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Sökning: AMNE:(NATURVETENSKAP Biologi)

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1.
  • Sernland, Emma (författare)
  • Optimal strategies and information in foraging theory
  • 2005
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In this thesis, I present both theoretical and empirical work where we have studied how humans and animals use information in situations where they need to continually update their information on the density of a resource. We have found that the amount of information, and the way the information is presented, are important factors for how well decisions are adapted to current circumstances. In an empirical study on humans, we found that humans seem to have a default idea of the distribution of a resource. This default idea seems to be plastic, i.e. it is adjusted according to incoming information. The way additional information was presented, as well as the information content, was important for how well the default idea was adjusted to current circumstances.By using mathematical models, we have also studied whether access to information from group members, so called public information, is one of the reasons why some species live in groups. When group members aim to maximize its intake rate of food and share both information and food items found equally, and when each individual has to pay all the cost for travelling between foraging patches, the intake rate of food will decrease with increasing group size. The animals will spend a larger proportion of the time on travelling between patches and less time on foraging the larger the group size. In this case, information sharing on food density in patches is not a reason why animals live in groups.We have also used mathematical models to study the information dynamics in a group of foraging animals that cannot both search for food and information at the same time. The animals aim to maximize their survival, and are given three behavioural choices in each time step: stay and search for food, stay and scan for information, or leave the current patch. The results show that the choice of behaviour depends on the energy reserves of the individual. An animal with low energy reserves searches for food and leaves the patch if its assessment of potential patch quality decreases to a certain level. An animal with high energy reserves chooses to stay in the patch and scan for information. In our model we assume that when one individual leaves the patch, the rest of the group also leaves. This means that it is those individuals that have low energy reserves that will make the leaving decisions for the group.In the end, we use these theories on Bayesian foraging, information updating and decision-making in order to develop a new type of effort-based quota for sustainable fisheries management: an effort-based dynamic quota (EDQ). We show that by using information from ongoing fishing combined with fishing data from earlier years, we can reach a higher maximum sustainable yield compared to using a total allowable catch (TAC).
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2.
  • Desale, Prithviraj, et al. (författare)
  • Biosorption of nickel by Lysinibacillus sp BA2 native to bauxite mine
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. - : Elsevier. - 0147-6513 .- 1090-2414. ; 107, s. 260-268
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The current scenario of environmental pollution urges the need for an effective solution for toxic heavy metal removal from industrial wastewater. Bioremediation is the most cost effective process employed by the use of microbes especially bacteria resistant to toxic metals. In this study, Lysinibacillus sp. BA2, a nickel tolerant strain isolated from bauxite mine was used for the biosorption of Ni(II). Lysinibacillus sp. BA2 biomass had isoelectric point (pI) of 3.3. The maximum negative zeta potential value (-39.45) was obtained at pH 6.0 which was highly favourable for Ni(II) biosorption. 238.04 mg of Ni(II) adsorbed on one gram of dead biomass and 196.32 mg adsorbed on one gram of live biomass. The adsorption of Ni(II) on biomass increased with time and attained saturation after 180 mm with rapid biosorption in initial 30 min. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms could fit well for biosorption of Ni(II) by dead biomass while Langmuir isotherm provided a better fit for live biomass based on correlation coefficient values. The kinetic studies of Ni(II) removal, using dead and live biomass was well explained by second-order kinetic model. Ni(II) adsorption on live biomass was confirrned by SEM-EDX where cell aggregation and increasing irregularity of cell morphology was observed even though cells were in non-growing state. The FTIR analysis of biomass revealed the presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl and amino groups, which seem responsible for biosorption of Ni(II). The beads made using dead biomass of Lysinibacillus sp. BA2 could efficiently remove Ni(II) from effluent solutions. These microbial cells can substitute expensive methods for treating nickel contaminated industrial wastewaters.
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3.
  • Ding, Baojian, et al. (författare)
  • Sequence variation determining stereochemistry of a delta-11 desaturase active in moth sex pheromone biosynthesis
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. - : Elsevier. - 1879-0240. ; 74, s. 68-75
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A Δ11 desaturase from the oblique banded leaf roller moth Choristoneura rosaceana takes the saturated myristic acid and produces a mixture of (E)-11-tetradecenoate and (Z)-11-tetradecenoate with an excess of the Z isomer (35:65). A desaturase from the spotted fireworm moth Choristoneura parallela also operates on myristic acid substrate but produces almost pure (E)-11-tetradecenoate. The two desaturases share 92% amino acid identity and 97% amino acid similarity. There are 24 amino acids differing between these two desaturases. We constructed mutations at all of these positions to pinpoint the sites that determine the product stereochemistry. We demonstrated with a yeast functional assay that one amino acid at the cytosolic carboxyl terminus of the protein (258E) is critical for the Z activity of the C. rosaceana desaturase. Mutating the glutamic acid (E) into aspartic acid (D) transforms the C. rosaceana enzyme into a desaturase with C. parallela-like activity, whereas the reciprocal mutation of the C. parallela desaturase transformed it into an enzyme producing an intermediate 64:36 E/Z product ratio. We discuss the causal link between this amino acid change and the stereochemical properties of the desaturase and the role of desaturase mutations in pheromone evolution.
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4.
  • Modig, Carina, et al. (författare)
  • Analysis of vitelline envelope synthesis and composition during early oocyte development in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata)
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Molecular Reproduction and Development. - New York : Wiley-Liss. - 1040-452X .- 1098-2795. ; 75:8, s. 1351-1360
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The oocyte vitelline envelope (VE) of gilthead seabream is composed of four known zona pellucida (ZP) proteins, ZPBa, ZPBb, ZPC, and ZPX. We have previously shown that the gilthead seabream ZP proteins are differentially transcribed in liver and ovary, with the expression in liver being under estrogenic control. However, although mRNA was found in both liver and ovary, only low ZPBa protein levels were detected in liver and plasma. Using isoform-specific ZP antibodies we show that ZPBa and ZPX translation products are present in the cytosol of stage I and II oocytes. In addition, the zpBa and zpX mRNAs were detected in early developing oocytes. During oocyte growth (vitellogenesis), the VE increased in thickness (>10 µm), and we show that the four ZP isoforms are present in different regions of the VE. ZPX was detected closest to the oocyte plasma membrane while the intermediate region was composed of ZPBa, ZPBb, and ZPC. At the outer layer, only ZPC was detected. When oocytes reach the fully grown stage they resume meiosis and hydration. As the oocyte expands, thinning to 4 µm, the VE acquire a striped and compact appearance at the electron microscopy level. This study provides further evidence for the oocyte origin of some ZP proteins in the gilthead seabream and suggests that the ZP proteins are differentially distributed within the VE. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 75: 1351-1360, 2008.
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5.
  • Lindwall, Katrin, 1959-, et al. (författare)
  • Maker Tour - Mot nya höjder : Make IT flow, del 2
  • 2018
  • Annan publikation (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • Utmaningarna är en del av projektet Maker tour - Mot nya höjder ( tidigare Mot nya höjder). Projektets mål är att öka intresset för naturvetenskap, teknik och matematik bland skolelever.Läs gärna mer på http://motnyahojder.com/
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6.
  • Lindwall, Katrin, 1959-, et al. (författare)
  • Maker tour: mot nya höjder : make space HT-19
  • 2019
  • Annan publikation (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • Utmaningarna är en del av projektet Maker tour - Mot nya höjder (tidigare Mot nya höjder). Projektets mål är att öka intresset för naturvetenskap, teknik och matematik bland skolelever.
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7.
  • Lindwall, Katrin, 1959-, et al. (författare)
  • Maker tour: mot nya höjder : make IT shine HT-18
  • 2018
  • Annan publikation (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • Utmaningarna är en del av projektet Maker tour - Mot nya höjder (tidigare Mot nya höjder). Projektets mål är att öka intresset för naturvetenskap, teknik och matematik bland skolelever.
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8.
  • Lindwall, Katrin, 1959-, et al. (författare)
  • Mot nya höjder : Make IT happen våren 2016
  • 2016
  • Annan publikation (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • Utmaningarna är en del av projektet Mot nya höjder ( från 2018 Maker tour - Mot nya höjder). Projektets mål är att öka intresset för naturvetenskap, teknik och matematik bland skolelever.Läs gärna mer på www.motnyahojder.com 
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9.
  • Tyrberg, Barbro, et al. (författare)
  • Mot nya höjder : Make it taste (Make it move)
  • 2017
  • Annan publikation (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • Utmaningarna är en del av projektet Mot nya höjder. Projektets mål är att öka intresset för naturvetenskap, teknik och matematik bland skolelever.
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10.
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