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Träfflista för sökning "AMNE:(HUMANIORA och RELIGIONSVETENSKAP) AMNE:(Språkvetenskap) ;mspu:(chapter);pers:(Traunmüller Hartmut)"

Sökning: AMNE:(HUMANIORA och RELIGIONSVETENSKAP) AMNE:(Språkvetenskap) > Bokkapitel > Traunmüller Hartmut

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  • Traunmüller, Hartmut (författare)
  • Conversational maxims and principles of language planning
  • 1991
  • Ingår i: Experiments in speech processes. - Stockholm : The Institute of Linguistics, University of Stockholm. ; s. 25-47
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Striking similarities can be observed between Grice's (1967) conversational maxims and Tauli's (1968) principles of language planning: In order to function well, a language must be such that it makes a well behaved conversation possible. Nevertheless, many ethnic languages as well as constructed interlanguages possess features which are incompatible with these principles. The paper contains an analysis of such cases: The compulsory expression of number and gender, which is in conflict with the principle of facultative precision; ambiguity and lack of distinctiveness in the names of the Latin letters; excessive length of certain morphemes; and restricted freedom to place sentence constituents in a pragmatically adequate order. The compulsory nature of certain distinctions, which cannot be understood on functional grounds, is ascribed to an excessive activity of "universal grammar", which is seen as one of the instincts of human beings. It is further shown that some constructed interlanguages (Volapük and Interlingua) clash with some of Greenberg's (1963) universals concerning the order of meaningful elements. While Esperanto is free from that type of deficiency, it is in conflict with the principle of facultative precision in the same way as most ethnic languages of Europe, as distinct from those of East Asia.
  • Traunmüller, Hartmut (författare)
  • Paralinguale Phänomene : (Paralinguistic phenomena)
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: SOCIOLINGUISTICS / SOZIOLINGUISTIK : An International Handbook of the Science of Language and Society / Ein internationales Handbuch zur Wissenschaft von Sprache und Gesellschaft, 2nd ed.. - Walter de Gruyter, Berlin/New York. ; s. Vol. 1, 653-665
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Paralinguistic phenomena are those phenomena that can be observed in speech (Saussure's 'parole') but that do not belong to the arbitrary conventional code of language (Saussure's 'langue'). The paralinguistic features of speech play, nevertheless, an important role in speech communication, and there are no speech signals without such features. However, the distinction linguistic vs. paralinguistic applies not only to speech but to gestural language as well, and it is not bound to any sensory modality. The chapter distinguishes between (1) perspectival, (2) organic, (3) expressive and (4) linguistic aspects. Under (1), spatial hearing, distance perception, spectral distortion, and helium speech is mentioned. Under (2), sex differences (also in energy balance and in liveliness) and the articulatory and acoustic effects (on F0, formant frequencies etc.) of the ontological development of the organ of speech are considered as well as the perception of speakers' age and sex. The phylogeny of the sex-differences is also considered. Under (3), it is considered how a speaker's emotions and attitudes affect the properties of speech signals and how they are recognized by listeners. This includes an account for the "Frequency Code" (Ohala, 1984) and for the acoustic effects of variations in vocal effort. The following topics are also mentioned: Personality inference from voice quality; Baby-talk; semantically empty linguistic vehicles of expressive information; cases in which both a linguistic contrast and a paralinguistic continuum is involved. Under (4), the problem of how listeners extract the linguistic-phonetic information from speech signals is considered, and the normalization, search for invariance and modulation/demodulation approaches are mentioned. The paralinguistic origin of many prosodic features of languages is mentioned as well as onomatopoeia and sound symbolism and its basis in associations.Two tables (F0 mean and SD data of male and female speakers in various languages and types of discourse; voice correlates of emotions and attitudes); 129 References.
  • Traunmüller, Hartmut (författare)
  • Some aspects of the sound of speech sounds
  • 1987
  • Ingår i: The Psychophysics of Speech Perception. - Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht. ; s. 293-305
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Traunmüller, Hartmut (författare)
  • Sound symbolism in deictic words
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Tongues and Texts Unlimited : Studies in Honour of Tore Jansson on the Occasion of his Sixtieth Anniversary. - Dept. of Classical Languages, Stockholm University. - 91-630-9137-2 ; s. 213-234
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • After a short introduction to the phenomenon of sound symbolism, its possible effects on the proximal and distal demonstratives and the personal pronouns of the first and second person are investigated. For this purpose, word pairs in which there is a straight forward difference that is compatible with or contrary to the expectations suggested by sound symbolism have been counted. Forms with a common etymology have been taken as a single case. The results confirm that vowels in proximal demonstratives tend to have a higher 'sibilant pitch', or F2', than do those in the distal demonstratives of the same languages, and they show that such forms have an advantage in their struggle for existence in languages. Counterexamples are found only in languages with a small number of speakers. It is, further, found that nasals are preferred in first person pronouns while stops and other obstruents are preferred in second person pronouns. This is attributed to the proprioceptive qualities of these classes of speech sounds. In addition, it is suggested that association with lingual or labial pointing gestures may affect the preferences of consonants. It is observed that the pronouns of most language groups of Europe and Northern Asia are likely to be etymologically related, while sound symbolism may have contributed to the survival of their similarities. It is, however, also shown that similarities that have been taken as evidence for far-reaching genetic relationships can sometimes be readily understood as genetically independent reflections of universal sound symbolism.
  • Traunmüller, Hartmut (författare)
  • Viskningar och rop : Paralingvistisk fonetik
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Att förstå det mänskliga : Humanistisk forskning vid Stockholms universitet. - Natur och Kultur, Stockholm. - 978-91-27-07927-4 ; s. 308-330
  • Bokkapitel (populärvet., debatt m.m.)
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  • Resultat 1-6 av 6
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