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Sökning: AMNE:(NATURVETENSKAP Biologiska vetenskaper Biokemi och molekylärbiologi)

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  • Sanli, Kemal, et al. (författare)
  • Metagenomic Sequencing of Marine Periphyton: Taxonomic and Functional Insights into Biofilm Communities
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Microbiology. - 1664-302X. ; 6:1192
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Periphyton communities are complex phototrophic, multispecies biofilms that develop on surfaces in aquatic environments. These communities harbor a large diversity of organisms comprising viruses, bacteria, algae, fungi, protozoans and metazoans. However, thus far the total biodiversity of periphyton has not been described. In this study, we use metagenomics to characterize periphyton communities from the marine environment of the Swedish west coast. Although we found approximately ten times more eukaryotic rRNA marker gene sequences compared to prokaryotic, the whole metagenome-based similarity searches showed that bacteria constitute the most abundant phyla in these biofilms. We show that marine periphyton encompass a range of heterotrophic and phototrophic organisms. Heterotrophic bacteria, including the majority of proteobacterial clades and Bacteroidetes, and eukaryotic macro-invertebrates were found to dominate periphyton. The phototrophic groups comprise Cyanobacteria and the alpha-proteobacterial genus Roseobacter, followed by different micro- and macro-algae. We also assess the metabolic pathways that predispose these communities to an attached lifestyle. Functional indicators of the biofilm form of life in periphyton involve genes coding for enzymes that catalyze the production and degradation of extracellular polymeric substances, mainly in the form of complex sugars such as starch and glycogen-like meshes together with chitin. Genes for 278 different transporter proteins were detected in the metagenome, constituting the most abundant protein complexes. Finally, genes encoding enzymes that participate in anaerobic pathways, such as denitrification and methanogenesis, were detected suggesting the presence of anaerobic or low-oxygen micro-zones within the biofilms.
  • Tedersoo, Leho, et al. (författare)
  • Novel soil-inhabiting clades fill gaps in the fungal tree of life
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Microbiome. - 2049-2618. ; 5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background - Fungi are a diverse eukaryotic group of degraders, pathogens, and symbionts, with many lineages known only from DNA sequences in soil, sediments, air, and water. Results - We provide rough phylogenetic placement and principal niche analysis for >40 previously unrecognized fungal groups at the order and class level from global soil samples based on combined 18S (nSSU) and 28S (nLSU) rRNA gene sequences. Especially, Rozellomycota (Cryptomycota), Zygomycota s.lat, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota are rich in novel fungal lineages, most of which exhibit distinct preferences for climate and soil pH. Conclusions - This study uncovers the great phylogenetic richness of previously unrecognized order- to phylum-level fungal lineages. Most of these rare groups are distributed in different ecosystems of the world but exhibit distinct ecological preferences for climate or soil pH. Across the fungal kingdom, tropical and non-tropical habitats are equally likely to harbor novel groups. We advocate that a combination of traditional and high-throughput sequencing methods enable efficient recovery and phylogenetic placement of such unknown taxonomic groups.
  • Shu, Nanjiang, 1981- (författare)
  • Prediction of zinc-binding sites in proteins and efficient protein structure description and comparison
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: protein structure prediction.
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>A large number of proteins require certain metals to stabilize their structures or to function properly. About one third of all proteins in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) contain metals and it is estimated that approximately the same proportion of all proteins are metalloproteins.</p> <p>Zinc, the second most abundant transition metal found in eukaryotic organisms, plays key roles, mainly structural and catalytic, in many biological functions. Predicting whether a protein binds zinc and even the accurate location of binding sites is important when investigating the function of an experimentally uncharacterized protein.</p> <p>Describing and comparing protein structures with both efficiency and accuracy are essential for systematic annotation of functional properties of proteins, be it on an individual or on a genome scale. Dozens of structure comparison methods have been developed in the past decades. In recent years, several research groups have endeavoured in developing methods for fast comparison of protein structures by representing the three-dimensional (3D) protein structures as one-dimensional (1D) geometrical strings based on the shape symbols of clustered regions of φ/ψ torsion angle pairs of the polypeptide backbones. These 1D geometrical strings, shape strings, are as compact as 1D secondary structures but carry more elaborate structural information in loop regions and thus are more suitable for fast structure database searching, classification of loop regions and evaluation of model structures.</p> <p>In this thesis, a new method for predicting zinc-binding sites in proteins from amino acid sequences is described. This method predicts zinc-binding Cys, His, Asp and Glu (the four most common zinc-binding residues) with 75% precision (86% for Cys and His only) at 50% recall according to a solid 5-fold cross-validation on a non-redundant set of the PDB chains containing 2727 unique chains, of which 235 bind to zinc. This method predicts zinc-binding Cys and His with about 10% higher precision at different recall levels compared to a previously published method. In addition, different methods for describing and comparing protein structures are reviewed. Some recently developed methods based on 1D geometrical representation of backbone structures are emphasized and analyzed in details.</p>
  • Alm Rosenblad, Magnus, 1957-, et al. (författare)
  • Detection of signal recognition particle (SRP) RNAs in the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) of three lineages of ectomycorrhizal fungi (Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota)
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: MycoKeys. - 1314-4057 .- 1314-4049. ; 13, s. 21-33
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • During a routine scan for Signal Recognition Particle (SRP) RNAs in eukaryotic sequences, we surprisingly found in silico evidence in GenBank for a 265-base long SRP RNA sequence in the ITS1 region of a total of 11 fully identified species in three ectomycorrhizal genera of the Basidiomycota (Fungi): Astraeus, Russula, and Lactarius. To rule out sequence artifacts, one specimen from a species indicated to have the SRP RNA-containing ITS region in each of these genera was ordered and re-sequenced. Sequences identical to the corresponding GenBank entries were recovered, or in the case of a non-original but conspecific specimen differed by three bases, showing that these species indeed have an SRP RNA sequence incorporated into their ITS1 region. Other than the ribosomal genes, this is the first known case of non-coding RNAs in the eukaryotic ITS region, and it may assist in the examination of other types of insertions in fungal genomes.
  • Buckland, Philip I., 1973-, et al. (författare)
  • The Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database a resource for international, multiproxy and transdisciplinary studies of environmental and climatic change
  • 2015
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Climate and environmental change are global challenges which require global data and infrastructure to investigate. These challenges also require a multi-proxy approach, integrating evidence from Quaternary science and archaeology with information from studies on modern ecology and physical processes among other disciplines. The Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database (SEAD http://www.sead.se) is a Swedish based international research e-infrastructure for storing, managing, analysing and disseminating palaeoenvironmental data from an almost unlimited number of analysis methods. The system currently makes available raw data from over 1500 sites (&gt;5300 datasets) and the analysis of Quaternary fossil insects, plant macrofossils, pollen, geochemistry and sediment physical properties, dendrochronology and wood anatomy, ceramic geochemistry and bones, along with numerous dating methods. This capacity will be expanded in the near future to include isotopes, multi-spectral and archaeo-metalurgical data. SEAD also includes expandable climate and environment calibration datasets, a complete bibliography and extensive metadata and services for linking these data to other resources. All data is available as Open Access through http://qsead.sead.se and downloadable software.</p><p> </p><p>SEAD is maintained and managed at the Environmental Archaeology Lab and HUMlab at Umea University, Sweden. Development and data ingestion is progressing in cooperation with The Laboratory for Ceramic Research and the National Laboratory for Wood Anatomy and Dendrochronology at Lund University, Sweden, the Archaeological Research Laboratory, Stockholm University, the Geoarchaeological Laboratory, Swedish National Historical Museums Agency and several international partners and research projects. Current plans include expanding its capacity to serve as a data source for any system and integration with the Swedish National Heritage Board's information systems.</p><p> </p><p>SEAD is partnered with the Neotoma palaeoecology database (http://www.neotomadb.org) and a new initiative for building cyberinfrastructure for transdisciplinary research and visualization of the long-term human ecodynamics of the North Atlantic funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF).</p>
  • Klevebring, Daniel, 1981- (författare)
  • On Transcriptome Sequencing
  • 2009
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>This thesis is about the use of massive DNA sequencing to investigate the transcriptome. During recent decades, several studies have made it clear that the transcriptome comprises a more complex set of biochemical machinery than was previously believed. The majority of the genome can be expressed as transcripts; and overlapping and antisense transcription is widespread. New technologies for the interroga- tion of nucleic acids have made it possible to investigate such cellular phenomena in much greater detail than ever before. For each application, special requirements need to be met. The work presented in this thesis focuses on the transcrip- tome and the development of technology for its analysis. In paper I, we report our development of an automated approach for sample preparation. The procedure was benchmarked against a publicly available reference data set, and we note that our approach outperformed similar manual procedures in terms of reproducibility. In the work reported in papers II-IV, we used different massive sequencing technologies to investigate the transcriptome. In paper II we describe a concatemerization approach that increased throughput by 65% using 454 sequencing,and we identify classes of transcripts not previously described in Populus. Papers III and IV both report studies based on SOLiD sequencing. In the former, we investigated transcripts and proteins for 13% of the human gene and detected a massive overlap for the upper 50% transcriptional levels. In the work described in paper IV, we investigated transcription in non-genic regions of the genome and detected expression from a high number of previ- ously unknown loci.</p>
  • Janzon, Anders, 1978-, et al. (författare)
  • Exploring the microbial resistome in river sediments exposed to extraordinary high levels of antibiotics
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: 35th FEBS Congress: Molecules of Life.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The rapid development and propagation of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic and opportunistic bacteria is a major threat to public health worldwide. The phenomenon has been widely studied in the clinical setting, but comparatively little is known about the prevalence and diversity of antibiotic resistance in communities of environmental bacteria, often referred to as the environmental resistome. As the external environment may function as a reservoir of resistance genes to human pathogens, we are interested in how environmental bacteria are affected by antibiotic pollution. We have previously isolated microbial DNA from river sediments taken up- and downstream from a water treatment plant that processes waste water from several pharmaceutical plants producing antibiotics. In a previous study, we used deep sequencing to identify unprecedented frequencies of known resistance genes to several classes of antibiotics in these samples. In this study, we aim to functionally characterize the resistome in a more open and exploratory way by screening genomic DNA libraries transformed into sensitive hosts. To generate the libraries, several experimental strategies were explored, including mechanical shearing and enzymatic digestion of the isolated DNA followed by blunt- or sticky end cloning into different plasmids, subsequently transformed into sensitive E. coli. Pros and cons of the different strategies will be discussed along with preliminary results of the screening against selected antibiotics.
  • Alström, Per (författare)
  • Mitochondrial phylogeny of the Eurasian/African reed warbler complex (Acrocephalus, Aves). Disagreement between morphological and molecular evidence and cryptic divergence: A case for resurrecting Calamoherpe ambigua Brehm 1857
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. - Elsevier. - 1055-7903 .- 1095-9513. ; 102, s. 30-44
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A tree based on the mitochondrial cyt b gene for 278 samples from throughout the range of the Eurasian Reed Warbler <em>Acrocephalus scirpaceus</em> - African Reed Warbler <em>A. baeticatus </em>complex shows well supported geographically structured divergence for eight distinct lineages. The phylogenetic structuring together with the clarification of priority, provided by sequence data from seven type specimens, suggests that both taxonomy and distribution boundaries are in need of revision. The Iberian and Moroccan populations form a well-supported Glade, and we propose that these are treated as taxonomically distinct, under the name <em>ambiguus</em> (Brehm, 1857). We propose that the names <em>scirpaceus</em>, <em>fuscus</em>, <em>avicenniae</em>, <em>ambiguus</em>, <em>minor</em>, <em>cinnamomeus</em>, <em>hallae</em> and <em>baeticatus</em> are used for the well supported clades in the complex, which we recommend to treat as one polytypic species, <em>A. scirpaceus</em>, pending studies of gene flow and assortative mating in the contact zones.
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