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Sökning: AMNE:(NATURVETENSKAP Biologi Biokemi och molekylärbiologi)

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1.
  • Ihse, Elisabet, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • Amyloid fibrils with fragmented ATTR may be the rule in non-Val30Met ATTR amyloidosis
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The clinical phenotype of familial ATTR amyloidosis depends to some extent on the particular mutation, but differences exist also within mutations. We have previously described that two types of amyloid fibril compositions exist among Swedish ATTRV30M amyloidosis patients, one consisting of a mixture of intact and fragmented ATTR (type A) and one composed of only intact ATTR (type B). Patients with type A fibrils have a late age of onset and signs of cardiomyopathy, while patients with type B fibrils have an early onset and much less myocardial involvement. The present study aimed to determine if the correlation between fibril type and clinical phenotype is true for familial amyloidosis in general. Cardiac and/or adipose tissue from 48 patients carrying 21 different non-TTRV30M mutations were examined, as well as 7 non-Swedish ATTRV30M patients. Fibril type was determined with western blotting and compared to the patients´ age of onset and degree of cardiomyopathy. Non-Swedish V30M patients showed the same correlation as described for Swedish V30M patients, with fibrils of only full-length ATTR (type B) linked to less myocardial involvement. In contrast, all patients with non-V30M mutations had a fibril composition with ATTR fragments (type A). Some of these patients had onset of disease at young age. The vast majority had increased thickness of left cardiac ventricle, but a few individuals had values within normal limits. This study shows that a fibril composition with fragmented ATTR is very common in ATTR amyloidosis. It also suggests that fibrils composed of only full-length ATTR is an exception, perhaps only found among young ATTRV30M amyloidosis patients.
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2.
  • Ihse, Elisabet, 1977- (författare)
  • Two Types of Fibrils in ATTR Amyloidosis : Implications for Clinical Phenotype and Treatment Outcome
  • 2011
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Systemic amyloidoses are a group of lethal diseases where proteins aggregate into fibrillar structures, called amyloid fibrils, that deposits throughout the body. Transthyretin (TTR) causes one type of amyloidosis, in which the aggregates mainly infiltrate nervous and cardiac tissue. Almost a hundred different mutations in the TTR gene are known to trigger the disease, but wild-type (wt) TTR is also incorporated into the fibrils, and may alone form amyloid. Patients with the TTRV30M mutation show, for unknown reasons, two clinical phenotypes. Some have an early onset of disease without cardiomyopathy while others have a late onset and cardiomyopathy. It has previously been described that amyloid fibrils formed from TTRV30M can have two different compositions; either with truncated molecules beside full-length TTR (type A) or only-full-length molecules (type B).  In this thesis, the clinical importance of the two types of amyloid fibrils was investigated. We found that the fibril composition types are correlated to the two clinical phenotypes seen among TTRV30M patients, with type A fibrils present in late onset patients and type B fibrils in early onset patients. The only treatment for hereditary TTR amyloidosis has been liver transplantation, whereby the liver producing the mutant TTR is replaced by an organ only producing wt protein. However, in some patients, cardiac symptoms progress post-transplantationally. We demonstrated that the propensity to incorporate wtTTR differs between fibril types and tissue types in TTRV30M patients, with cardiac amyloid of type A having the highest tendency. This offers an explanation to why particularly cardiac amyloidosis develops after transplantation, and suggests which patients that are at risk for such development. By examining patients with other mutations than TTRV30M, we showed that, in contrast to the general belief, a fibril composition with truncated TTR is very common and might even be the general rule. This may explain why TTRV30M patients often have a better outcome after liver transplantation than patients with other mutations. In conclusion, this thesis has contributed with one piece to the puzzle of understanding the differences in clinical phenotype and treatment response between TTR amyloidosis patients, by demonstrating corresponding differences at a molecular level.
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3.
  • Shu, Nanjiang, 1981- (författare)
  • Prediction of zinc-binding sites in proteins and efficient protein structure description and comparison
  • 2008
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • A large number of proteins require certain metals to stabilize their structures or to function properly. About one third of all proteins in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) contain metals and it is estimated that approximately the same proportion of all proteins are metalloproteins. Zinc, the second most abundant transition metal found in eukaryotic organisms, plays key roles, mainly structural and catalytic, in many biological functions. Predicting whether a protein binds zinc and even the accurate location of binding sites is important when investigating the function of an experimentally uncharacterized protein. Describing and comparing protein structures with both efficiency and accuracy are essential for systematic annotation of functional properties of proteins, be it on an individual or on a genome scale. Dozens of structure comparison methods have been developed in the past decades. In recent years, several research groups have endeavoured in developing methods for fast comparison of protein structures by representing the three-dimensional (3D) protein structures as one-dimensional (1D) geometrical strings based on the shape symbols of clustered regions of φ/ψ torsion angle pairs of the polypeptide backbones. These 1D geometrical strings, shape strings, are as compact as 1D secondary structures but carry more elaborate structural information in loop regions and thus are more suitable for fast structure database searching, classification of loop regions and evaluation of model structures. In this thesis, a new method for predicting zinc-binding sites in proteins from amino acid sequences is described. This method predicts zinc-binding Cys, His, Asp and Glu (the four most common zinc-binding residues) with 75% precision (86% for Cys and His only) at 50% recall according to a solid 5-fold cross-validation on a non-redundant set of the PDB chains containing 2727 unique chains, of which 235 bind to zinc. This method predicts zinc-binding Cys and His with about 10% higher precision at different recall levels compared to a previously published method. In addition, different methods for describing and comparing protein structures are reviewed. Some recently developed methods based on 1D geometrical representation of backbone structures are emphasized and analyzed in details.
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4.
  • Alfredsson Timmins, Jenny, 1976- (författare)
  • Functional organisation of the cell nucleus in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe
  • 2009
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In eukaryotes the genome adopts a non-random spatial organisation, which is important for gene regulation. However, very little is known about the driving forces behind nuclear organisation. In the simple model eukaryote fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, it has been known for a long time that transcriptionally repressed heterochromatin localise to the nuclear membrane (NM); the centromeres attaches to spindle pole body (SPB), while the telomeres are positioned at the NM on the opposite side of the nucleus compared to the SPB. Studies presented in this thesis aimed at advancing our knowledge of nuclear organisation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We show that the heterochromatic mating-type region localises to the NM in the vicinity of the SPB. This positioning was completely dependent on Clr4, a histone methyl transferase crucial for the formation of heterochromatin. Additional factors important for localisation were also identified: the chromo domain protein Swi6, and the two boundary elements IR-L and IR-R surrounding this locus. We further identify two other chromo domain proteins; Chp1 and Chp2, as crucial factors for correct subnuclear localisation of this region. From these results we suggest that the boundary elements together with chromodomain proteins in balanced dosage and composition cooperate in organising the mating-type chromatin. Gene regulation can affect the subnuclear localisation of genes. Using nitrogen starvation in S. pombe as a model for gene induction we determined the subnuclear localisation of two gene clusters repressed by nitrogen: Chr1 and Tel1. When repressed these loci localise to the NM, and this positioning is dependent on the histone deacetylase Clr3. During induction the gene clusters moved towards the nuclear interior in a transcription dependent manner. The knowledge gained from work presented in this thesis, regarding nuclear organisation in the S. pombe model system, can hopefully aid to a better understanding of human nuclear organisation.
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5.
  • Pienimaki, Juha-Pekka, et al. (författare)
  • Epidermal growth factor activates hyaluronan synthase 2 in epidermal keratinocytes and increases pericellular and intracellular hyaluronan.
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry. - : American Society of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. - 0021-9258 .- 1083-351X. ; 276:23, s. 20428-20435
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hyaluronan is an abundant and rapidly turned over matrix molecule between the vital cell layers of the epidermis. In this study, epidermal growth factor (EGF) induced a coat of hyaluronan and a 3-5-fold increase in its rate of synthesis in a rat epidermal keratinocyte cell line that has retained its ability for differentiation. EGF also increased hyaluronan in perinuclear vesicles, suggesting concurrent enhancement in its endocytosis. Cell-associated hyaluronan was most abundant in elongated cells that were stimulated to migrate by EGF, as determined in vitro in a wound healing assay. Large fluctuations in the pool size of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, the metabolic precursor of hyaluronan, correlated with medium glucose concentrations but not with EGF. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed no increase in hyaluronan synthases 1 and 3 (Has1 and Has3), whereas Has2 mRNA increased 2-3-fold in less than 2 h following the introduction of EGF, as estimated by quantitative RT-PCR with a truncated Has2 mRNA internal standard. The average level of Has2 mRNA increased from approximately 6 copies/cell in cultures before change of fresh medium, up to approximately 54 copies/cell after 6 h in EGF-containing medium. A control medium with 10% serum caused a maximum level of approximately 21 copies/cell at 6 h. The change in the Has2 mRNA levels and the stimulation of hyaluronan synthesis followed a similar temporal pattern, reaching a maximum level at 6 h and declining toward 24 h, a finding in line with a predominantly Has2-dependent hyaluronan synthesis and its transcriptional regulation.
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6.
  • Rilla, Kirsi, et al. (författare)
  • Changed lamellipodial extension, adhesion plaques and migration in epidermal keratinocytes containing constitutively expressed sense and antisense hyaluronan synthase 2 (Has2) genes.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Journal of Cell Science. - Cambridge : The Company of Biologists. - 0021-9533 .- 1477-9137. ; 115, s. 3633-3643
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hyaluronan is a major component of the epidermal extracellular matrix, is actively synthesized by keratinocytes and shows fast matrix turnover in the stratified epithelium. We probed the importance of hyaluronan synthesis in keratinocytes by establishing cell lines carrying the exogenous hyaluronan synthase 2 (Has2) gene in sense and antisense orientations to increase and decrease their hyaluronan synthesis, respectively. Compared with cell lines transfected with the vector only, most clones containing the Has2 sense gene migrated faster in an in vitro wounding assay, whereas Has2 antisense cells migrated more slowly. Has2 antisense clones showed delayed entry into the S phase of cell cycle following plating, smaller lamellipodia and less spreading on the substratum. The decrease of hyaluronan on the undersurface of Has2 antisense cells was associated with an increased area of adhesion plaques containing vinculin. Exogenous hyaluronan added to the keratinocyte cultures had a minor stimulatory effect on migration after wounding but did not restore the reduced migratory ability of Has2 antisense cells. Hyaluronan decasaccharides that displace receptor bound hyaluronan in keratinocytes, and Streptomyces hyaluronidase sufficient to remove most cell surface hyaluronan had little effect on cell migration. The results suggest that the dynamic synthesis of hyaluronan directed by Has2, rather than the abundance of pericellular hyaluronan, controls keratinocyte migration, a cell function vital for the repair of squamous epithelia following wounding.
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7.
  • Hennerdal, Aron, et al. (författare)
  • Internal duplications in alpha-helical membrane protein topologies are common but the nonduplicated forms are rare
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Protein Science. - 0961-8368 .- 1469-896X. ; 19:12, s. 2305-2318
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Many alpha-helical membrane proteins contain internal symmetries, indicating that they might have evolved through a gene duplication and fusion event Here, we have characterized internal duplications among membrane proteins of known structure and in three complete genomes We found that the majority of large transmembrane (TM) proteins contain an internal duplication The duplications found showed a large variability both in the number of TM-segments included and in their orientation Surprisingly, an approximately equal number of antiparallel duplications and parallel duplications were found However, of all 11 superfamilies with an internal duplication, only for one, the AcrB Multidrug Efflux Pump, the duplicated unit could be found in its nonduplicated form An evolutionary analysis of the AcrB homologs indicates that several independent fusions have occurred, including the fusion of the SecD and SecF proteins into the 12-TM-protein SecDF in Brucella and Staphylococcus aureus In one additional case, the Vitamin B-12 transporter-like ABC transporters, the protein had undergone an additional fusion to form protein with 20 TM-helices in several bacterial genomes Finally, homologs to all human membrane proteins were used to detect the presence of duplicated and nonduplicated proteins This confirmed that only in rare cases can homologs with different duplication status be found, although internal symmetry is frequent among these proteins One possible explanation is that it is frequent that duplication and fusion events happen simultaneously and that there is almost always a strong selective advantage for the fused form
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8.
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9.
  • Buckland, Philip I., 1973-, et al. (författare)
  • The Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database : a resource for international, multiproxy and transdisciplinary studies of environmental and climatic change
  • 2015
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Climate and environmental change are global challenges which require global data and infrastructure to investigate. These challenges also require a multi-proxy approach, integrating evidence from Quaternary science and archaeology with information from studies on modern ecology and physical processes among other disciplines. The Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database (SEAD http://www.sead.se) is a Swedish based international research e-infrastructure for storing, managing, analysing and disseminating palaeoenvironmental data from an almost unlimited number of analysis methods. The system currently makes available raw data from over 1500 sites (>5300 datasets) and the analysis of Quaternary fossil insects, plant macrofossils, pollen, geochemistry and sediment physical properties, dendrochronology and wood anatomy, ceramic geochemistry and bones, along with numerous dating methods. This capacity will be expanded in the near future to include isotopes, multi-spectral and archaeo-metalurgical data. SEAD also includes expandable climate and environment calibration datasets, a complete bibliography and extensive metadata and services for linking these data to other resources. All data is available as Open Access through http://qsead.sead.se and downloadable software. SEAD is maintained and managed at the Environmental Archaeology Lab and HUMlab at Umea University, Sweden. Development and data ingestion is progressing in cooperation with The Laboratory for Ceramic Research and the National Laboratory for Wood Anatomy and Dendrochronology at Lund University, Sweden, the Archaeological Research Laboratory, Stockholm University, the Geoarchaeological Laboratory, Swedish National Historical Museums Agency and several international partners and research projects. Current plans include expanding its capacity to serve as a data source for any system and integration with the Swedish National Heritage Board's information systems. SEAD is partnered with the Neotoma palaeoecology database (http://www.neotomadb.org) and a new initiative for building cyberinfrastructure for transdisciplinary research and visualization of the long-term human ecodynamics of the North Atlantic funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF).
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10.
  • Zhang, Feng'e, et al. (författare)
  • Cell cycle-related lncRNAs and mRNAs in osteoarthritis chondrocytes in a Northwest Chinese Han Population
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Medicine (Baltimore, Md.). - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0025-7974 .- 1536-5964. ; 99:24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: A group of differentially expressed long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to play key roles in osteoarthritis (OA), although they represented only a small proportion of lncRNAs that may be biologically and physiologically relevant. Since our knowledge of regulatory functions of non-coding RNAs is still limited, it is important to gain better understanding of their relation to the pathogenesis of OA.Methods: We performed mRNA and lncRNA microarray analysis to detect differentially expressed RNAs in chondrocytes from three OA patients compared with four healthy controls. Then, enrichment analysis of the differentially expressed mRNAs was carried out to define disease molecular networks, pathways and gene ontology (GO) function. Furthermore, target gene prediction based on the co-expression network was performed to reveal the potential relationships between lncRNAs and mRNAs, contributing an exploration of a role of lncRNAs in OA mechanism. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses were used to demonstrate the reliability of the experimental results.Findings: Altogether 990 lncRNAs (666 up-regulated and 324 down-regulated) and 546 mRNAs (419 up-regulated and 127 down-regulated) were differentially expressed in OA samples compared with the normal ones. The enrichment analysis revealed a set of genes involved in cell cycle. In total, 854 pairs of mRNA and lncRNA were highly linked, and further target prediction appointed 12 genes specifically for their corresponding lncRNAs. The lncRNAs lncRNA-CTD-2184D3.4, ENST00000564198.1, and ENST00000520562.1 were predicted to regulate SPC24, GALM, and ZNF345 mRNA expressions in OA.Interpretation: This study uncovered several novel genes potentially important in pathogenesis of OA, and forecast the potential function of lnc-CTD-2184D3.4, especially for the cell cycle in the chondrocytes. These findings may promote additional aspects in studies of OA.
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