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Träfflista för sökning "AMNE:(NATURAL SCIENCES Earth and Related Environmental Sciences Climate Research) "

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  • Buckland, Philip I., 1973-, et al. (författare)
  • BugsCEP, an entomological database twenty-five years on
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Antenna (Journal of the Royal Entomological Society). - London : Royal Entomological Society of London. - 0140-1890. ; 38:1, s. 21-28
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
  • Buckland, Philip I., 1973- (författare)
  • The Bugs Coleopteran Ecology Package (BugsCEP) : the development and implementation of software for palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatological research
  • 2009
  • Bok (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This book describes the development and practical application of a unique database orientated software package, BugsCEP, for environmental, climatic and biodiversity reconstruction from beetle assemblages. BugsCEP consists of a database of ecology and distribution data for over 9400 insect taxa, and includes temperature tolerance data for 436 species. It contains abundance and summary data for over 770 sites, most of the known European Quaternary fossil coleopteran record, supported by a bibliography of over 3700 sources. Built in statistics, including a specially developed habitat classification system, provide semi-quantitative environmental reconstructions to aid in the interpretation of sites. BugsCEP's querying and reporting functions also increase the efficiency with which analyses can be undertaken, including the facility to explore the fossil record of species by searching ecology and distribution data. The Mutual Climatic Range (MCR) reconstruction method is implemented and improved upon, including predictive modelling and the graphical output of reconstructions and climate space maps. BugsCEP is available from www.bugscep.com.
  • Hasler, Berit, et al. (författare)
  • Sustainable ecosystem governance under changing climate and land use : An introduction
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Ambio. - : Springer Netherlands. - 0044-7447 .- 1654-7209. ; , s. 1-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Combatting eutrophication is currently a major challenge for policy makers in the Baltic Sea region, and it is likely to remain so in the decades to come. Although total nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea have recently declined, the gap between current loadings and those required to ensure the desired status is still substantial (Reusch et al. 2018). This Special Issue is dedicated to research that helps inform how the eutrophication challenge might best be addressed by improving our understanding of technological constraints, societal drivers of change, land uses, environmental policies, and innovative governance with stakeholder involvement. These issues are important for the current generation and those to come and are issues we must address in order to succeed in reducing nutrient loads to the desired levels to gradually achieve the desired good environmental status of the Baltic Sea. Currently, we witness a new era of water policies across the entire Baltic Sea region. Our changing climate is impacting on precipitation and runoff, and is also the reason why new EU climate policies seek to tie carbon sinks more visibly to carbon sources. Both these aspects have repercussions for water policies. Thus, solving eutrophication challenges requires sharpening of existing policies and instruments, as well as creating new insights and governance approaches with broad stakeholder involvement in a changing environment. In order to design coherent water and climate policies, and target and implement those policies more efficiently, policy makers need to combine new insights regarding the inhabitants in the region, the catchments, and the Baltic Sea itself. Such insights can be expected from soil scientists, agronomists, hydrogeologists, marine ecologists, economists, and social and policy scientists. What is needed is on the one hand effectively targeted governance at appropriate spatial and temporal scales, adapted to differing interests and motivations of citizens living around the Baltic Sea, and on the other hand fine tuning and co-designing of policies at local, national, Baltic Sea regional and EU level. This Special Issue brings together recent research from four BONUS-funded projects—BONUS BALTICAPP, BONUS GO4BALTIC, BONUS MIRACLE and BONUS SOILS2SEA—that comprised part of the ‘Viable Ecosystem’ and ‘Sustainable Ecosystem Services’ BONUS research programmes. The projects addressed these common concerns through somewhat different, but inter-related, themes. Key messages emphasized and discussed in the research papers of this Special Issue are summarized under four interlinked themes: Scenarios for the future, Policies and ecosystem services in water governance, Novel approaches for managing nutrients, and Advanced modelling from field level to the entire Baltic Sea region.
  • Buckland, Philip I., 1973- (författare)
  • SEAD - The Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database Inter-linking Multiproxy Environmental Data with Archaeological Investigations and Ecology
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Archaeology in the Digital Era. - : Amsterdam University Press. - 9789089646637 - 9789048519590 - 9789048519606 ; , s. 320-331
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The volume of data on past environmental and climate changes, as well as human interactions with these, has long since passed the level where it is manageable outside of large scale database systems. The Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database project aims to not only store and disseminate such data, but also provide tools for querying and analysing them, whilst maintaining a close connection with the archaeological and ecological data that are essential for their comprehensive interpretation. Large scale, geographically and chronologically unrestricted databases provide us with essentially unlimited scope for putting individual sites into a broader context and applying locally collated data to the investigation of earth system level changes. By providing integrated access to data from a variety of proxies, including plant macrofossils, pollen, insects and geochemistry, along with dating evidence, more complex questions can be answered where any single proxy would not be able to provide comprehensive answers.
  • Charpentier Ljungqvist, Fredrik, 1982- (författare)
  • Global nedkylning : klimatet och människan under 10 000 år
  • 2009
  • Bok (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • Klimatet har förändrats både regionalt och globalt sedan senaste istiden tog slut, ofta med dramatiska konsekvenser för naturen och människan. Fastän det talas så mycket om klimatförändringar idag är det få som vet särskilt mycket om hur klimatet har varierat förr.Det är först under de senaste åren som forskningen börjat kunna beskriva vad som faktiskt hänt med klimatet under olika tider, på olika platser. Historikern Fredrik Charpentier Ljungqvist har tagit ett samlat grepp på den senaste forskningen och resultatet är en resa i vått och torrt, i hetta och kyla, jorden runt under 10 000 år. Vi får stifta bekantskap med många olika folk och kulturer – babylonier, romare, mayaindianer och vikingar – som alla under historiens gång varit utsatta för klimatförändringar.
  • Vickers, Kim, et al. (författare)
  • Predicting island beetle faunas by their climate ranges : the tabula rasa/refugia theory in the North Atlantic
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biogeography. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0305-0270 .- 1365-2699. ; 42:11, s. 2031-2048
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: This paper addresses two opposing theories put forward for the origins of the beetle fauna of the North Atlantic islands. The first is that the biota of the isolated oceanic islands of the Faroes, Iceland and Greenland immigrated across a Palaeogene–Neogene land bridge from Europe, and survived Pleistocene glaciations in ameliorated refugia. The second argues for a tabula rasa in which the biota of the islands was exterminated during glaciations and is Holocene in origin. The crux of these theories lies in the ability of the flora and fauna to survive in a range of environmental extremes. This paper sets out to assess the viability of the refugia hypothesis using the climatic tolerances of one aspect of the biota: the beetle fauna. Location: The paper focuses on Iceland, the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Methods: The known temperature requirements of the recorded beetle faunas of the North Atlantic islands were compared with published proxy climate reconstructions for successive climate periods since the severing of a North Atlantic land bridge. We used the MCR (mutual climatic range) method available in the open access BugsCEP database software. Results: We show that most of the MCR faunas of the North Atlantic islands could not have survived in situ since the Palaeogene–Neogene, and are likely to have been exterminated by the Pleistocene glaciations. Main conclusions: The discrepancy between the climatic tolerances of the North Atlantic beetle fauna and the estimated climatic regimes since the severing of a land bridge strongly support the tabula rasa theory and suggests that the North Atlantic coleopteran fauna is Holocene in origin.
  • Juhola, Sirkku, et al. (författare)
  • Climate Change Transformations in Nordic Agriculture?
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Rural Studies. - Oxford : Pergamon Press. - 0743-0167 .- 1873-1392. ; 51, s. 28-36
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Climate change is expected to have negative impacts but also to bring potential opportunities for agriculture and crop productivity in the Nordic countries. Little research has been conducted at the farmer level to identify what adaptation measures are being considered or already taken and transformative these are. Based on semi-structured interviews with farmers and extension officers from two of the most fertile agricultural areas of Finland and Sweden, this study examines to what extent Nordic farmers are engaged in transforming their farming systems. The results show that some transformational changes are taking place already but most changes are incremental. Currently, agricultural policies and regulations are perceived as a greater adaptation challenge than climate change.
  • Acosta Navarro, Juan Camilo, 1983- (författare)
  • Anthropogenic influence on climate through changes in aerosol emissions from air pollution and land use change
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Particulate matter suspended in air (i.e. aerosol particles) exerts a substantial influence on the climate of our planet and is responsible for causing severe public health problems in many regions across the globe. Human activities have altered the natural and anthropogenic emissions of aerosol particles through direct emissions or indirectly by modifying natural sources. The climate effects of the latter have been largely overlooked. Humans have dramatically altered the land surface of the planet causing changes in natural aerosol emissions from vegetated areas. Regulation on anthropogenic and natural aerosol emissions have the potential to affect the climate on regional to global scales. Furthermore, the regional climate effects of aerosol particles could potentially be very different than the ones caused by other climate forcers (e.g. well mixed greenhouse gases). The main objective of this work was to investigate the climatic effects of land use and air pollution via aerosol changes.Using numerical model simulations it was found that land use changes in the past millennium have likely caused a positive radiative forcing via aerosol climate interactions. The forcing is an order of magnitude smaller and has an opposite sign than the radiative forcing caused by direct aerosol emissions changes from other human activities. The results also indicate that future reductions of fossil fuel aerosols via air quality regulations may lead to an additional warming of the planet by mid-21st century and could also cause an important Arctic amplification of the warming. In addition, the mean position of the intertropical convergence zone and the Asian monsoon appear to be sensitive to aerosol emission reductions from air quality regulations. For these reasons, climate mitigation policies should take into consideration aerosol air pollution, which has not received sufficient attention in the past.
  • Katrantsiotis, Christos, et al. (författare)
  • Seasonal variability in temperature trends and atmospheric circulation systems during the Eemian (Last Interglacial) based on n-alkanes hydrogen isotopes from Northern Finland
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Quaternary Science Reviews. - Amsterdam : Elsevier. - 0277-3791 .- 1873-457X. ; 273, s. 107250-107250
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Last Interglacial warm period, the Eemian (ca. 130-116 thousand years ago), serves as a reference for projected future climate in a warmer world. However, there is a limited understanding of the seasonal characteristics of interglacial climate dynamics, especially in high latitude regions. In this study, we aimto provide new insights into seasonal trends in temperature and moisture source location, linked to shifts in atmospheric circulation patterns, for northern Fennoscandia during the Eemian. Our study is based on the distribution and stable hydrogen isotope composition (dD) of n-alkanes in a lake sediment sequence from the Sokli paleolake in NE Finland, placed in a multi-proxy framework. The dD values of predominantly macrophyte-derived mid-chain n-alkanes are interpreted to reflect lake water dD variability influenced by winter precipitation dD (dDprec), ice cover duration and deuterium (D)-depleted meltwater. The dD values of terrestrial plant-derived long-chain n-alkanes primarily reflect soil water dD variability modulated by summer dDprec and by the evaporative enrichment of soil and leaf water. The dDprec variability in our study area is mostly attributed to the temperature effect and the moisture source location linked to the relative dominance between D-depleted continental and polar air masses and Denriched North Atlantic air masses. The biomarker signal further corroborates earlier diatom-based studies and pollen-inferred January and July temperature reconstructions from the same sediment sequence. Three phases of climatic changes can be identified that generally follow the secular variationsin seasonal insolation: (i) an early warming trend succeeded by a period of strong seasonality (ii) a midoptimum phase with gradually decreased seasonality and cooler summers, and (iii) a late climatic instability with a cooling trend. Superimposed on this trend, two abrupt cooling events occur in the early and late Eemian. The Sokli dD variability is generally in good agreement with other North Atlantic and Siberian records, reflecting major changes in the atmospheric circulation patterns during the Eemian as a response to orbital and oceanic forcings.
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