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Sökning: AMNE:(NATURVETENSKAP Fysik Astronomi, astrofysik och kosmologi)

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1.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of inclusive jet and dijet cross sections in proton-proton collisions at 7 TeV centre-of-mass energy with the ATLAS detector
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. Particles and Fields. - : Springer. - 1434-6044 .- 1434-6052. ; 71:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Jet cross sections have been measured for the first time in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV using the ATLAS detector. The measurement uses an integrated luminosity of 17 nb(-1) recorded at the Large Hadron Collider. The anti-k(t) algorithm is used to identify jets, with two jet resolution parameters, R = 0.4 and 0.6. The dominant uncertainty comes from the jet energy scale, which is determined to within 7% for central jets above 60 GeV transverse momentum. Inclusive single-jet differential cross sections are presented as functions of jet transverse momentum and rapidity. Dijet cross sections are presented as functions of dijet mass and the angular variable chi. The results are compared to expectations based on next-to-leading-order QCD, which agree with the data, providing a validation of the theory in a new kinematic regime.
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2.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of the centrality dependence of J/psi yields and observation of Z production in lead-lead collisions with the ATLAS detector at the LHC
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Physics Letters. Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics. - : Elsevier. - 0370-2693 .- 1873-2445. ; 697:4, s. 294-312
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Using the ATLAS detector, a centrality-dependent suppression has been observed in the yield of J/psi mesons produced in the collisions of lead ions at the Large Hadron Collider. In a sample of minimum-bias lead-lead collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre of mass energy root s(NN) = 2.76 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of about 6.7 mu b(-1), J/psi mesons are reconstructed via their decays to mu(+)mu(-) pairs. The measured J/psi yield, normalized to the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions, is found to significantly decrease from peripheral to central collisions. The centrality dependence is found to be qualitatively similar to the trends observed at previous, lower energy experiments. The same sample is used to reconstruct Z bosons in the mu(+)mu(-) final state, and a total of 38 candidates are selected in the mass window of 66 to 116 GeV. The relative Z yields as a function of centrality are also presented, although no conclusion can be inferred about their scaling with the number of binary collisions, because of limited statistics. This analysis provides the first results on J/psi and Z production in lead-lead collisions at the LHC. (C) 2011 CERN. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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3.
  • Aad, G., et al. (författare)
  • Search for Diphoton Events with Large Missing Transverse Energy in 7 TeV Proton-Proton Collisions with the ATLAS Detector
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - : American Physical Society. - 1079-7114 .- 0031-9007. ; 106:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A search for diphoton events with large missing transverse energy is presented. The data were collected with the ATLAS detector in proton-proton collisions at root s = 7 TeV at the CERN Large Hadron Collider and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 3: 1 pb(-1). No excess of such events is observed above the standard model background prediction. In the context of a specific model with one universal extra dimension with compactification radius R and gravity-induced decays, values of 1/R < 729 GeV are excluded at 95% C. L., providing the most sensitive limit on this model to date.
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4.
  • Hartman, H., et al. (författare)
  • The FERRUM project : experimental and theoretical transition rates of forbidden [Sc II] lines and radiative lifetimes of metastable ScII levels
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - : EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 480:2, s. 575-580
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. In many plasmas, long-lived metastable atomic levels are depopulated by collisions (quenched) before they decay radiatively. In low-density regions, however, the low collision rate may allow depopulation by electric dipole (E1) forbidden radiative transitions, so-called forbidden lines (mainly M1 and E2 transitions). If the atomic transition data are known, these lines are indicators of physical plasma conditions and used for abundance determination. Aims. Transition rates can be derived by combining relative intensities between the decay channels, so-called branching fractions (BFs), and the radiative lifetime of the common upper level. We use this approach for forbidden [Sc II] lines, along with new calculations. Methods. Neither BFs for forbidden lines, nor lifetimes of metastable levels, are easily measured in a laboratory. Therefore, astrophysical BFs measured in Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) spectra of the strontium filament of Eta Carinae are combined with lifetime measurements using a laser probing technique on a stored ion-beam (CRYRING facility, MSL, Stockholm). These quantities are used to derive the absolute transition rates (A-values). New theoretical transition rates and lifetimes are calulated using the CIV3 code. Results. We report experimental lifetimes of the Sc II levels 3d(2) a(3)P(0,1,2) with lifetimes 1.28, 1.42, and 1.24 s, respectively, and transition rates for lines from these levels down to 3d4s a(3)D in the region 8270-8390 angstrom. These are the most important forbidden [Sc II] transitions. New calculations for lines and metastable lifetimes are also presented, and are in good agreement with the experimental data.
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5.
  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • BRIGHT ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI SOURCE LIST FROM THE FIRST THREE MONTHS OF THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE ALL-SKY SURVEY
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 700:1, s. 597-622
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The first three months of sky-survey operation with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope reveal 132 bright sources at |b| > 10 degrees with test statistic greater than 100 ( corresponding to about 10 sigma). Two methods, based on the CGRaBS, CRATES, and BZCat catalogs, indicate high-confidence associations of 106 of these sources with known active galactic nuclei (AGNs). This sample is referred to as the LAT Bright AGN Sample (LBAS). It contains two radio galaxies, namely, Centaurus A and NGC 1275, and 104 blazars consisting of 58 flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), 42 BL Lac objects, and 4 blazars with unknown classification. Four new blazars were discovered on the basis of the LAT detections. Remarkably, the LBAS includes 10 high-energy-peaked BL Lacs (HBLs), sources which were previously difficult to detect in the GeV range. Another 10 lower-confidence associations are found. Only 33 of the sources, plus two at |b| < 10 degrees, were previously detected with Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope( EGRET), probably due to variability. The analysis of the gamma-ray properties of the LBAS sources reveals that the average GeV spectra of BL Lac objects are significantly harder than the spectra of FSRQs. No significant correlation between radio and peak gamma-ray fluxes is observed. Blazar log N-log S distributions and luminosity functions are constructed to investigate the evolution of the different blazar classes, with positive evolution indicated for FSRQs but none for BL Lacs. The contribution of LAT blazars to the total extragalactic gamma-ray intensity is estimated.
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6.
  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • EARLY FERMI GAMMA-RAY SPACE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THE QUASAR 3C 454.3
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 699:1, s. 817-823
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This is the first report of Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope observations of the quasar 3C 454.3, which has been undergoing pronounced long-term outbursts since 2000. The data from the Large Area Telescope, covering 2008 July 7-October 6, indicate strong, highly variable.-ray emission with an average flux of similar to 3 x 10 (6) photons cm(-2) s(-1), for energies > 100 MeV. The gamma-ray flux is variable, with strong, distinct, symmetrically shaped flares for which the flux increases by a factor of several on a timescale of about 3 days. This variability indicates a compact emission region, and the requirement that the source is optically thin to pair production implies relativistic beaming with Doppler factor delta > 8, consistent with the values inferred from Very Long Baseline Interferometry observations of superluminal expansion (delta similar to 25). The observed gamma-ray spectrum is not consistent with a simple power law, but instead steepens strongly above similar to 2 GeV, and is well described by a broken power law with photon indices of similar to 2.3 and similar to 3.5 below and above the break, respectively. This is the first direct observation of a break in the spectrum of a high-luminosity blazar above 100 MeV, and it is likely direct evidence for an intrinsic break in the energy distribution of the radiating particles. Alternatively, the spectral softening above 2 GeV could be due to gamma-ray absorption via photon-photon pair production on the soft X-ray photon field of the host active galactic nucleus, but such an interpretation would require the dissipation region to be located very close (less than or similar to 100 gravitational radii) to the black hole, which would be inconsistent with the X-ray spectrum of the source.
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7.
  • Nordin, Jakob, et al. (författare)
  • Evidence for a correlation between the SiII λ4000 width and Type Ia supernova color
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We study the pseudo equivalent width of the SiII λ4000 feature of Type Iasupernovae (SNe Ia) in the redshift range 0.0024 ≤z ≤0.634. We find that this spectral indicator correlateswith the light curve color excess SALT2 c as well as previouslydefined spectroscopic subclasses (Branch types) and theevolution of the  SiII λ6150 velocity, i.e., the so called velocitygradient. Based on our study of 55 objects from different surveys, we find indications that the SiII λ4000 spectral indicatorcould provide important information to improve cosmological distancemeasurements with SNe Ia.
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8.
  • Nordin, Jakob, 1979- (författare)
  • Spectral Properties of Type Ia Supernovae and Implications for Cosmology
  • 2011
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Type Ia supernovae can, for a short period of time, reach the same brightness as an entire galaxy. They are responsible for the creation of a large fraction of all heavy elements and can be used, as standard candles, to prove that the expansion of the universe is accelerating. Yet, we do not fully understand them. A basic picture where Type Ia supernovae are caused by thermonuclear explosions of white dwarfs is generally accepted, but the details are still debated. These unknowns propagate into systematic uncertainties in the estimates of cosmological parameters. A Monte Carlo framework, SMOCK, designed to model this error propagation, is presented. Evolution with time/distance and the nature of reddening are studied as the dominant astrophysical uncertainties. Optical spectra of Type Ia supernovae contain a wealth of information regarding the nature of these events, and can be used both to understand supernovae and to limit the systematic uncertainties in cosmological parameter estimates. We have reduced spectra observed with the Nordic Optical Telescope and the New Technology Telescope in conjunction with the SDSS-II supernova survey, and compared spectral properties (pseudo-Equivalent Widths and line velocities) of this sample with local supernovae.We have further studied possible systematic difficulties in such comparisons between nearby and distant supernovae, caused by noise and host galaxy contamination.Taking such uncertainties into account, we find a tentative evolution in supernova properties with redshift, compatible with expected demographic changes. Correlations with light curve shape found by other studies are confirmed. A tentative correlation with light curve colour is also presented. The latter could indicate an intrinsic component of the observed reddening, i.e. independent of interstellar dust in the host galaxy.
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9.
  • Nordin, Jakob, et al. (författare)
  • Spectral properties of Type Ia supernovae up to z~0.3
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 526, s. A119-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: Spectroscopic observations of type Ia supernovae obtained at the New Technology Telescope (NTT) and the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), in conjunction with the SDSS-II Supernova Survey, are analysed. We use spectral indicators measured up to a month after the lightcurve peak luminosity to characterise the supernova properties, and examine these for potential correlations with host galaxy type, lightcurve shape, colour excess, and redshift. Methods: Our analysis is based on 89 type Ia supernovae at a redshift interval z = 0.05-0.3, for which multiband SDSS photometry is available. A lower-z spectroscopy reference sample was used for comparisons over cosmic time. We present measurements of time series of pseudo equivalent widths and line velocities of the main spectral features in type Ia supernovae. Results: Supernovae with shallower features are found predominantly among the intrinsically brighter slow declining supernovae. We detect the strongest correlation between lightcurve stretch and the Si ii λ4000 absorption feature, which also correlates with the estimated mass and star formation rate of the host galaxy. We also report a tentative correlation between colour excess and spectral properties. If confirmed, this would suggest that moderate reddening of type Ia supernovae is dominated by effects in the explosion or its immediate environment, as opposed to extinction by interstellar dust.
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10.
  • Östman, Linda, et al. (författare)
  • NTT and NOT spectroscopy of SDSS-II supernovae
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 526, s. A28-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey, conducted between 2005 and 2007, was designed to detect a large number of type Ia supernovae around z ~ 0.2, the redshift "gap" between low-z and high-z supernova searches. The survey has provided multi-band (ugriz) photometric lightcurves for variable targets, and supernova candidates were scheduled for spectroscopic observations, primarily to provide supernova classification and accurate redshifts. We present supernova spectra obtained in 2006 and 2007 using the New Technology Telescope (NTT) and the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT). Aims: We provide an atlas of supernova spectra in the range z = 0.03-0.32 that complements the well-sampled lightcurves from SDSS-II in the forthcoming three-year SDSS supernova cosmology analysis. The sample can, for example, be used for spectral studies of type Ia supernovae, which are critical for understanding potential systematic effects when supernovae are used to determine cosmological distances. Methods: The spectra were reduced in a uniform manner, and special care was taken in estimating the uncertainties for the different processing steps. Host-galaxy light was subtracted when possible and the supernova type fitted using the SuperNova IDentification code (SNID). We also present comparisons between spectral and photometric dating using SALT lightcurve fits to the photometry from SDSS-II, as well as the global distribution of our sample in terms of the lightcurve parameters: stretch and colour. Results: We report new spectroscopic data from 141 type Ia supernovae, mainly between -9 and +15 days from lightcurve maximum, including a few cases of multi-epoch observations. This homogeneous, host-galaxy subtracted, type Ia supernova spectroscopic sample is among the largest such data sets and unique in its redshift interval. The sample includes two potential SN 1991T-like supernovae (SN 2006on and SN 2007ni) and one potential SN 2002cx-like supernova (SN 2007ie). In addition, the new compilation includes spectra from 23 confirmed type II and 8 type Ib/c supernovae.
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