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1.
  • Waltman, Max (författare)
  • Prohibiting Sex Purchasing and Ending Trafficking : The Swedish Prostitution Law
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Michigan Journal of International Law. - 1052-2867. ; 33:1, s. 133-157
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Swedish prostitution law from 1999, now followed by Norway and Iceland, criminalized the purchaser and decriminalized the prostituted person. This is analyzed as a cogent state response under international trafficking law, particularly to the obligations set forth in the United Nation’s Trafficking Protocol from 2000. The Protocol states that a person is regarded a trafficking victim when, e.g., someone abuses her “position of vulnerability” in order to exploit her. International jurisprudence and social evidence strongly suggest that prostitution, as practiced in the world, usually satisfies this definition. Further, the Protocol urges states to reduce the demand for prostitution and to protect and assist victims, for instance by adopting laws deterring purchasers of sex, and by supporting those exploited in prostitution. Policy makers, such as the U.S. Department of State, are criticized for taking an inadequate position in face of the growing evidence from the Swedish law's impact.The article shows that Sweden has significantly reduced the occurrence of trafficking in Sweden compared to neighboring countries. It also scrutinizes some misinformation of the law's impact, showing for instance that claims alleging a more dangerous situation for those still in prostitution after 1999 were unfounded. In addition, the article addresses remaining obstacles to the law's effective implementation, arguing that in order to realize the law's full potential to support escape from trafficking, the civil rights of prostituted persons under current law should be strengthened to enable them to claim damages directly from the purchasers for the harm to which they have contributed, and for the violation of the prostituted persons' equality and dignity - a position now recognized by the government to some extent by clarifying amendments made in 2011.
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3.
  • Inghammar, Andreas (författare)
  • Funktionshindrad - med rätt till arbete? En komparativ studie av arbetsrättsliga regleringar kring arbete och funktionshinder i Sverige, England och Tyskland.
  • 2007
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This doctoral thesis examines labour market legislation on disability and work in Sweden, England and Germany. In order to provide increased access to the labour market for people with disabilities all three studies countries have undertaken more of less far-reaching legislative measures over a number of decades, both in line with, or as a result of, general labour and employment legislation, but also as more specific parts of the labour market regulation. Obviously legislators in all three countries, and more recently in the European Union, have realised that access to the labour market is a vital and important part of societal inclusion and participation. The study provides a legal dogmatic and comparative analysis of the field of law and raises questions about how rights are provided to individuals under these laws in the different national settings and in what way the legislation represents or reproduces different normative patterns. Three different legal areas appear all over the dissertation, these are positive measures, employment protection and discrimination law. Legislation on positive measures, such as quota-legislation and regulations on supported or sheltered employment, vary widely between the countries, as do employment protection legislation, while the disability discrimination legislation in the different countries is turning into a more EC-conform shape in line with recent EC-legislation on discrimination.
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4.
  • Leidö, Jan, 1983- (författare)
  • Realizing the Single Software Market : Cross-National Validity of Software License Agreements
  • 2014
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The Internet has revolutionized the software industry, one of the world’s largest businesses. A single software market is emerging, independent of national borders, where products and services are digitally distributed. But the legal framework for software transfers is not geographically independent; relevant underlying law varies substantially between different legal systems.In this doctoral thesis, cross-national validity of certain standard software license agreements is examined as a solution to overcome national differences and improve the emerging single software market. Cross-national validity is mapped, explained, and improved under American and German law. The United States and the European Union collectively dominate the single software market. Within the EU, Germany is the most relevant legal system, and many conclusions reached under German law can be extended to the entire EU.The study identifies many current issues, caused by inter alia inherent limits of law, fundamental differences between German and American law, and problematic transferor choices. Current issues exist regarding formation, substantive content, and interpretation of software license agreements on a cross-national level. This leads to increasing legal and practical problems for the industry and individual transferors.Major and minor improvements in software license agreements and business models are suggested to achieve cross-national validity. Simple advice includes better assent mechanisms, prior disclosure, clear notice, and translating software license agreements. More comprehensive advice includes focusing on provisions that are essential from a business or technical perspective, rethinking certain business and technical choices that might lead to legal problems, making compromises over certain provisions that have only minor legal advantages but clear legal disadvantages, and choosing a way to bridge or avoid national differences regarding central provisions and practices from among available suggestions adapted to different business models.Making such improvements is becoming increasingly important as lawmakers and consumer associations in different countries become ever more active, and as developing countries become increasingly important. Improving cross-national validity will enhance legal certainty and bring us one step closer to realizing the single software market.
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5.
  • Dingu-Kyrklund, Elena (författare)
  • Nationality and the child: children’s right to citizenship - the Swedish case
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: The 3rd European Conference on Nationality “Nationality and the Child” 11-12 October 2004.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The right to citizenship is an important right that every child should enjoy. In a general discussion on nationality, acquisition and loss of citizenship, the rights of the child against the background of extensive international migration, the article argues about the multiple aspects embedded in the citizenship concept and its practical content, presenting the legal status quo in the matter in the Swedish context.
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6.
  • Lindholm, Johan, 1977- (författare)
  • Dopad i praktiken : rättslig och idrottslig praxis
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Doping, en fråga för lagstiftaren?. - Stockholm : SISU idrottsböcker. ; , s. 85-102
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Idrottsrörelsen bedriver en omfattande, internationell kamp mot doping. I Sverige, till skillnad från i många andra länder, kan många idrottsliga dopingförseelser också utgöra brott i straffrättslig bemärkelse. En undersökning av vilka dopingärenden som prövas i de idrottsliga och rättsliga systemen visar att dessa system överlappar varandra i viss mån men att det också finns tydliga skillnader mellan vilka som fastnar i respektive system.
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7.
  • Futter, Martyn N., et al. (författare)
  • Forests, Forestry and the Water Framework Directive in Sweden : A Trans-Disciplinary Commentary
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Forests. - : MDPI. - 1999-4907 .- 1999-4907. ; 2:1, s. 261-282
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Water Framework Directive (WFD) is an ambitious piece of legislation designed to protect and improve water quality throughout Europe. However, forests are only mentioned once in the WFD, and forestry is not mentioned at all, despite its potential implications for streams, rivers and lakes. Here we present a transdisciplinary commentary on the WFD and its implications for forests and forestry in Sweden. This commentary has been prepared by forestry stakeholders, biophysical and social scientists. While we were cognizant of a large body of discipline-specific research, there are very few inter-or trans-disciplinary commentaries which link academic and stakeholder perspectives on the WFD. We had originally felt that there would be little commonality in our concerns. However, we found significant areas of agreement. Our key areas of concern about the implications of the WFD for forestry in Sweden included: (i) concerns about what is meant by good ecological status and how it is assessed; (ii) a perceived lack of clarity in the legal framework; (iii) an inadequate environmental impact assessment process; and (iv) uncertainties about appropriate programs of measures for improving water quality. We were also concerned that ecosystem services provided by forests and the positive effects of forestry on water quality are inadequately recognized in the WFD.
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8.
  • Bergwall, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Tracing Critical Realism in the Work of Åström
  • Ingår i: Festskrift till Karsten Åström. - : Juristförlaget i Lund. - 9789154405695 ; , s. 75-94
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of this chapter is to discuss the possibilities of a critical realist sociology of law set against the background of the work of Professor Karsten Åström. Thus, in the next section I give a short description of Åström’s ”sociolegal stance”, and specifically his concept of parallel norm creating processes. I then proceed, in the third section, to describe the basics of Roy Bhaskar’s critical realism as a philosophy of science. This is followed in the fourth section by the recapitulation of Bhaskar’s own dialectical critical realism (DCR), which is built on the dialectics of Hegel and Marx. In section five, I move on to the legal theory of the critical realist law professor Alan Norrie with a focus on Norrie’s critique of ”liberal law”. Thereafter, in section six, I specifically highlight Norrie’s call for a sociology of law in the spirit of DCR, beyond legal positivist and poststructuralist conceptions of law. Then, in section seven, I discuss the potential critical realism of Åström’s work by reflecting on the analysis model of legal regulation (AMLR), applied in analyses of legal norms, e.g., in social service agencies. This is followed by how conceiving of AMLR dialectically may enable new ways for understanding social conflicts and social change in the field of social welfare. This is, in the final section, demonstrated by the case of EU migrants residing legally in Sweden but without the right to social welfare. In this case, an external social institution, an NGO, succeeded to influence, open up and ultimately collaborate with the local public administration, resulting in new policy with the potential to improve the living conditions for the migrants.
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9.
  • Felton, Adam, et al. (författare)
  • Replacing monocultures with mixed-species stands : Ecosystem service implications of two production forest alternatives in Sweden
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Future Forests. - : Springer Verlag (Germany). ; 45, s. 124-139
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Whereas there is evidence that mixed-species approaches to production forestry in general can provide positive outcomes relative to monocultures, it is less clear to what extent multiple benefits can be derived from specific mixed-species alternatives. To provide such insights requires evaluations of an encompassing suite of ecosystem services, biodiversity, and forest management considerations provided by specific mixtures and monocultures within a region. Here, we conduct such an assessment in Sweden by contrasting even-aged Norway spruce (Picea abies)-dominated stands, with mixed-species stands of spruce and birch (Betula pendula or B. pubescens), or spruce and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). By synthesizing the available evidence, we identify positive outcomes from mixtures including increased biodiversity, water quality, esthetic and recreational values, as well as reduced stand vulnerability to pest and pathogen damage. However, some uncertainties and risks were projected to increase, highlighting the importance of conducting comprehensive interdisciplinary evaluations when assessing the pros and cons of mixtures.
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10.
  • Klapwijk, Maartje J., et al. (författare)
  • Reducing the risk of invasive forest pests and pathogens : Combining legislation, targeted management and public awareness
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Ambio. - : Springer Verlag (Germany). - 0044-7447 .- 1654-7209. ; 45, s. S223-S234
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intensifying global trade will result in increased numbers of plant pest and pathogen species inadvertently being transported along with cargo. This paper examines current mechanisms for prevention and management of potential introductions of forest insect pests and pathogens in the European Union (EU). Current European legislation has not been found sufficient in preventing invasion, establishment and spread of pest and pathogen species within the EU. Costs associated with future invasions are difficult to estimate but past invasions have led to negative economic impacts in the invaded country. The challenge is combining free trade and free movement of products (within the EU) with protection against invasive pests and pathogens. Public awareness may mobilise the public for prevention and detection of potential invasions and, simultaneously, increase support for eradication and control measures. We recommend focus on commodities in addition to pathways, an approach within the EU using a centralised response unit and, critically, to engage the general public in the battle against establishment and spread of these harmful pests and pathogens.
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