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Sökning: AMNE:(HUMANIORA och RELIGIONSVETENSKAP) AMNE:(Språkvetenskap) > Licentiatavhandling

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1.
  • Italia, Julie, 1973- (författare)
  • El alineamiento socio-pragmatico en hablantes de ESL inmersos en la comunidad meta
  • 2011
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • ResumenEl objetivo de este trabajo es de llevar a cabo un estudio comparativo entre dos grupos de informantes en el área de la competencia socio-pragmática y el impacto que esta tiene sobre la gestión interrelacional. El estudio fue realizado a partir de dos grupos: un grupo de estudio compuesto por suecos hablantes no-nativos del español de alto grado de competencia adquirida, residentes en Chile por un mínimo de cinco años, y un grupo de control compuesto por chilenos hablantes nativos. Específicamente, esta investigación propone analizar las diferencias entre el hablante no-nativo y nativo en la frecuencia y el uso de expresiones deAfecto como medio para crear lazos emocionales con el interlocutor en la negociación de una petición.El análisis comparativo de recurso a expresiones de Afecto en los dos grupos estudiados, da algunas indicaciones sobre el efecto que tales expresiones tienen sobre la gestión interrelacional en la comunicación intercultural entre chilenos y suecos. Los resultados del presente estudio indican que el alineamiento socio-pragmático del uso de estrategias afectivas es determinante para la percepción de la gestión interrelacional en algunas de las subcategorías del modelo teórico de análisis. Por lo tanto, los conocimientos y usos apropiados del Afecto en la comunicación por parte del hablante no-nativo puede contribuir a la mantención o fracaso de la gestión interrelacional en los diálogos estudiados.
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  • Stymne, Sara, 1977- (författare)
  • Compound Processing for Phrase-Based Statistical Machine Translation
  • 2009
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In this thesis I explore how compound processing can be used to improve phrase-based statistical machine translation (PBSMT) between English and German/Swedish. Both German and Swedish generally use closed compounds, which are written as one word without spaces or other indicators of word boundaries. Compounding is both common and productive, which makes it problematic for PBSMT, mainly due to sparse data problems.The adopted strategy for compound processing is to split compounds into their component parts before training and translation. For translation into Swedish and German the parts are merged after translation. I investigate the effect of different splitting algorithms for translation between English and German, and of different merging algorithms for German. I also apply these methods to a different language pair, English--Swedish. Overall the studies show that compound processing is useful, especially for translation from English into German or Swedish. But there are improvements for translation into English as well, such as a reduction of unknown words.I show that for translation between English and German different splitting algorithms work best for different translation directions. I also design and evaluate a novel merging algorithm based on part-of-speech matching, which outperforms previous methods for compound merging, showing the need for information that is carried through the translation process, rather than only external knowledge sources such as word lists. Most of the methods for compound processing were originally developed for German. I show that these methods can be applied to Swedish as well, with similar results.
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  • Liddle, Roy (författare)
  • SPEED and TIME in the event modifier lexemes slow, fast and quick : A cognitive perspective
  • 2010
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In this thesis I examine the event modifier lexemes slow, fast and quick and the events they modify. A number of observations made of the use of these modifiers cannot be explained by existing event typologies. Instead I propose a model for event structure and construal, in which I define events according to their temporal configuration in terms of DURATIVITY, BOUNDEDNESS and CHANGE. By applying this model to examples of contemporary British English, I show that there are distinct usage patterns for each modifier with regard to the temporal configuration of the events they modify. I further demonstrate that the readings of SPEED and TIME which result from the combination of event and modifier depend on a number of factors, and in doing so provide an insight into the complex conceptual nature of SPEED and its relation to TIME. In the course of the analysis, several other factors, such as the position of the modifier, the function of the -ly suffix, and the adverbal/adjectival status of the modifier are brought to light.Keywords: SPEED, TIME, BOUNDEDNESS, CHANGE, events, event modifiers, dual-form adverbs, configurational structure, temporal configuration, construal.
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  • Hall, Johan, 1973- (författare)
  • MaltParser -- An Architecture for Inductive Labeled Dependency Parsing
  • 2006
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Denna licentiatavhandling presenterar en mjukvaruarkitektur fördatadriven dependensparsning, dvs. för att automatiskt skapa ensyntaktisk analys i form av dependensgrafer för meningar i texterpå naturligt språk. Arkitekturen bygger på idén att man ska kunna variera parsningsalgoritm, särdragsmodell och inlärningsmetod oberoende av varandra. Till grund för denna arkitektur har vi använt det teoretiska ramverket för induktiv dependensparsning presenterat av Nivre \citeyear{nivre06c}. Arkitekturen har realiserats i programvaran MaltParser, där det är möjligt att definiera komplexa särdragsmodeller i ett speciellt beskrivningsspråk. I denna avhandling kommer vi att lägga extra tyngd vid att beskriva hur vi har integrerat inlärningsmetoden supportvektor-maskiner (SVM).MaltParser valideras med tre experimentserier, där data från tre språk används (kinesiska, engelska och svenska). I den första experimentserien kontrolleras om implementationen realiserar den underliggande arkitekturen. Experimenten visar att MaltParser utklassar en trivial metod för dependensparsning (\emph{eng}. baseline) och de grundläggande kraven på välformade dependensgrafer uppfylls. Dessutom visar experimenten att det är möjligt att variera parsningsalgoritm, särdragsmodell och inlärningsmetod oberoende av varandra. Den andra experimentserien fokuserar på de speciella egenskaperna för SVM-gränssnittet. Experimenten visar att det är möjligt att reducera inlärnings- och parsningstiden utan att förlora i parsningskorrekthet genom att dela upp träningsdata enligt ordklasstaggen för nästa ord i nuvarande parsningskonfiguration. Den tredje och sista experimentserien presenterar en empirisk undersökning som jämför SVM med minnesbaserad inlärning (MBL). Studien använder sig av fem särdragsmodeller, där alla kombinationer av språk, inlärningsmetod och särdragsmodellhar genomgått omfattande parameteroptimering. Experimenten visar att SVM överträffar MBL för mer komplexa och lexikaliserade särdragsmodeller med avseende på parsningskorrekthet. Det finns även vissa indikationer på att SVM, med en uppdelningsstrategi, kan parsa en text snabbare än MBL. För svenska kan vi rapportera den högsta parsningskorrektheten hittills och för kinesiska och engelska är resultaten nära de bästa som har rapporterats.
9.
  • Nilsson, Jens, 1979- (författare)
  • Tree Transformations in Inductive Dependency Parsing
  • 2007
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This licentiate thesis deals with automatic syntactic analysis, or parsing, of natural languages. A parser constructs the syntactic analysis, which it learns by looking at correctly analyzed sentences, known as training data. The general topic concerns manipulations of the training data in order to improve the parsing accuracy.Several studies using constituency-based theories for natural languages in such automatic and data-driven syntactic parsing have shown that training data, annotated according to a linguistic theory, often needs to be adapted in various ways in order to achieve an adequate, automatic analysis. A linguistically sound constituent structure is not necessarily well-suited for learning and parsing using existing data-driven methods. Modifications to the constituency-based trees in the training data, and corresponding modifications to the parser output, have successfully been applied to increase the parser accuracy. The topic of this thesis is to investigate whether similar modifications in the form of tree transformations to training data, annotated with dependency-based structures, can improve accuracy for data-driven dependency parsers. In order to do this, two types of tree transformations are in focus in this thesis.The first one concerns non-projectivity. The full potential of dependency parsing can only be realized if non-projective constructions are allowed, which pose a problem for projective dependency parsers. On the other hand, non-projective parsers tend, among other things, to be slower. In order to maintain the benefits of projective parsing, a tree transformation technique to recover non-projectivity while using a projective parser is presented here.The second type of transformation concerns linguistic phenomena that are possible but hard for a parser to learn, given a certain choice of dependency analysis. This study has concentrated on two such phenomena, coordination and verb groups, for which tree transformations are applied in order to improve parsing accuracy, in case the original structure does not coincide with a structure that is easy to learn.Empirical evaluations are performed using treebank data from various languages, and using more than one dependency parser. The results show that the benefit of these tree transformations used in preprocessing and postprocessing to a large extent is language, treebank and parser independent.
10.
  • Albépart-Ottesen, Chantal, 1952- (författare)
  • Elaboration de l'énoncé chez l'apprenant de FLE : Répétitions et reprises
  • 2002
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <h1>Abstract</h1> L1 speech production is often interrupted by hesitations revealed through a variety of phenomena ranging from silent pauses to comments. Most of these interruptions are caused by the action of a control system, a  “monitor“, which checks our speech internally while it is produced or after the production has reached the articulatory level. Speech production is checked against an internal model of lexical and grammatical correctness. If the demands of the monitor are not met, a repair may take place so that the speaker’s production reaches the expected level of correctness. It would seem that the result of constant interruptions, followed by repairs, would bring disorder into our speech but, in most cases, the listener is not disturbed by these interruptions, since his perception system brings order and re-establishes the linearity of the propositional content.The speech of L2 learners is controlled during and after production. Even if the monitor follows the same pattern of work when controlling L2 production, the repair is not necessarily done in a similar way because the learner’s internal grammar and lexicon are not complete and cannot be consulted as quickly as L1 lexicon and grammar. L2 learners rely on a certain amount of acquired knowledge but they also need to be given the time to refer to learned rules and patterns because the retrieval of these has not yet been automaticized.  As teachers, we often resent hesitations as disturbing and as an indication of the learner’s incapacity to produce correct speech.In this study, we observe the L2 speech production of learners of French and their behaviour when meeting linguistic problems. The study is concentrated on repetitions and recasts produced when the learner hesitates and shows signs of an effort to retrieve learned knowledge. These repetitions and recasts are presented as different hypotheses put forward by the learner in his/her attempts to reach a solution to a linguistic problem. They show the L2 speech production as a step-by-step process. The focus here is on repetitions and recasts in connection with French  -ment-adverbs.
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