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  • Waltman, Max (författare)
  • Prohibiting Sex Purchasing and Ending Trafficking The Swedish Prostitution Law
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Michigan Journal of International Law. - 1052-2867. ; 33:1, s. 133-157
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The Swedish prostitution law from 1999, now followed by Norway and Iceland, criminalized the purchaser and decriminalized the prostituted person. This is analyzed as a cogent state response under international trafficking law, particularly to the obligations set forth in the United Nation’s Trafficking Protocol from 2000. The Protocol states that a person is regarded a trafficking victim when, e.g., someone abuses her “position of vulnerability” in order to exploit her. International jurisprudence and social evidence strongly suggest that prostitution, as practiced in the world, usually satisfies this definition. Further, the Protocol urges states to reduce the demand for prostitution and to protect and assist victims, for instance by adopting laws deterring purchasers of sex, and by supporting those exploited in prostitution. Policy makers, such as the U.S. Department of State, are criticized for taking an inadequate position in face of the growing evidence from the Swedish law's impact.The article shows that Sweden has significantly reduced the occurrence of trafficking in Sweden compared to neighboring countries. It also scrutinizes some misinformation of the law's impact, showing for instance that claims alleging a more dangerous situation for those still in prostitution after 1999 were unfounded. In addition, the article addresses remaining obstacles to the law's effective implementation, arguing that in order to realize the law's full potential to support escape from trafficking, the civil rights of prostituted persons under current law should be strengthened to enable them to claim damages directly from the purchasers for the harm to which they have contributed, and for the violation of the prostituted persons' equality and dignity - a position now recognized by the government to some extent by clarifying amendments made in 2011.</p>
  • Waltman, Max (författare)
  • Prohibiting Purchase of Sex in Sweden Impact, Obstacles, Potential, and Supporting Escape
  • 2010
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>This paper analyzes the core reasons for the Swedish law from 1999 which criminalizes purchase of sex and decriminalizes the prostituted person, passed as part of an omnibus bill against violence against women and recognizing prostitution as a form of it. Further, it documents the law’s impact by comparing data from several recent Swedish studies with the situation in other relevant countries, concluding the law has significantly reduced the occurrence of prostitution manifolds compared to its neighboring countries. Crucial obstacles to effective implementation are also addressed, particularly in current case law. Some of the critique against the law and disinformation about the law’s effects are also commented. Finally, to realize its full potential to support escape from prostitution more efficiently, it is argued that the civil rights of prostituted persons under current law should be strengthened to get damages paid for directly by the tricks/johns for the harm they have contributed to. An additional consideration is for individual states to extend the use of the Palermo Protocol (international law acknowledging connections between prostitution and sex trafficking) to charge tricks for trafficking when they “receive” persons who are effectively pimped.</p>
  • Hallengren, Anders, 1950- (författare)
  • The code of Concord : Emerson's search for universal laws
  • 1994. - 1
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>The purpose of this work is to detect a pattern: the concordance of Ethics and Aesthetics, Poetics and Politics in the most influential American thinker of the nineteenth century. It is an attempt to trace a basic concept of the Emersonian transcendentalist doctrine, its development, its philosophical meaning and practical implications. Emerson’s thought is analyzed genetically in search of the generating paradigm, or the set of axioms from which his aesthetic ideas as well as his political reasoning are derived. Such a basic structure, or point of convergence, is sought in the emergence of Emerson’s idea of universal laws that repeat themselves on all levels of reality.</p><p>A general introduction is given in Part One, where the crisis in Emerson’s life is seen as representing and foreshadowing the deeper existential crisis of modern man.</p><p>In Part 2 we follow the increasingly skeptical theologian’s turn to science, where he tries to secure a safe secular foundation for ethical good and right and to solve the problem of evil.</p><p>Part 3 shows how Emerson’s conception of the laws of nature and ethics is applied in his political philosophy.</p><p>In Part 4, Emerson’s ideas of the arts are seen as corresponding to his views of nature, morality, and individuality.</p><p>Finally, in Part 5, the ancient and classical nature of Concord philosophy is brought into focus.</p><p>The book concludes with a short summary.</p>
  • Cutas, Daniela, 1978-, et al. (författare)
  • Legal imperialism in the regulation of stem cell research and therapy: the problem of extraterritorial jurisdiction
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Capps BJ & Campbell AV (eds.). CONTESTED CELLS: Global Perspectives on the Stem Cell Debate. - London : Imperial College Press. - 978-1-84816-437-6 ; s. 95-119
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Countries worldwide have very different national regulations on human embryonic stem (ES) cell research, informed by a range of ethical values. Some countries find reason to extend the applicability of their regulations on such research to its citizens when they visit other countries. Extraterritorial jurisdiction has recently been identified as a potential challenge towards global regulation of ES cell research. This chapter explores the implications and impact of extraterritorial jurisdiction and global regulation of ES cell research on researchers, clinicians and national health systems, and how this may affect patients. The authors argue that it would make ethical sense for ES cell restrictive countries to extend its regulations on ES cell research beyond its borders, because, if these countries really consider embryo destruction to be objectionable on the basis on the status of the embryo, then they ought to count it morally on par with murder (and thus have a moral imperative to protect embryos from the actions of its own citizens). However, doing so could lead to a legal situation that would result in substantial harm to central values in areas besides research, such as health care, the job market, basic freedom of movement, and strategic international finance and politics. Thus, it seems that restrictive extraterritorial jurisdiction in respect to ES cell research would be deeply problematic, given that the ethical permissibility of ES cell research is characterised by deep and wide disagreement.
  • Waltman, Max, et al. (författare)
  • Stärk prostituerade personers möjlighet att kräva skadestånd [Strenghten Prostituted Persons’ Possibilities to Demand Damages].
  • 2011
  • Annan publikation (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • <p><strong>GÖTEBORGS-POSTEN 10 Maj, 2011, Debatt</strong></p> <p><strong>I sexköpsmål betalar köparen i dag främst böter till staten och prostituerade personer kallas endast som vittnen. Möjligheten för prostituerade människor att yrka skadestånd finns, men har aldrig använts sen lagen kom till. Vi vill se en utredning som ser över hur deras förutsättningar för skadestånd kan förbättras, skriver bland andra Carina Hägg (S).</strong> </p> <p>Justitieutskottet publicerade nyligen sitt betänkande som föreslår ett skärpt straff för sexköp till riksdagen. Samtidigt skriver majoriteten att en målsägandeställning ”är inte i sig nödvändig för att kunna föra talan om skadestånd eller ens för att få denna talan handlagd,” men åklagaren är inte skyldig att föra talan för andra än målsäganden.</p> <p>Detta förtydligande av rättsläget vad gäller skadestånd är välkommet, men det tycks vara lika tydligt att personen som köps i prostitution är den mot vilken brottet sexköp är begånget. Om denna möjlighet att få skadestånd redan existerar reser det emellertid frågetecken varför <em>ingen </em>prostituerad person ännu har fått sådant skadestånd för att ha blivit köpt för sex. Inte en 14-årig psykiskt utvecklingsstörd flicka (HovR över Skåne &amp; Blekinge mål B 2917-10 &amp; B 3184-10), eller en vuxen som öppet tillstods vara maktlös av en Hovrätt vilken uttalade att sexköparna ”insett och utnyttjat” faktumet, vanligt i prostitution, att den prostituerade personen ”befunnit sig i ett sådant underläge mot de två männen att det måste ha framstått som i det närmaste omöjligt för henne att vägra den andre samlag eller i övrigt påverka situationen” (RH 2008:59).</p> <p>När nu de styrande således har förtydligat sexköpslagen i detta avseende kommer förhoppningsvis polis, åklagare, målsägandebiträden, domstolar, socialarbetare och andra aktörer hädanefter upplysa alla prostituerade personer om deras rättigheter till skadestånd.</p> <p>Icke desto mindre så verkar ytterligare utredning av skadestånd för sexköp vara på sin plats, vilket minoritetsmotionerna har föreslagit utöver deras stöd för regeringens proposition. Mycket är redan känt. En del köpare anser att betalning ger dem rätt att göra vad helst de vill med kvinnan de köper. Många misshandlas svårt av köpare. Bland 200 prostituerade kvinnor i San Francisco våldtogs 70% eller misshandlades på liknande sätt av köpare i genomsnitt 31 gånger. Bland 55 före detta prostituerade kvinnor i Portland, Oregon, blev 78% våldtagna 49 gånger per år (33 gånger av en torsk) och 84% utsattes för grov misshandel i genomsnitt 103 gånger per år (45 gånger av en torsk). Tjugoen procent bland 222 kvinnor som prostituerades i Chicago vilka studerades medgav uttryckligen att de hade våldtagits över 10 gånger i eskortprostitution, gatuprostitution, och när de prostituerats privat i sina hem. De flesta av förövarna var torskar. Två Kanadensiska federala utredningar fann att torskarna utövar mest sexuellt våld mot prostituerade personer (1984, s. 1026; 1985, s. 388). En prostituerad kvinna betrodd av Svea Hovrätt (mål B 4789-09, s. 6) när hon uppgav hur en hallick bestraffade henne genom att skicka henne till (med Södertörns Tingsrätts neutraliserande ord) ”hårdhänta”, ”arga” och de mest ”elaka” torskarna (mål B 13571-07, s. 12) fick likväl inga skadestånd från dessa köpare.</p> <p>Sammanhanget med skador på prostituerade människor i prostitution är obestridlig, vars gottgörelse skulle kunna både ge dem upprättelse och möjliggöra för dem att fatta verkliga val vad gäller deras liv. Maktobalansen i prostitution och följderna av hanteringen av prostituerade personer i sexindustrin visar sig i information om misshandel och ohälsa liksom, hos 68% av 827 respondenter i nio länder, posttraumatiska stressymptom (PTSD) jämförbara med den hos tortyroffer, veteraner från krigszoner, och våldtagna kvinnor. En nyare studie med 46 personer som bland annat prostituerats på bordeller och eskortfirmor i Sydkorea och en kontrollgrupp visade att PTSD var signifikant även när man kontrollerat för olika former av misshandel under barndomen. Resultatet stärker slutsatsen att prostitution i sig själv utsätter majoriteten prostituerade personer för lidande. Åttionio procent av människor i prostitution i nio länder som ställdes frågan ”vad behöver du mest” svarade att ta sig ur prostitution. Men de känner inte att de kan. Skadestånd och stöd skulle kunna göra detta möjligt.</p> <p>Kommer utskottsmajoritetens uppmaning till rättsväsendet att tillämpa gällande rätt och bedöma skadestånd att räcka till? Givet att dessa juridiska och sociala förhållanden har existerat, och med kännedom så existerat över det gångna decenniet efter att sexköpslagen antogs utan skadestånd eller stöd till en enda prostituerad person, så förtjänar frågan minst sagt ytterligare utredning. Minoriteten (s &amp; v) uppmanar således, som ett tillägg till majoritetens förslag, att en departements- eller expertutredning rimligen tillsätts för att ytterligare utreda och återkomma till riksdagen med ett förslag som kommer skapa bättre förutsättningar än som existerar i dag för den prostituerade personen att få skadestånd.</p> <p><strong>Källor</strong></p> <p>Bet. 2010/11:JuU22</p> <p>Choi, Klein, Shin, &amp; Lee (2009). Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Disorders of Extreme Stress (DESNOS) Symptoms Following Prostitution and Childhood Abuse. <em>Violence Against Women </em>15 (8): 933-51.</p> <p>Committee on Sexual Offences Against Children and Youths (1984). <em>Sexual Offences Against Children </em>(Report) (Ottawa, Ont.).</p> <p>Farley, Cotton, Lynne, Zumbeck, Spiwak, Reyes, Alvarez, &amp; Sezgin (2003). Prostitution and Trafficking in Nine Countries. <em>I </em>Farley red. <em>Prostitution, Trafficking and Traumatic Stress</em> (Haworth), 33-74.</p> <p>Farley, Macleod, Anderson, &amp; Golding (2011). Attitudes and Social Characteristics of Men Who Buy Sex in Scotland. <em>Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research,</em> <em>Practice, and Policy </em>28 (Mars).</p> <p>Hunter (1993). Prostitution is Cruelty and Abuse to Women and Children. <em>Michigan J. of Gender and Law</em> 1:91-104 (inkl. Portland-studie).</p> <p>Mot. 2010/11:Ju10 (S)</p> <p>Mot. 2010/11:Ju11 (V)</p> <p>Raphael &amp; Shapiro (2004). Violence in Indoor and Outdoor Prostitution Venues. <em>Violence Against Women </em>10 (2): 126-139.</p> <p>Silbert &amp; Pines (1981). Occupation Hazards of Street Prostitutes. <em>Criminal Justice and Behavior</em> 8 (4): 395-99.</p> <p>Special Committee on Pornography and Prostitution in Canada (1985). <em>Pornography and Prostitution in Canada</em> (Ottawa, Ont.).</p>
  • Degraded and restituted towns in Poland: Origins, development, problems Miasta zdegradowane i restytuowane w Polsce. Geneza, rozwój, problemy
  • 2015
  • Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • One of the less known problems in settlement geography is the issue of so-called degraded and restituted towns. This lack of reconnaissance, however, is perhaps less the result of the towns’ scarcity than their specificity of being ‘awarded’ or ‘deprived of’ an urban label by means of strictly socio-political actions. Degraded and restituted towns, hence, are spatial units made ‘urban’ or ‘rural’ instantaneously, irrespective of their de facto state along what is widely considered a gradual path of (de)urbanization. Instead, they become compartmentalized into two constructed spatial categories that have survived the onslaught of material transformations and philosophical repositioning through different whims of time. While ‘rural’ and ‘urban’ are conceptual binaries that certainly need to be treated with caution, their cultural salience may cause tangible consequences within national administrative systems that abide by a formalized rural-urban distinction. This issue becomes particularly important for settlements that clearly transcend any imagined rural-urban divide, i.e. those, whose material and immaterial characteristics seem counterfactual to their assigned category. It is also crucial in formal practices designed to avert such counterfactualities, but whose ran-domness of approach more creates confusion than helps straighten out a historical concoction. Both processes, nonetheless, lend ‘urbanity’ and ‘rurality’ a resonance of objectivity, justifying their use as guides for a host of developmental endeavors, despite subverting a much more intricate reality. Degraded and restituted towns are direct derivatives of this. Drawing on the above-mentioned irreconcilabilities, the aim of this book is to present and scrutinize degraded and restituted towns through the example of Poland, where these towns occupy a special niche. For one, Poland, due to its chequered and variegated history, is home to a conspicuously large number of degraded (831) and restituted (236) towns; for another, Poland’s relentlessness of formalizing ‘urbanity’ as a category of statistical, political and cultural guidance has a direct bearing on the lives of the towns’ residents. Realizing the intricacy of degraded and restituted towns in the face of commonplace ru-ral-urban ideations, the editors and the 17 contributing Authors of this book have made an effort to capture the towns’ complexity with special foci on their shrouded origins, developmental specificity and incurred problems. Owing to the involvement of researchers from different scientific disciplines and subdisciplines, the undertaken project has helped elucidate the problem from multiple perspectives: spatial, social, demographic, economic, environmental, historical, architectural, cultural, legal and philosophical. Allocated into 17 chapters, not only have the presented interpretations allowed for a first interdisciplinary synthesis on the topic, but they also helped outline some prospective directions for future research. Moreover, collecting materials of such diversity into an amalgamated whole has helped identify specific discourses that enwrap the concept of “urbanity” when seen through its oscillations within formal contexts, and to which degraded and restituted towns serve as expendable game pieces. By combining knowledge arrived at through ontologically and epistemologically different approaches, the incremental contribution of this book as a whole could be summarized in two attainments: a) extending theoretical frameworks used to study degraded and restituted towns in terms of definition, conceptualization and assessing predispositions for future de-velopment on account of their spatial, legal, socio-economic and historical charac-teristics; b) initiating an anticipated discussion on a number of important and current topics re-lated to the practices of degradation and restitution that have not received adequate attention, e.g., the urbanity-vs.-rurality paradox, the changeability of human settlement forms vs. the consequences of rigid spatial categorizations; the role of various actors in shaping the socio-economic reality under the guise of an ossified binary; or identifying spatio-conceptual conflicts as future challenges for local, regional and national policy.
  • Munthe, Christian, 1962-, et al. (författare)
  • The Best Interest of Children and the Basis of Family Policy: The Issue of Reproductive Caring Units
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Cutas, D & Chan, S (eds.). Families: Beyond the Nuclear Ideal. - London and New York : Bloomsbury Academic. - 9781780930107
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The notion of the best interest of children figures prominently in family and reproductive policy discussions and there is a considerable body of empirical research attempting to connect the interests of children to how families and society interact. Most of this research regards the effects of societal responses to perceived problems in families, thus underlying policy on interventions such as adoption, foster care and temporary assumption of custodianship, but also support structures that help families cope with various challenges. However, reference to the best interest of children can also be applied to a more basic issue in family policy, namely that of what is to be considered a family in the first place. This issue does not raise any questions regarding the proper conditions for when society should intervene in or change the family context of a child. Rather, it is about what social configurations should be recognized as a potentially fitting context for children to enter into and (if all goes well) eventually develop into adulthood within /.../ such that society’s default institutional arrangements allow it to have (by sexual and artificial reproduction, adoption, and combinations of these), care for and/or guard children. [This] will frame any further discussion of /.../ policies having further implications for, for example, the practices of adoption and reproductive technology, as well as regulation of custody in the event of separation or parental disagreement.
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