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  • Klapwijk, M. J., et al. (författare)
  • Capturing complexity : Forests, decision-making and climate change mitigation action
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Global Environmental Change. - : Elsevier. - 0959-3780 .- 1872-9495. ; 52, s. 238-247
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Managed forests can play an important role in climate change mitigation due to their capacity to sequester carbon. However, it has proven difficult to harness their full potential for climate change mitigation. Managed forests are often referred to as socio-ecological systems as the human dimension is an integral part of the system. When attempting to change systems that are influenced by factors such as collective knowledge, social organization, understanding of the situation and values represented in society, initial intentions often shift due to the complexity of political, social and scientific interactions. Currently, the scientific literature is dispersed over the different factors related to the socio-ecological system. To examine the level of dispersion and to obtain a holistic view, we review climate change mitigation in the context of Swedish forest research. We introduce a heuristic framework to understand decision-making connected to climate change mitigation. We apply our framework to two themes which span different dimensions in the socio-ecological system: carbon accounting and bioenergy. A key finding in the literature was the perception that current uncertainties regarding the reliability of different methods of carbon accounting inhibits international agreement on the use of forests for climate change mitigation. This feeds into a strategic obstacle affecting the willingness of individual countries to implement forest-related carbon emission reduction policies. Decisions on the utilization of forests for bioenergy are impeded by a lack of knowledge regarding the resultant biophysical and social consequences. This interacts negatively with the development of institutional incentives regarding the production of bioenergy using forest products. Normative disagreement about acceptable forest use further affects these scientific discussions and therefore is an over-arching influence on decision-making. With our framework, we capture this complexity and make obstacles to decision-making more transparent to enable their more effective resolution. We have identified the main research areas concerned with the use of managed forest in climate change mitigation and the obstacles that are connected to decision making.
  • Berlin, Johan, 1975- (författare)
  • Synchronous work - myth or reality? : a critical study of teams in health and medical care
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Evaluation In Clinical Practice. - London : Blackwell Publishing Ltd. - 1356-1294 .- 1365-2753. ; 16:6, s. 1314-1321
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abstract Rationale, aims and objectives  In this article, ideal conceptions about teamwork are tested. The research question posed is: How are teams in psychiatry formed? Three theoretical concepts that distinguish groups from teams are presented: sequentiality, parallelism and synchronicity. The presumption is that groups cooperate sequentially and teams synchronously, while the parallel work mode is a transitional form between group and team. Methods  Three psychiatric outpatient teams at a university hospital specialist clinic were studied. Data were collected through 25 personal interviews and 82 hours of observations. The data collection was carried out over 18 months (2008–2009). Results  Results show: (1) that the three theoretical distinctions between group and team need to be supplemented with two intermediate forms, semiparallel and semisynchronous teamwork; and (2) that teamwork is not characterized by striving towards a synchronous ideal but instead is marked by an adaptive interaction between sequential, parallel and synchronous working modes. Conclusions  The article points to a new intermediate stage between group and team. This intermediate stage is called semiparallel teamwork. The study shows that practical teamwork is not characterized by a synchronous ideal, but rather is about how to adaptively find acceptable solutions to a series of practical problems. The study emphasizes the importance of the team varying between different working modes, so-called semisystematics.
  • Ullström, Anna, 1978- (författare)
  • Styrning bakom kulisserna : Regeringskansliets politiska staber och regeringens styrningskapacitet
  • 2011
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis analyses one of the less explored areas of Swedish politics: the political appointees in the ministerial staffs of the Swedish core executive. The study draws attention to the everyday life of the ministerial staff in order to give an idea of their function: What do the political appointees do? How is the work of the ministerial staffs organized? How is policy coordinated at the political level? The main empirical focus of this thesis is the 2002-2006 term of office. The study contributes to an understanding of the role of political advisers in steering and policy making, and, in the light of this, their potential influence on the policy capacity of the government is considered. Political advisers occupy an ambiguous place within the political system. They play a vital political role, but their presence also challenges the traditional relationship between ministers and public servants. The study shows that political advisers certainly have a leeway to participate in the steering of the ministry's civil servants: they can be said to have a number of steering functions. At the same time, it is made clear that this does not mean that the political advisers are in the position to influence government policy to any great extent. In conclusion, it is suggested that the ministerial staffs do have importance for the government's policy capacity in the sense that they reduce the work load of both the minister and the state secretary and thereby make space for them to govern. The research questions are answered by means of empirical material gathered through a combination of methods, providing data with a range as well as depth and context rarely found in studies of core executives: a survey, participatory observations, focus groups and a series of interviews. The dissertation demonstrates that the ethnographic method is a useful tool for anyone who seeks to highlight and explain the relationships within political organizations.
  • Hasler, Berit, et al. (författare)
  • Sustainable ecosystem governance under changing climate and land use : An introduction
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Ambio. - : Springer Netherlands. - 0044-7447 .- 1654-7209. ; , s. 1-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Combatting eutrophication is currently a major challenge for policy makers in the Baltic Sea region, and it is likely to remain so in the decades to come. Although total nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea have recently declined, the gap between current loadings and those required to ensure the desired status is still substantial (Reusch et al. 2018). This Special Issue is dedicated to research that helps inform how the eutrophication challenge might best be addressed by improving our understanding of technological constraints, societal drivers of change, land uses, environmental policies, and innovative governance with stakeholder involvement. These issues are important for the current generation and those to come and are issues we must address in order to succeed in reducing nutrient loads to the desired levels to gradually achieve the desired good environmental status of the Baltic Sea. Currently, we witness a new era of water policies across the entire Baltic Sea region. Our changing climate is impacting on precipitation and runoff, and is also the reason why new EU climate policies seek to tie carbon sinks more visibly to carbon sources. Both these aspects have repercussions for water policies. Thus, solving eutrophication challenges requires sharpening of existing policies and instruments, as well as creating new insights and governance approaches with broad stakeholder involvement in a changing environment. In order to design coherent water and climate policies, and target and implement those policies more efficiently, policy makers need to combine new insights regarding the inhabitants in the region, the catchments, and the Baltic Sea itself. Such insights can be expected from soil scientists, agronomists, hydrogeologists, marine ecologists, economists, and social and policy scientists. What is needed is on the one hand effectively targeted governance at appropriate spatial and temporal scales, adapted to differing interests and motivations of citizens living around the Baltic Sea, and on the other hand fine tuning and co-designing of policies at local, national, Baltic Sea regional and EU level. This Special Issue brings together recent research from four BONUS-funded projects—BONUS BALTICAPP, BONUS GO4BALTIC, BONUS MIRACLE and BONUS SOILS2SEA—that comprised part of the ‘Viable Ecosystem’ and ‘Sustainable Ecosystem Services’ BONUS research programmes. The projects addressed these common concerns through somewhat different, but inter-related, themes. Key messages emphasized and discussed in the research papers of this Special Issue are summarized under four interlinked themes: Scenarios for the future, Policies and ecosystem services in water governance, Novel approaches for managing nutrients, and Advanced modelling from field level to the entire Baltic Sea region.
  • Søilen, Klaus Solberg, et al. (författare)
  • The Shift from Geopolitics to Geoeconomics and the Failure of our Modern Social Sciences
  • 2010
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Geoeconomics is gradually replacing the importance of Geopolitics. The transition is marked by the start of the process we call Globalization , about two decades old now, but still in its infancy, when government and government institutions discovered that they no longer were self-evident key actors and watchmen of world events . The process is an effect of the end of the Cold War and marks a strategic shift from political ideologies to economic realities. For decades fellow economists have praised the value of public and private borrowing, the production of services at the expense of the production of goods and they have underestimated the importance of trade surpluses for the Competitive Advantage of Nations. They have done so because they have failed to see what makes a nation, a region or a city wealthy in the long run. We have developed a social science paradigm at our universities which have undermined our own development. At the same time we have disregarded much of the tradition for critical thinking, as implied in Critical Theory but more fundamentally as understood for centuries The study of all living organisms is now studied with the use of Evolutionary Theory; except for the study of Man. We must start to ask ourselves why. Why should the Social Sciences be any different than Zoology in this respect, unless we say that Man stands outside of biology?
  • Eriksson, Louise, et al. (författare)
  • The public and geese : a conflict on the rise?
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Human Dimensions of Wildlife. - : Routledge. - 1087-1209 .- 1533-158X. ; 25:5, s. 421-437
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Wild geese are increasing in agricultural and urban settings across Europe, leading to widespread human–geese interactions. This study examined how the public’s acceptance of geese (attitude and acceptance capacity) varied depending on place dimensions, interactions with geese in different settings (place-based experience), and psychological factors, including wildlife value orientations, beliefs about the ecosystem services and disservices geese provide, and emotions. A survey was conducted in two municipalities with large goose populations in Sweden; Kristianstad and Örebro (n = 898). Results revealed a favorable view of the occurrence of geese, although a substantial share believed the number of geese was too high. Place-based experiences of geese were correlated with acceptance (e.g., more experience on beaches was associated with a negative attitude) and the importance of psychological factors for acceptance was confirmed. The study highlights the need to consider the public’s experiences of geese for sustainable goose management.
  • Ikegami, Masako, 1961- (författare)
  • Kita-Chosen, Mongol nimiru Chugoku no Giji-Manshukoku seisaku [China’s North Korean and Mongolian Strategy: A Contemporary Version of ‘Manchukuo’ Model]
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: GPI Brief – for Guiding Policy Innovation. - Tokyo/Washington, D.C. : Global Policy Initiatives. ; June:10, s. 8-10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • 'China’s North Korean and Mongolian Strategy: A Contemporary Version of‘Manchukuo’ Model', Masako Ikegami (GPI Policy Expert Member and Professor and Director, Center for Pacific AsiaStudies (CPAS), Stockholm University)By abusing its rapidly growing economic and military power, Hu Jintao’s China is assuming a highlyaggressive stance to its neighboring countries geopolitically important to China, who are rich innatural resources yet politically vulnerable. North Korea is a prominent case, and the case hasimplications also for Myanmar and Mongolia. If Japan’s Manchukuo policy in the 1930s is interpretedas (1) a large investment in economic infrastructure for extracting natural resources, (2) militaryinterventions for protecting economic interests, and (3) social-political absorption by means of apuppet government, among others, China’s current strategy toward its neighboring countries can wellbe explained with such a historical model.
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