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Träfflista för sökning "AMNE:(NATURAL SCIENCES Physical Sciences Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology) "

Sökning: AMNE:(NATURAL SCIENCES Physical Sciences Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology)

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  • Gerlee, Philip, 1980-, et al. (författare)
  • Scientific Models Red Atoms, White Lies and Black Boxes in a Yellow Book
  • 2016
  • Bok (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • A zebrafish, the hull of a miniature ship, a mathematical equation and a food chain - what do these things have in common? They are examples of models used by scientists to isolate and study particular aspects of the world around us. This book begins by introducing the concept of a scientific model from an intuitive perspective, drawing parallels to mental models and artistic representations. It then recounts the history of modelling from the 16th century up until the present day. The iterative process of model building is described and discussed in the context of complex models with high predictive accuracy versus simpler models that provide more of a conceptual understanding. To illustrate the diversity of opinions within the scientific community, we also present the results of an interview study, in which ten scientists from different disciplines describe their views on modelling and how models feature in their work. Lastly, it includes a number of worked examples that span different modelling approaches and techniques. It provides a comprehensive introduction to scientific models and shows how models are constructed and used in modern science. It also addresses the approach to, and the culture surrounding modelling in different scientific disciplines. It serves as an inspiration for model building and also facilitates interdisciplinary collaborations by showing how models are used in different scientific fields.The book is aimed primarily at students in the sciences and engineering, as well as students at teacher training colleges but will also appeal to interested readers wanting to get an overview of scientific modelling in general and different modelling approaches in particular.
  • Scott, Pat, 1982- (författare)
  • Searches for Particle Dark Matter Dark stars, dark galaxies, dark halos and global supersymmetric fits
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>The identity of dark matter is one of the key outstanding problems in both particle and astrophysics. In this thesis, I describe a number of complementary searches for particle dark matter. I discuss how the impact of dark matter on stars can constrain its interaction with nuclei, focussing on main sequence stars close to the Galactic Centre, and on the first stars as seen through the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. The mass and annihilation cross-section of dark matter particles can be probed with searches for gamma rays produced in astronomical targets. Dwarf galaxies and ultracompact, primordially-produced dark matter minihalos turn out to be especially promising in this respect. I illustrate how the results of these searches can be combined with constraints from accelerators and cosmology to produce a single global fit to all available data. Global fits in supersymmetry turn out to be quite technically demanding, even with the simplest predictive models and the addition of complementary data from a bevy of astronomical and terrestrial experiments; I show how genetic algorithms can help in overcoming these challenges.</p>
  • Nordin, Jakob, 1979- (författare)
  • Spectral Properties of Type Ia Supernovae and Implications for Cosmology
  • 2011
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Type Ia supernovae can, for a short period of time, reach the same brightness as an entire galaxy. They are responsible for the creation of a large fraction of all heavy elements and can be used, as standard candles, to prove that the expansion of the universe is accelerating. Yet, we do not fully understand them.</p> <p>A basic picture where Type Ia supernovae are caused by thermonuclear explosions of white dwarfs is generally accepted, but the details are still debated. These unknowns propagate into systematic uncertainties in the estimates of cosmological parameters. A Monte Carlo framework, SMOCK, designed to model this error propagation, is presented. Evolution with time/distance and the nature of reddening are studied as the dominant astrophysical uncertainties.</p> <p>Optical spectra of Type Ia supernovae contain a wealth of information regarding the nature of these events, and can be used both to understand supernovae and to limit the systematic uncertainties in cosmological parameter estimates. We have reduced spectra observed with the Nordic Optical Telescope and the New Technology Telescope in conjunction with the SDSS-II supernova survey, and compared spectral properties (pseudo-Equivalent Widths and line velocities) of this sample with local supernovae.We have further studied possible systematic difficulties in such comparisons between nearby and distant supernovae, caused by noise and host galaxy contamination.Taking such uncertainties into account, we find a tentative evolution in supernova properties with redshift, compatible with expected demographic changes. Correlations with light curve shape found by other studies are confirmed. A tentative correlation with light curve colour is also presented. The latter could indicate an intrinsic component of the observed reddening, i.e. independent of interstellar dust in the host galaxy.</p>
  • Akrami, Yashar, 1980-, et al. (författare)
  • Statistical coverage for supersymmetric parameter estimation : a case study with direct detection of dark matter
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics. - 1475-7516 .- 1475-7516. ; :7, s. 002
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Models of weak-scale supersymmetry offer viable dark matter (DM) candidates. Their parameter spaces are however rather large and complex, such that pinning down the actual parameter values from experimental data can depend strongly on the employed statistical framework and scanning algorithm. In frequentist parameter estimation, a central requirement for properly constructed confidence intervals is that they cover true parameter values, preferably at exactly the stated confidence level when experiments are repeated infinitely many times. Since most widely-used scanning techniques are optimised for Bayesian statistics, one needs to assess their abilities in providing correct confidence intervals in terms of the statistical coverage. Here we investigate this for the Constrained Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (CMSSM) when only constrained by data from direct searches for dark matter. We construct confidence intervals from one-dimensional profile likelihoods and study the coverage by generating several pseudo-experiments for two benchmark sets of pseudo-true parameters. We use nested sampling to scan the parameter space and evaluate the coverage for the two benchmarks when either flat or logarithmic priors are imposed on gaugino and scalar mass parameters. We observe both under- and over-coverage, which in some cases vary quite dramatically when benchmarks or priors are modified. We show how most of the variation can be explained as the impact of explicit and implicit priors, where the latter are indirectly imposed by physicality conditions. For comparison, we also evaluate the coverage for Bayesian credible intervals, and (predictably) observe significant under-coverage in those cases.</p>
  • Blomqvist, Michael, et al. (författare)
  • Constraining dark energy fluctuations with supernova correlations
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics. - 1475-7516 .- 1475-7516. ; 10, s. 018
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>We investigate constraints on dark energy fluctuations using type Ia supernovae. If dark energy is not in the form of a cosmological constant, that is if the equation of state is not equal to -1, we expect not only temporal, but also spatial variations in the energy density. Such fluctuations would cause local variations in the universal expansion rate and directional dependences in the redshift-distance relation. We present a scheme for relating a power spectrum of dark energy fluctuations to an angular covariance function of standard candle magnitude fluctuations. The predictions for a phenomenological model of dark energy fluctuations are compared to observational data in the form of the measured angular covariance of Hubble diagram magnitude residuals for type Ia supernovae in the Union2 compilation. The observational result is consistent with zero dark energy fluctuations. However, due to the limitations in statistics, current data still allow for quite general dark energy fluctuations as long as they are in the linear regime.</p>
  • Blomqvist, Michael, 1980-, et al. (författare)
  • Supernovae as seen by off-center observers in a local void
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics. - 1475-7516 .- 1475-7516. ; 05, s. 006
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Inhomogeneous universe models have been proposed as an alternative explanation for the apparent acceleration of the cosmic expansion that does not require dark energy. In the simplest class of inhomogeneous models, we live within a large, spherically symmetric void. Several studies have shown that such a model can be made consistent with many observations, in particular the redshift-luminosity distance relation for type Ia supernovae, provided that the void is of Gpc size and that we live close to the center. Such a scenario challenges the Copernican principle that we do not occupy a special place in the universe. We use the first-year Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II supernova search data set as well as the Constitution supernova data set to put constraints on the observer position in void models, using the fact that off-center observers will observe an anisotropic universe. We first show that a spherically symmetric void can give good fits to the supernova data for an on-center observer, but that the two data sets prefer very different voids. We then continue to show that the observer can be displaced at least fifteen percent of the void scale radius from the center and still give an acceptable fit to the supernova data. When combined with the observed dipole anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background however, we find that the data compells the observer to be located within about one percent of the void scale radius. Based on these results, we conclude that considerable fine-tuning of our position within the void is needed tofit the supernova data, strongly disfavouring the model from a Copernican principle point of view.</p>
  • Forsberg, Mats, 1978- (författare)
  • Gravitational perturbations in plasmas and cosmology
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Gravitational perturbations can be in the form of scalars, vectors or tensors. This thesis focuses on the evolution of scalar perturbations in cosmology, and interactions between tensor perturbations, in the form of gravitational waves, and plasma waves.</p> <p>The gravitational waves studied in this thesis are assumed to have small amplitudes and wavelengths much shorter than the background length scale, allowing for the assumption of a flat background metric. Interactions between gravitational waves and plasmas are described by the Einstein-Maxwell-Vlasov, or the Einstein-Maxwell-fluid equations, depending on the level of detail required. Using such models, linear wave excitation of various waves by gravitational waves in astrophysical plasmas are studied, with a focus on resonance effects. Furthermore, the influence of strong magnetic field quantum electrodynamics, leading to detuning of the gravitational wave-electromagnetic wave resonances, is considered. Various nonlinear phenomena, including parametric excitation and wave steepening are also studied in different astrophysical settings.</p> <p>In cosmology the evolution of gravitational perturbations are of interest in processes such as structure formation and generation of large scale magnetic fields. Here, the growth of density perturbations in Kantowski-Sachs cosmologies with positive cosmological constant is studied.</p>
  • Akrami, Yashar, 1980-, et al. (författare)
  • How well will ton-scale dark matter direct detection experiments constrain minimal supersymmetry?
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics. - 1475-7516 .- 1475-7516. ; :4, s. 012
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are amongst the most interesting dark matter (DM) candidates. Many DM candidates naturally arise in theories beyond the standard model (SM) of particle physics, like weak-scale supersymmetry (SUSY). Experiments aim to detect WIMPs by scattering, annihilation or direct production, and thereby determine the underlying theory to which they belong, along with its parameters. Here we examine the prospects for further constraining the Constrained Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (CMSSM) with future ton-scale direct detection experiments. We consider ton-scale extrapolations of three current experiments: CDMS, XENON and COUPP, with 1000 kg-years of raw exposure each. We assume energy resolutions, energy ranges and efficiencies similar to the current versions of the experiments, and include backgrounds at target levels. Our analysis is based on full likelihood constructions for the experiments. We also take into account present uncertainties on hadronic matrix elements for neutralino-quark couplings, and on halo model parameters. We generate synthetic data based on four benchmark points and scan over the CMSSM parameter space using nested sampling. We construct both Bayesian posterior PDFs and frequentist profile likelihoods for the model parameters, as well as the mass and various cross-sections of the lightest neutralino. Future ton-scale experiments will help substantially in constraining supersymmetry, especially when results of experiments primarily targeting spin-dependent nuclear scattering are combined with those directed more toward spin-independent interactions.</p>
  • Bergstrom, S., et al. (författare)
  • J-factors for self-interacting dark matter in 20 dwarf spheroidal galaxies
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Physical Review D. - 2470-0010 .- 2470-0029. ; 98:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dwarf spheroidal galaxies are among the most promising targets for indirect dark matter (DM) searches in gamma rays. The gamma-ray flux from DM annihilation in a dwarf spheroidal galaxy is proportional to the J-factor of the source. The J-factor of a dwarf spheroidal galaxy is the line-of-sight integral of the DM mass density squared times &lt;sigma(ann)v(rel)&gt;/&lt;sigma(ann)v(rel)&gt;(0), where sigma(ann)v(rel) is the DM annihilation cross-section times relative velocity v(rel) = vertical bar v(rel)vertical bar angle brackets denote average over v(rel), and (sigma(ann)v(rel)) is the v(rel)-independent part of sigma(ann)v(rel). If sigma(ann)v(rel) is constant in v(rel), J-factors only depend on the DM space distribution in the source. However, if sigma(ann)v(rel) varies with v(rel), as in the presence of DM self-interactions, J-factors also depend on the DM velocity distribution, and on the strength and range of the DM self-interaction. Models for self interacting DM are increasingly important in the study of the small scale clustering of DM, and are compatible with current astronomical and cosmological observations. Here we derive the J-factor of 20 dwarf spheroidal galaxies from stellar kinematic data under the assumption of Yukawa DM self-interactions. J-factors are derived through a profile likelihood approach, assuming either NavarroFrenk-White (NEW) or cored DM profiles. We also compare our results with J-factors derived assuming the same velocity for all DM particles in the target galaxy. We find that this common approximation overestimates the Mactors by up to 1 order of magnitude. J-factors for a sample of DM particle masses and self-interaction coupling constants, as well as for NFW and cored density profiles, are provided electronically, ready to he used in other projects.
  • Laursen, Peter, 1975-, et al. (författare)
  • Intergalactic Transmission and its Impact on the Ly{\alpha} Line
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 728:1, s. 52
  • Tidskriftsartikel (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • <p>We study the intergalactic transmission of radiation in the vicinity of the Ly{\alpha} wavelength. Simulating sightlines through the intergalactic medium (IGM) in detailed cosmological hydrosimulations, the impact of the IGM on the shape of the line profile from Ly{\alpha} emitting galaxies at redshifts 2.5 to 6.5 is investigated. In particular we show that taking into account the correlation of the density and velocity fields of the IGM with the galaxies, the blue part of the spectrum may be appreciably reduced, even at relatively low redshifts. This may in some cases provide an alternative to the often-invoked outflow scenario, although it is concluded that this model is still a plausible explanation of the many asymmetric Ly{\alpha} profiles observed. Applying the calculated wavelength dependent transmission to simulated spectra from Ly{\alpha} emitting galaxies, we derive the fraction of photons that are lost in the IGM, in addition to what is absorbed internally in the galaxies due to dust. Moreover, by comparing the calculated transmission of radiation blueward of the Ly{\alpha} line, the total optical depth to Thomson scattering of cosmic microwave background, with corresponding observations, we are able to constrain the epoch when the Universe was reionized to z &lt;~ 8.5.</p>
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