiratory defence reactions by causing lumenal entry of bulk plasma without harming the epithelium.
  • Mondal, Tanmoy, et al. (författare)
  • Sense-antisense lncRNA pair encoded by locus 6p22.3 determines neuroblastoma susceptibility via the USP36-CHD7-SOX9 regulatory axis
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Cancer Cell. - 1535-6108. ; 33:3, s. 417-434.e7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Trait-associated loci often map to genomic regions encoding long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), but the role of these lncRNAs in disease etiology is largely unexplored. We show that a pair of sense/antisense lncRNA (6p22lncRNAs) encoded by CASC15 and NBAT1 located at the neuroblastoma (NB) risk-associated 6p22.3 locus are tumor suppressors and show reduced expression in high-risk NBs. Loss of functional synergy between 6p22lncRNAs results in an undifferentiated state that is maintained by a gene-regulatory network, including SOX9 located on 17q, a region frequently gained in NB. 6p22lncRNAs regulate SOX9 expression by controlling CHD7 stability via modulating the cellular localization of USP36, encoded by another 17q gene. This regulatory nexus between 6p22.3 and 17q regions may lead to potential NB treatment strategies. Mondal et al. show a sense/antisense lncRNA pair expressed from the neuroblastoma (NB) risk-associated 6p22.3 locus is important for retinoic acid-induced NB differentiation gene-regulatory network by controlling CHD7 stability via modulating the cellular localization of the ubiquitin specific protease USP36.
  • Eriksson, Leif A., 1964-, et al. (författare)
  • Tetrazole derivatives as cytochrome p450 inhibitors
  • 2019
  • Patent (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>According to the invention there is provided a compound of formula I, wherein R<sup>1 </sup>and R<sup>2 </sup>have meanings given in the description, which compounds are useful in the treatment of skin disorders and other diseases.</p>
  • Nilsson, Bengt-Olof, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of polyamine synthesis inhibition on polyamines, growth and mechanical properties in hypertrophic rat urinary bladder
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Pharmacology and Toxicology. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 1600-0773. ; 82:6, s. 287-294
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine, are ubiquitous intracellular metabolites associated with growth and protein synthesis. In this study effects of polyamine synthesis inhibition on bladder growth, polyamine levels and mechanical properties were investigated in rat urinary bladder subjected to partial outflow obstruction that causes bladder hypertrophy. The S-adenosyl methionine decarboxylase inhibitor CGP-48664 (5 and 20 mg kg-1) was administered alone or in combination with the ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor DFMO (500 mg kg-1), starting one day before creation of partial outflow obstruction and then daily for 7 days. The bladder muscle level of putrescine was increased 38 times and that of spermine reduced by 4 times while spermidine was unchanged after treatment with CGP-48664 (20 mg kg-1). The increase in putrescine was abolished in animals receiving CGP-48664 in combination with DFMO. Treatment with polyamine synthesis inhibitors could not prevent or reduce the hypertrophy of the bladder as judged by bladder wet weight and protein contents. The effects on polyamine quantities were not associated with changes in Ca(2+)-force relationship or in agonist and electrically stimulated force. In summary, treatment of rats with polyamine synthesis inhibitors resulted in changes in polyamine levels in the growing urinary bladder but did not affect growth or mechanical properties.
  • Belfrage, Per, et al. (författare)
  • Alterations of lipid metabolism in healthy volunteers during long-term ethanol intake
  • 1977
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Investigation. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 0014-2972. ; 7:2, s. 127-131
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nine young, healthy male volunteers were given ethanol (75 g/day) for 5 weeks. The ethanol was divided into five daily doses and taken so that blood ethanol levels never exceeded 0.04% (w/v). During the latter part of the ethanol intake period, there was a significant, transient increase of plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations followed by reduction to normal levels. A three-fold increase of lipoprotein lipase activity (LLA) occurred in biopsy specimens of adipose tissue. An increase of alpha-lipoprotein concentrations, which correlated significantly with the decrease in plasma TG levels and the increase in adipose LLA, was also observed during the ethanol intake period. No changes were observed in plasma cholesterol and beta-lipoprotein levels. A transient, three-fold increase of TG concentrations occurred in liver biopsy specimens. Ultrastructural and cytochemical examinations of the biopsy specimens showed hyperplasia of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum, and increased canallicular activity of gamma-glutamyl transferase (gamma-GT) activity in most subjects towards the end of and after the ethanol intake period. Serum gamma-GT levels also increased significantly.
  • Persson, Carl, et al. (författare)
  • Unbalanced research
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. - Elsevier. - 0165-6147. ; 22:10, s. 538-541
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
  • Brage, M, et al. (författare)
  • Different cysteine proteinases involved in bone resorption and osteoclast formation.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Calcified tissue international. - 0171-967X. ; 76:6, s. 439-47
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cysteine proteinases, especially cathepsin K, play an important role in osteoclastic degradation of bone matrix proteins and the process can, consequently, be significantly inhibited by cysteine proteinase inhibitors. We have recently reported that cystatin C and other cysteine proteinase inhibitors also reduce osteoclast formation. However, it is not known which cysteine proteinase(s) are involved in osteoclast differentiation. In the present study, we compared the relative potencies of cystatins C and D as inhibitors of bone resorption in cultured mouse calvariae, osteoclastogenesis in mouse bone marrow cultures, and cathepsin K activity. Inhibition of cathepsin K activity was assessed by determining equilibrium constants for inhibitor complexes in fluorogenic substrate assays. The data demonstrate that whereas human cystatins C and D are equipotent as inhibitors of bone resorption, cystatin D is 10-fold less potent as an inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis and 200-fold less potent as an inhibitor of cathepsin K activity. A recombinant human cystatin C variant with Gly substitutions for residues Arg(8), Leu(9), Val(10), and Trp(106) did not inhibit bone resorption, had 1,000-fold decreased inhibitory effect on catbepsin K activity compared to wildtype cystatin C, but was equipotent with wildtype cystatin C as an inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis. It is concluded that (i) different cysteine proteinases are likely to be involved in bone resorption and osteoclast formation, (ii) cathepsin K may not be an exclusive target enzyme in any of the two systems, and (iii) the enzyme(s) involved in osteoclastogenesis might not be a typical papain-like cysteine proteinase.
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