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Sökning: AMNE:(HUMANIORA och RELIGIONSVETENSKAP) AMNE:(Språkvetenskap) > Bokkapitel > Fant Lars 1946

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1.
  • Fant, Lars, 1946- (författare)
  • Managing Intersubjectivity and Establishing Consensus in Two Activity Types:
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Spanish at Work : Analysing Institutional Discourse Across the Spanish-speaking World. - Basingstoke : Palgrave MacMillan. - 978-0-230-57910-1 - 978-0-230-57909-5 ; s. 172-191
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Two discursive processes constitute the focus of this study: intersubjectivity management and argumentation. Intersubjectivity management (ISM) is a newly coined term referring to a set of conversational phenomena, which are regarded as manifestations of a comprehensive process whereby common ground and mutual understanding are co-constituted in dialogue. This process takes place at the micro-level of dialogue and is implemented by means of signals which are usually backgrounded and, more often than not, multi-modal. Argumentation, in turn, constitutes a far more explored field of research. In the present framework, argument management (AM) is regarded as a process which is situated at the macro-level of dialogue and is an essential factor in the global organisation of dialogue.          The aim of the present article is to shed light on ways in which ISM and AM are conjoined and used as tools for consensus establishment and conflict-solving within two related activity types, each situated in an institutional setting: business negotiations and problem-solving in university students’ workgroups. Both sets of data are based on video-recordings of multi-party dialogues carried out in two varieties of Spanish: peninsular Spanish in the business negotiation (elicited data) and Chilean Spanish in the students’ workgroup (naturally occurring data).          The conjoined analysis of ISM and AM processes shows that AM moves become effective only when supported by appropriate ISM signalling. In particular, acceptance moves will lead to consensus only if they are combined with ISM devices which signal a high degree of common ground.
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  • Fant, Lars, 1946- (författare)
  • La entonación: informatividad, emotividad, dialogicidad
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Filología y Lingüística. : Estudios ofrecidos a Antonio Quilis. Volumen I.. - Madrid : Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas. - 84-00-08401-2 - 84-00-08400-4 ; s. 191-218
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • Fant, Lars, 1946- (författare)
  • Rapport and identity management in Spanish spontaneous dialogue
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Research on politeness in the Spanish-speaking world. - Mahwah, N.J. : Lawrence Erlbaum. - 978-0-8058-5227-1 ; s. 335-365
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • A comprehensive model of rapport and identity management based on various recent proposals for modifying mainstream (in particular Brown/Levinson-influenced politeness theory) is outlined and thereafter applied to spontaneous Spanish conversational data. Three basic assumptions underlie the suggested model, viz. the dialogistic approach to language structure and functions, the co-constitutive view of discourse and a means-end perspective on communication.                      Identity is conceptualised, both dynamically and statically, as the outcome of a process in which membership and individuality are negotiated in and through interaction. It can be analysed into a set of components with a complex pattern of interdependencies. Membership (or collective identity) is understood to be the result of three kinds of sharing - that of codes, that of knowledge and that of concerns and topics - whereas individuality (or individual identity) is seen as the socially negotiated attribution of roles and properties to individuals. Identity is seen as intimately connected with the 'face' concept of Goffman(1967), and related to that of 'positive face' in the framework of Brown/Levinson (1987). Inspired by recent proposals by Spencer-Oatey (2000), face is subdivided into various components, each related to an aspect of collective or individual identity, viz. likeness, cooperativeness, excellence, role fulfilment and hierarchy. Face, understood in this sense, is considered to be distinct from various phenomena that have often been connected with the somewhat fuzzy idea of 'negative face', namely territory (or agenda), interpersonal 'equity', interpersonal 'indebtedness balance' and the weighting of interpersonal distance and proximity. Face needs are understood to be negotiated in dialogue as a prerequisite for being granted membership and individuality.In the suggested model, activities of rapport and identity management are categorised along three dimensions: strengthening vs. weakening action, target-directedness vs. target-avoidance, and self-directedness vs. other-directedness. Four basic areas of rapport and identity management are taken into consideration, viz. own-image management, other-image management, own-territory management and other-territory management. Examples taken from data consisting of four-party conversations in Spanish are presented in order to illustrate how a comprehensive rapport-and-identity-management analysis may be put into practice.
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  • Fant, Lars, 1946- (författare)
  • "Son como buenos para vivir el presente y lograr sacarle algún placer".
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Haciendo discurso. : Homenaje a Adriana Bolívar.. - Caracas (Venezuela) : Comisión de Estudios de Postgrado de la Facultad de Humanidades y Educación, Universidad Central de Venezuela. - 978-980-7248-09-09 ; s. 545-568
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • El objetivo del presente trabajo es indagar en los mecanismos de alterización y creación de auto- y alo-estereotipos en escandinavos y latinoamericanos que se encuentran en una situación de cooperación profesional. Los materiales constan de entrevistas semi-dirigidas hechas a empleados autóctonos y escandinavos de algunas subsidiarias venezolanas y mexicanas de empresas que tienen su sede en un país escandinavo (Dinamarca o Suecia). El tema de la entrevistas era cómo los respondentes −latinoamericanos por un lado, escandinavos por el otro− veían a los del grupo opuesto dentro del marco de colaboración profesional. El análisis de los materiales realizado desde la perspectiva ideacional-textual arroja un alto grado de convergencia entre las auto-representaciones de un grupo y las alo-representaciones del grupo opuesto. Las valoraciones así surgidas presentan, sin embargo, una imagen desequilibrada: el sesgo constante a favor de la parte escandinava. Otro resultado de interés es que los mexicanos y venezolanos tienden a referirse a sí mismos como “latinos” (tendencia que comparten con los entrevistados escandinavos) y que no infrecuentemente asimilan la categoría de “escandinavos” a la de “europeos” en general, asimilación que nunca se da entre los respondentes daneses y suecos.El análisis de las entrevistas como instancias de interacción indica la existencia de un número de estrategias de defensa identitaria en los informantes: al ver amenazada la auto-imagen colectiva, el entrevistado tiende a compensar tal amenaza mediante la actualización,  sea de una auto-imagen positiva, sea de una alo-imagen negativa; se tiende también a convertir el signo negativo de una auto-categorización en signo positivo, o bien, tratándose de alo-categorizaciones, un signo positivo en negativo; finalmente surgen mecanismos de silenciamiento de la auto-representación, supuestamente con fines protectores de la imagen.
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