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Sökning: AMNE:(SAMHÄLLSVETENSKAP Medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap)

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  • Asai, Ryoko (författare)
  • Social Media Supporting Democratic Dialogue
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: ETHCOMP. - Lisbon : Autónoma University. ; , s. 36-43
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The term of “social media” appears in newspapers and magazines everyday and the huge number of people use social media actively in daily life. Nowadays, in the highly Information and Communication Technology (ICT) developed country Japan, Japanese people enroll in social media and evolve a new way of communicating with others based on the “virtual” social distance between them. Among social media, Twitter has been focusing on its strong power as the tool for political change recent years. While Twitter has of-expressed problems as well as the “traditional” social media, it is characterized by the limited number of characters, strong propagation and optional reciprocity. Those characteristics stimulate people’s communication online and bring about opportunities for social interaction and democratic dialogue. On the other hand, in the deluge of information, we need to nurture skills to utilize critical and rational way of thinking through dialogue not only between others also between themselves internally. This study explores characteristics of social media and differences between “traditional” social media and Twitter, and how the difference affects people’s information behavior in Japan.
  • Florin, Ulrika, 1964- (författare)
  • Från idé till gestaltningsförslag : fallstudie från Projekt Konstpaus
  • 2010
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Populär sammanfattning I vårt samhälle finns många offentliga konstverk. Dessa verk har kommit till på olika sätt men gemensamt är att konstverken i de allra flesta fall upphandlats med utgångspunkt i någon form av skiss. Skissen föregår det kommande konstverket och tjänar som underlag för beslut om upphandling av verket i full skala. Kunskapen om hur skisser kan tydas varierar och dessutom förekommer flera typer av skisser som var för sig fordrar olika sorters insikter av betraktaren (beslutsfattaren) för att kunna tolkas. Det övergripande temat för avhandlingen är kommunikationsprocesserna i relation till utvecklingen av 12 konstnärers gestaltningsförslag, tävlingsbidrag, samt hur juryns bedömning av dessa ser ut. Studien är baserad på material insamlat från de deltagande konstnärernas processer i Projekt Konstpaus, ett projekt delfinansierat av EU. Syftet med studien är att öka förståelsen för hur konstnärer utformar sina gestaltningsförslag, samt hur dessa förslag används och värderas. För att göra detta har tävlingsbidragen analyserats och konstnärerna intervjuats. Konstnärliga gestaltningsprocesser har synliggjorts liksom kommunikationen mellan beställare och konstnär.Bland annat har det framkommit att det finns en större potential att förmedla ett komplext gestaltningsinnehåll till en jury med stöd av digitala skisser, än vid användande av traditionella skisser. Det har visat sig att det kommande konstverkets kvaliteter blir synliga, men också att de brister som finns i gestaltningen tydliggörs i 3D- skisserna. Liksom teknologier tidigare i historien haft sin påverkan på bildutvecklingen, tolkningen och seendet har också övergången till digitala skisstekniker denna inverkan. Det har också visat sig att den text som tillhör respektive tävlingsbidrag haft avgörande betydelse för utfallet av jurybedömningen. Muntliga och skriftliga presentationer, bilagor och brev har påverkat juryn i sina beslut.Studien har också visat hur konstnärer kan tolka och förmedla resultat av en inventering och genom sina skisser förmedla dessa tolkningar. Konsten som tolkare av miljö, tid och tanke, kan gestalta information om en plats och i och med detta också fungera värnande för ett samhälles identitet i olika faser av en utveckling.Studien har bidragit med en djupare inblick i konstnärliga gestaltningsprocesser och hur de kan beskrivas samt i och med detta också en fördjupad förståelse i allmänhet av kreativa processer.
  • Kroon Lundell, Åsa, et al. (författare)
  • The complex visual gendering of political women in the press
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journalism Studies. - London : Routledge. - 1461-670X .- 1469-9699. ; 9:6, s. 891-910
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this article, we present an analysis of how gendering is “being done” in press visuals of women in politics. In short, we will argue that women professionals working within the area of politics are gendered and type-cast in more complex ways than previous research has yet shown. In a qualitative analysis of visuals from three different political scandals in Sweden involving prominent political women, we analyse the diversified ways of portraying women in visuals that do not simply reproduce the idea that the gendering of women uncritically correlates with concepts like sexualization, objectification, passivity and otherness. As on-lookers of a professional woman in politics caught in a pressing situation in a photograph, we will argue that at times we may be invited to see her as both an Other and a person with whom we can identify ourselves with. Or a woman may be positioned as an object with a focus on appearance, but not by emphasizing her femininity and sexuality but by doing exactly the reverse. We will also discuss the complexity that is related to the various contextual factors that come into play when press photographers and editors communicatively “work” at accomplishing specific gendered visual “preferred readings”.
  • Grünloh, Christiane, et al. (författare)
  • "why do they need to check me?" patient participation through ehealth and the doctor-patient relationship : Qualitative study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Internet Research. - : J M I R Publications, Inc.. - 1438-8871 .- 1438-8871. ; 20:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Roles in the doctor-patient relationship are changing and patient participation in health care is increasingly emphasized. Electronic health (eHealth) services such as patient accessible electronic health records (PAEHRs) have been implemented to support patient participation. Little is known about practical use of PAEHR and its effect on roles of doctors and patients. Objective: This qualitative study aimed to investigate how physicians view the idea of patient participation, in particular in relation to the PAEHR system. Hereby, the paper aims to contribute to a deeper understanding of physicians' constructions of PAEHR, roles in the doctor-patient relationship, and levels and limits of involvement. Methods: A total of 12 semistructured interviews were conducted with physicians in different fields. Interviews were transcribed, translated, and a theoretically informed thematic analysis was performed. Results: Two important aspects were identified that are related to the doctor-patient relationship: roles and involvement. The physicians viewed their role as being the ones to take on the responsibility, determining treatment options, and to be someone who should be trusted. In relation to the patient's role, lack of skills (technical or regarding medical jargon), motives to read, and patients' characteristics were aspects identified in the interviews. Patients were often referred to as static entities disregarding their potential to develop skills and knowledge over time. Involvement captures aspects that support or hinder patients to take an active role in their care. Conclusions: Literature of at least two decades suggests an overall agreement that the paternalistic approach in health care is inappropriate, and a collaborative process with patients should be adopted. Although the physicians in this study stated that they, in principle, were in favor of patient participation, the analysis found little support in their descriptions of their daily practice that participation is actualized. As seen from the results, paternalistic practices are still present, even if professionals might not be aware of this. This can create a conflict between patients who strive to become more informed and their questions being interpreted as signs of critique and mistrust toward the physician. We thus believe that the full potential of PAEHRs is not reached yet and argue that the concept of patient empowerment is problematic as it triggers an interpretation of "power" in health care as a zero-sum, which is not helpful for the maintenance of the relationship between the actors. Patient involvement is often discussed merely in relation to decision making; however, this study emphasizes the need to include also sensemaking and learning activities. This would provide an alternative understanding of patients asking questions, not in terms of "monitoring the doctor" but to make sense of the situation.
  • Håkansson, Anne, et al. (författare)
  • Using reengineering for knowledge-based systems
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Cybernetics and systems. - : Taylor & Francis. - 0196-9722 .- 1087-6553. - 0196-9722 ; 38, s. 799-824
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Reverse engineering, also called reengineering, is used to modify systems that have functioned for many years, but which can no longer accomplish their intended tasks and, therefore, need to be updated. Reverse engineering can support the modification and extension of the knowledge in an already existing system. However, this can be an intricate task for a large, complex and poorly documented knowledge-based system. The rules in the knowledge base must be gathered, analyzed and understood, but also checked for verification and validation. We introduce an approach that uses reverse engineering for the knowledge in knowledge-based systems. The knowledge is encapsulated in rules, facts and conclusions, and in the relationships between them. Reverse engineering also collects functionality and source code. The outcome of reverse engineering is a model of the knowledge base, the functionality and the source code connected to the rules. These models are presented in diagrams using a graphic representation similar to Unified Modeling Language and employing ontology. Ontology is applied on top of rules, facts and relationships. From the diagrams, test cases are generated during the reverse engineering process and adopted to verify and validate the system.
  • Boholm, Max, 1982- (författare)
  • Risk, language and discourse
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This doctoral thesis analyses the concept of risk and how it functions as an organizing principle of discourse, paying close attention to actual linguistic practice.          Article 1 analyses the concepts of risk, safety and security and their relations based on corpus data (the Corpus of Contemporary American English). Lexical, grammatical and semantic contexts of the nouns risk, safety and security, and the adjectives risky, safe and secure are analysed and compared. Similarities and differences are observed, suggesting partial synonymy between safety (safe) and security (secure) and semantic opposition to risk (risky). The findings both support and contrast theoretical assumptions about these concepts in the literature.          Article 2 analyses the concepts of risk and danger and their relation based on corpus data (in this case the British National Corpus). Frame semantics is used to explore the assumptions of the sociologist Niklas Luhmann (and others) that the risk concept presupposes decision-making, while the concept of danger does not. Findings partly support and partly contradict this assumption.          Article 3 analyses how newspapers represent risk and causality. Two theories are used: media framing and the philosopher John Mackie’s account of causality. A central finding of the study is that risks are “framed” with respect to causality in several ways (e.g. one and the same type of risk can be presented as resulting from various causes). Furthermore, newspaper reporting on risk and causality vary in complexity. In some articles, risks are presented without causal explanations, while in other articles, risks are presented as results from complex causal conditions. Considering newspaper reporting on an aggregated overall level, complex schemas of causal explanations emerge.          Article 4 analyses how phenomena referred to by the term nano (e.g. nanotechnology, nanoparticles and nanorobots) are represented as risks in Swedish newspaper reporting. Theoretically, the relational theory of risk and frame semantics are used. Five main groups of nano-risks are identified based on the risk object of the article: (I) nanotechnology; (II) nanotechnology and its artefacts (e.g. nanoparticles and nanomaterials); (III) nanoparticles, without referring to nanotechnology; (IV) non-nanotechnological nanoparticles (e.g. arising from traffic); and (V) nanotechnology and nanorobots. Various patterns are explored within each group, concerning, for example, what is considered to be at stake in relation to these risk objects, and under what conditions. It is concluded that Swedish patterns of newspaper reporting on nano-risks follow international trends, influenced by scientific assessment, as well as science fiction.          Article 5 analyses the construction and negotiation of risk in the Swedish controversy over the use of antibacterial silver in health care and consumer products (e.g. sports clothes and equipment). The controversy involves several actors: print and television news media, Government and parliament, governmental agencies, municipalities, non-government organisations, and companies. In the controversy, antibacterial silver is claimed to be a risk object that negatively affects health, the environment, and sewage treatment industry (objects at risk). In contrast, such claims are denied. Antibacterial silver is even associated with the benefit of mitigating risk objects (e.g. bacteria and micro-organisms) that threaten health and the environment (objects at risk). In other words, both sides of the controversy invoke health and the environment as objects at risk. Three strategies organising risk communication are identified: (i) representation of silver as a risk to health and the environment; (ii) denial of such representations; and (iii) benefit association, where silver is construed to mitigate risks to health and the environment.
  • Mathew Martin, Poothullil John, 1965- (författare)
  • Web Accessibility for Persons with Disabilities : Evidence from India
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: NO. - New Delhi, India : Indian Institute of Mass Communication. ; XLIII:1, s. 28-56
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Websites are today the face of an organization, with Global reach. The Information and Technology (IT) Act 2000 of India, is entirely silent on the subject of web accessibility. However the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) guidelines of 2009, which has been ratified by Govt. of India, of which Article 9.2 (g) & (h) especially lays down that, states should facilitate access for Persons with disabilities (PWDs) to new information and communication technologies, especially the Internet. A study was undertaken on 3rd December 2009, to analyze the qualities of a website designed by Government Organizations (GOs) and Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) working for PWDs in terms of Information & Dissemination, Accessibility, Design and Interactive participatory features. The main contribution of this study is to illuminate the features of websites used by GOs and NGOs working for PWDs in India and its accessibility.
  • Waddington, Simon, et al. (författare)
  • PERICLES – Digital Preservation through Management of Change in Evolving Ecosystems.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: ; , s. 51-74
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Management of change is essential to ensure the long-term reusabilityof digital assets. Change can be brought about in many ways, includingthrough technological, user community and policy factors. Motivated by casestudies in space science and time-based media, we consider the impact ofchange on complex digital objects comprising multiple interdependent entities,such as files, software and documentation. Our approach is based on modellingof digital ecosystems, in which abstract representations are used to assess risksto sustainability and support tasks such as appraisal. The paper is based onwork of the EU FP7 PERICLES project on digital preservation, and presentssome general concepts as well as a description of selected research areas underinvestigation by the project.
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