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1.
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2.
  • Gustavsson, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Cost of disorders of the brain in Europe 2010.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: European Neuropsychopharmacology. - Amsterdam : Elsevier. - 0924-977X .- 1873-7862. ; 21:10, s. 718-79
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The spectrum of disorders of the brain is large, covering hundreds of disorders that are listed in either the mental or neurological disorder chapters of the established international diagnostic classification systems. These disorders have a high prevalence as well as short- and long-term impairments and disabilities. Therefore they are an emotional, financial and social burden to the patients, their families and their social network. In a 2005 landmark study, we estimated for the first time the annual cost of 12 major groups of disorders of the brain in Europe and gave a conservative estimate of €386 billion for the year 2004. This estimate was limited in scope and conservative due to the lack of sufficiently comprehensive epidemiological and/or economic data on several important diagnostic groups. We are now in a position to substantially improve and revise the 2004 estimates. In the present report we cover 19 major groups of disorders, 7 more than previously, of an increased range of age groups and more cost items. We therefore present much improved cost estimates. Our revised estimates also now include the new EU member states, and hence a population of 514 million people.AIMS: To estimate the number of persons with defined disorders of the brain in Europe in 2010, the total cost per person related to each disease in terms of direct and indirect costs, and an estimate of the total cost per disorder and country.METHODS: The best available estimates of the prevalence and cost per person for 19 groups of disorders of the brain (covering well over 100 specific disorders) were identified via a systematic review of the published literature. Together with the twelve disorders included in 2004, the following range of mental and neurologic groups of disorders is covered: addictive disorders, affective disorders, anxiety disorders, brain tumor, childhood and adolescent disorders (developmental disorders), dementia, eating disorders, epilepsy, mental retardation, migraine, multiple sclerosis, neuromuscular disorders, Parkinson's disease, personality disorders, psychotic disorders, sleep disorders, somatoform disorders, stroke, and traumatic brain injury. Epidemiologic panels were charged to complete the literature review for each disorder in order to estimate the 12-month prevalence, and health economic panels were charged to estimate best cost-estimates. A cost model was developed to combine the epidemiologic and economic data and estimate the total cost of each disorder in each of 30 European countries (EU27+Iceland, Norway and Switzerland). The cost model was populated with national statistics from Eurostat to adjust all costs to 2010 values, converting all local currencies to Euro, imputing costs for countries where no data were available, and aggregating country estimates to purchasing power parity adjusted estimates for the total cost of disorders of the brain in Europe 2010.RESULTS: The total cost of disorders of the brain was estimated at €798 billion in 2010. Direct costs constitute the majority of costs (37% direct healthcare costs and 23% direct non-medical costs) whereas the remaining 40% were indirect costs associated with patients' production losses. On average, the estimated cost per person with a disorder of the brain in Europe ranged between €285 for headache and €30,000 for neuromuscular disorders. The European per capita cost of disorders of the brain was €1550 on average but varied by country. The cost (in billion €PPP 2010) of the disorders of the brain included in this study was as follows: addiction: €65.7; anxiety disorders: €74.4; brain tumor: €5.2; child/adolescent disorders: €21.3; dementia: €105.2; eating disorders: €0.8; epilepsy: €13.8; headache: €43.5; mental retardation: €43.3; mood disorders: €113.4; multiple sclerosis: €14.6; neuromuscular disorders: €7.7; Parkinson's disease: €13.9; personality disorders: €27.3; psychotic disorders: €93.9; sleep disorders: €35.4; somatoform disorder: €21.2; stroke: €64.1; traumatic brain injury: €33.0. It should be noted that the revised estimate of those disorders included in the previous 2004 report constituted €477 billion, by and large confirming our previous study results after considering the inflation and population increase since 2004. Further, our results were consistent with administrative data on the health care expenditure in Europe, and comparable to previous studies on the cost of specific disorders in Europe. Our estimates were lower than comparable estimates from the US.DISCUSSION: This study was based on the best currently available data in Europe and our model enabled extrapolation to countries where no data could be found. Still, the scarcity of data is an important source of uncertainty in our estimates and may imply over- or underestimations in some disorders and countries. Even though this review included many disorders, diagnoses, age groups and cost items that were omitted in 2004, there are still remaining disorders that could not be included due to limitations in the available data. We therefore consider our estimate of the total cost of the disorders of the brain in Europe to be conservative. In terms of the health economic burden outlined in this report, disorders of the brain likely constitute the number one economic challenge for European health care, now and in the future. Data presented in this report should be considered by all stakeholder groups, including policy makers, industry and patient advocacy groups, to reconsider the current science, research and public health agenda and define a coordinated plan of action of various levels to address the associated challenges.RECOMMENDATIONS: Political action is required in light of the present high cost of disorders of the brain. Funding of brain research must be increased; care for patients with brain disorders as well as teaching at medical schools and other health related educations must be quantitatively and qualitatively improved, including psychological treatments. The current move of the pharmaceutical industry away from brain related indications must be halted and reversed. Continued research into the cost of the many disorders not included in the present study is warranted. It is essential that not only the EU but also the national governments forcefully support these initiatives.
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3.
  • Merwood, Andrew, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic associations between the ADHD symptom dimensions and Cloninger's temperament dimensions in adult twins
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: European Neuropsychopharmacology. - Amsterdam, Netherlands : Elsevier. - 0924-977X .- 1873-7862. ; 23:6, s. 416-425
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous studies have identified phenotypic associations between Cloninger's temperament dimensions and the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults. However the underlying aetiology of these associations remains unclear. We investigate the extent to which genetic and environmental influences contribute to the relationship between temperament and ADHD, examining the ADHD symptoms of inattention (IA) and hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI) separately. Participants were 886 adult twin pairs aged 19-20 years. ADHD symptoms of IA and HI were measured using a DSM-IV based rating scale. Temperament was measured using Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), across four dimensions: novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), reward dependence (RD) and persistence (PS). The twin method was used to decompose phenotypic variance/covariance among these variables into genetic and environmental components. We found that NS was genetically associated with both ADHD symptom dimensions (IA and HI), but that HA was genetically associated with IA only. There was also some evidence of genetic association between PS, IA and HI. These findings suggest that unique profiles of temperament are genetically related to the two ADHD symptom dimensions in adults. Further work is now needed to elucidate the mechanisms that underlie both the combined and separate symptom factor domains of ADHD.
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4.
  • Liu, Yawei, et al. (författare)
  • Neuron-mediated generation of regulatory T cells from encephalitogenic T cells suppresses EAE.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Nature Medicine. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-170X .- 1078-8956. ; 12:5, s. 518-525
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neurons have been neglected as cells with a major immune-regulatory function because they do not express major histocompatibility complex class II. Our data show that neurons are highly immune regulatory, having a crucial role in governing T-cell response and central nervous system (CNS) inflammation. Neurons induce the proliferation of activated CD4+ T cells through B7-CD28 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1–TGF-beta receptor signaling pathways, resulting in amplification of T-cell receptor signaling through phosphorylated ZAP-70, interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-9. The interaction between neurons and T cells results in the conversion of encephalitogenic T cells to CD25+TGF-beta1+CTLA-4+FoxP3+ T regulatory (Treg) cells that suppress encephalitogenic T cells and inhibit experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Suppression is dependent on cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen (CTLA)-4 but not TGF-beta1. Autocrine action of TGF-beta1, however, is important for the proliferative arrest of Treg cells. Blocking the B7 and TGF-beta pathways prevents the CNS-specific generation of Treg cells. These findings show that generation of neuron-dependent Treg cells in the CNS is instrumental in regulating CNS inflammation.
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5.
  • Saldert, Charlotta, et al. (författare)
  • Complexity in measuring outcomes after communication partner training: Alignment between goals of intervention and methods of evaluation
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Aphasiology. - 0268-7038 .- 1464-5041. ; 32:10, s. 1167-1193
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Researchers are currently discussing the need for consensus on a core set of outcome measures to assess interventions in aphasia. For indirect, environmental approaches to aphasia intervention, such as communication partner training (CPT), the roadmap to obtaining consensus on core outcome measures seems especially complex. While the purpose of CPT is to improve communication for people with communication disorders, the intervention is aimed at the communication partner. There is also a variety of goals, activities, and possible settings for CPT. This complexity increases the risk of a mismatch between the goals and content of the intervention and measures used to evaluate the outcome.Aims: The purpose of this paper is to describe the complexity of measuring outcomes from CPT. The aim is to enable clinicians and researchers to reflect on the outcomes to be measured and also on how different types of measures may or may not be aligned with the goals and content of a specific CPT intervention.Main contribution: The current proliferation of outcome measures used in CPT is considered in the light of a survey of general factors to be considered in evaluating intervention outcomes. The complexity of measuring outcomes in CPT is illustrated and the importance of alignment of main objectives, intervention tasks, and projected outcomes is exemplified by referencing two common types of CPT approaches. Objectives relating to knowledge of aphasia, interactional behaviour, and feelings and attitudes are considered in relation to specific outcome measurements. It is suggested that both study-specific and more general measures are needed for capturing and comparing outcomes. The measurement of relevant outcome in CPT is discussed along with implications for future research and clinical practice.Conclusions: Different CPT approaches share the same purpose of facilitating communication in aphasia, but their application in research studies or in the clinic, is specific to the particular context. Special care must thus be taken in both clinical practice and research to safeguard the alignment between objectives, tasks, and projected intervention outcomes and the actual measures used. Further, it is concluded that there is a need for the development of new measures based on a consensus on key outcomes to be measured in CPT.
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6.
  • Gustavsson, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Corrigendum to “Cost of disorders of the brain in Europe 2010” [Eur. Neuropsychopharmacol. 21 (2011) 718–779]
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: European Neuropsychopharmacology. - : Elsevier. - 0924-977X .- 1873-7862. ; 22:3, s. 237-238
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The spectrum of disorders of the brain is large, covering hundreds of disorders that are listed in either the mental or neurological disorder chapters of the established international diagnostic classification systems. These disorders have a high prevalence as well as short- and long-term impairments and disabilities. Therefore they are an emotional, financial and social burden to the patients, their families and their social network. In a 2005 landmark study, we estimated for the first time the annual cost of 12 major groups of disorders of the brain in Europe and gave a conservative estimate of €386 billion for the year 2004. This estimate was limited in scope and conservative due to the lack of sufficiently comprehensive epidemiological and/or economic data on several important diagnostic groups. We are now in a position to substantially improve and revise the 2004 estimates. In the present report we cover 19 major groups of disorders, 7 more than previously, of an increased range of age groups and more cost items. We therefore present much improved cost estimates. Our revised estimates also now include the new EU member states, and hence a population of 514 million people.
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7.
  • Vuorinen, Miika, et al. (författare)
  • Changes in vascular factors 28 years from midlife and late-life cortical thickness
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Neurobiology of Aging. - 0197-4580 .- 1558-1497. ; 34:1, s. 100-109
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We assessed midlife blood pressure (BP), body mass index, total cholesterol, and their changes over time in relation to cortical thickness on magnetic resonance imaging 28 years later in 63 elderly at risk of dementia. Participants in the population-based Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging, and Dementia study were first examined at midlife. A first follow-up was conducted after 21 years, and a second follow-up after an additional 7 years. Magnetic resonance images from the second follow-up were analyzed using algorithms developed at McGill University, Montreal, Canada. Midlife hypertension was related to thinner cortex in several brain areas, including insular, frontal, and temporal cortices. In elderly with thinner insular cortex, there was a continuous decline in systolic BP and an increase in pulse pressure after midlife, while in elderly with thicker insular cortex the decline in systolic BP started at older ages, paralleled by a decline in pulse pressure. No associations were found between body mass index, cholesterol, or apolipoprotein E ε4 allele and cortical thickness in this group of elderly at risk individuals.
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8.
  • Westermark, Gunilla T., et al. (författare)
  • Serum amyloid A and protein AA : molecular mechanisms of a transmissible amyloidosis
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: FEBS Letters. - 0014-5793 .- 1873-3468. ; 583:16, s. 2685-2690
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Systemic AA-amyloidosis is a complication of chronic inflammatory diseases and the fibril protein AA derives from the acute phase reactant serum AA. AA-amyloidosis can be induced in mice by an inflammatory challenge. The lag phase before amyloid develops can be dramatically shortened by administration of a small amount of amyloid fibrils. Systemic AA-amyloidosis is transmissible in mice and may be so in humans. Since transmission can cross species barriers it is possible that AA-amyloidosis can be induced by amyloid in food, e.g. foie gras. In mice, development of AA-amyloidosis can also be accelerated by other components with amyloid-like properties. A new possible risk factor may appear with synthetically made fibrils from short peptides, constructed for tissue repair.
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9.
  • Svensson, Andreas (författare)
  • Mesenchymal stromal cells in malignant glioma - Functions and therapeutic potential
  • 2015
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The most common malignant brain tumor in adults is a glioma called glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). About 300 persons are diagnosed with GBM every year in Sweden. Unfortunately, it is also the most aggressive brain tumor and as of today, it is not possible to cure it. Despite treating the patients with surgery, radiation and chemotherapy, the median survival is only 15 months. The main problem with GBM is its infiltrative growth. As the tumor cells leave the tumor bulk and migrate into the normal brain parenchyma, it is impossible to reach them with the current standard treatments. Hence, even after treatment, some tumor cells will remain in the brain and eventually give rise to a new tumor. To be able to reach the migrating cells, new treatment strategies need to be developed. One such strategy is to use stem cells as drug delivery vehicles. It has been shown that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) derived from the bone marrow (BM) have the ability to specifically migrate throughout a glioma. Upon intratumoral transplantation, they spread within the tumor, along its extensions and toward migrating tumor cells that has left the main tumor bulk, making BM-MSCs ideal as transporters of anti-tumoral substances. However, several safety concerns have been raised as MSCs also have shown to mediate tumor growth by acting immunosuppressive and contribute to the tumor stroma and vascularization. This thesis will discuss 1) the role of endogenous MSCs in malignant glioma and 2) the use of transplanted BM-MSCs as glioma treatment. We have shown that human malignant gliomas harbor two distinct cell populations that resemble BM-MSCs. We have characterized the cells and conclude that they most likely play an important role in tumor angiogenesis and immunosuppression. Further on, we have seen that MSC-like pericytes within the normal mouse brain are activated by, and migrate into, an orthotopic glioma model. The cells align perivascularly and contribute the majority of all pericytes within the tumor. To evaluate their tumor-tropism, MSCs were derived from rat bone marrow and transplanted into, and adjacent to, orthotopic rat gliomas. We conclude that even though they show strong tumor-tropic migration capabilities upon intratumoral transplantation they do not migrate when transplanted into the normal brain of tumor bearing animals. We also report that intratumorally transplanted BM-MSCs potentiate the effect of peripheral immunotherapy against malignant gliomas, demonstrating their use in a therapeutic setting.
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