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Träfflista för sökning "AMNE:(MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES Clinical Medicine Cancer and Oncology) srt2:(1990-1994)"

Sökning: AMNE:(MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES Clinical Medicine Cancer and Oncology) > (1990-1994)

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  • Maeder, Philippe P, et al. (författare)
  • Colloid cysts of the third ventricle: correlation of MR and CT findings with histology and chemical analysis
  • 1990
  • Ingår i: AJNR. - American Society of Neuroradiology. - 1936-959X. ; 11:3, s. 575-581
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Eight patients with colloid cysts of the third ventricle were examined with CT and MR. In six, surgical resection was performed and the material was subjected to histologic evaluation; the concentrations of trace elements were determined by particle-induced X-ray emission. Stereotaxic aspiration was performed in two. The investigation showed that colloid cysts are often iso- or hypodense relative to brain on CT (5/8), but sometimes have a center of increased density. Increased density did not correlate with increased concentration of calcium or other metals but did not correlate with high cholesterol content. Colloid cysts appear more heterogeneous on MR (6/8) than on CT (3/8), despite a homogeneous appearance at histology. High signal on short TR/TE sequences is correlated with a high cholesterol content. A marked shortening of the T2 relaxation time is often noticed in the central part of the cyst. Analysis of trace elements showed that this phenomenon is not related to the presence of metals with paramagnetic effects. Our analysis of the contents of colloid cysts does not support the theory that differing metallic concentrations are responsible for differences in MR signal intensity or CT density. We did find that increased CT density and high MR signal correlated with high cholesterol content.
  • Lindholm, C E, et al. (författare)
  • Arterial rupture after microwave-induced hyperthermia and radiotherapy. With reference to two patients treated for recurrence in previously operated and irradiated areas
  • 1990
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Hyperthermia. - Taylor & Francis. - 0265-6736. ; 6:3, s. 499-509
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Two patients who developed frank arterial bleeding after combined microwave-induced hyperthermia and radiotherapy are described. One patient received re-irradiation and hyperthermia for recurrent metastatic neck nodes of a mesopharyngeal carcinoma. Full course radiotherapy had been given 6 years previously and a right-sided radical neck node dissection had been performed 4 months earlier because of recurrent neck node metastases. Six weeks after the combined therapy for a second recurrence, which achieved complete remission, a fatal rupture of the carotid artery occurred. The other patient received re-irradiation and hyperthermia for a chest wall recurrence of a breast carcinoma, treated 5.5 years previously by sector resection and tangential beam radiotherapy, and treated again 2 years earlier with extensive surgery for a local recurrence. A frank arterial bleeding from the treated region was seen after 7 months, but could be arrested with surgery. This important complication in combined hyperthermia and radiotherapy does not seem to have been recognized before. Different explanations are discussed, such as the previous local treatment as well as high temperature and atherosclerosis per se.
  • Ahlman, Håkan, 1947-, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical efficacy of octreotide scintigraphy in patients with midgut carcinoid tumours and evaluation of intraoperative scintillation detection.
  • 1994
  • Ingår i: The British journal of surgery. - 0007-1323. ; 81:8, s. 1144-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • 111In-diethylenetriamine penta-acetate-D-Phe1-octreotide scintigraphy was evaluated in a group of 27 patients with disseminated midgut carcinoid tumour. Additional information gained by the intraoperative use of a scintillation detector was studied in five patients with midgut carcinoid tumours and in two with endocrine pancreatic tumours. In 19 patients tumours not recognized by non-invasive radiological methods were visualized in 27 locations, most commonly in liver and para-aortic lymph nodes. Three false-negative tumour locations were noted (ovarian and peritoneal). With guidance from scintigraphic findings, nine patients underwent surgical tumour reduction, leading to complete remission in three. Clinically suspect tumour lesions were measured by the detector in situ, and ex vivo after excision. After excision the tissue:blood activity concentration ratios were calculated. In situ measurements were helpful in the localization of tumours and in the control of adequate clearance of tumour tissue. High tissue:blood activity concentration ratios at 1, 2 and 5 days in the five patients with midgut carcinoid tumour indicate a potential role for radiation therapy with radiolabelled octreotide in patients with somatostatin receptor-positive tumours.
  • Hellquist, Henrik B., et al. (författare)
  • Salivary duct carcinoma : a highly aggressive salivary gland tumour with overexpression of c-erbB-2
  • 1994
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pathology. - West Sussex, United Kingdom : John Wiley & Sons. - 0022-3417. ; 172:1, s. 35-44
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The clinicopathological and immunocytochemical features of nine cases of salivary duct carcinoma are described. This relatively rare tumour, which only recently has been widely recognized as a separate entity, is highly malignant and caused the death in eight of the patients. The tumour cells are arranged in cribriform and solid growth patterns, where the solid tumour nests frequently have comedo necrosis, and a fibrous, often sclerotic, stroma is present. The infiltrating desmoplasmic component and the diffuse invasive growth into adjacent adipose parotid tissue have similarities to ductal breast carcinoma. Immunocytochemical investigation of salivary duct carcinoma showed constant overexpression of c-erbB-2 as detected by membrane accentuation, and high proliferative activity as detected by nuclear positivity for MIB 1 (Ki-67). Changes in the expression of p53 and retinoblastoma gene product do not constitute a constant event in salivary duct carcinoma. A few of the tumours showed scattered cells with distinct nuclear positivity for both progesterone and oestrogen receptors. We emphasize that this highly malignant salivary gland tumour has a characteristic morphology, may not be as rare as previously considered, and that prompt and aggressive therapy is needed.
  • Sorbe, Bengt, et al. (författare)
  • Tropisetron (Navoban) in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting--the Nordic experience
  • 1994
  • Ingår i: Supportive Care in Cancer. - Springer. - 0941-4355. ; 2:6, s. 9-393
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An open, noncomparative, Nordic multicenter study was carried out during 1991-1992 to evaluate the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist tropisetron (Navoban) as an antiemetic agent for various types of cancer chemotherapy. A total of 630 patients were recruited from 15 centers in Sweden, Denmark, and Finland. Gynecological cancers (60%), breast cancer (15%), and lung cancer (10%) were the main diagnoses. Prior experience of chemotherapy was documented in 338 patients (54%). In 260 patients (41%), cisplatin was part of the cytostatic regimen. Carboplatin (23%), doxorubicin (27%), and epidoxorubicin (24%) were also frequently included. In all, 23 cytostatic agents were used in various combinations. The mean number of courses studied was 4.6 (range 1-19). Altogether, 394 of 619 evaluable patients (64%) were completely protected from acute nausea and vomiting during the first course of chemotherapy. Delayed nausea and vomiting were completely prevented in 45%-73% (days 2-6) in the complete series. Treatment efficacy remained stable (60%-79%) during ten consecutive courses of chemotherapy. With noncisplatin regimens, complete protection from acute nausea and vomiting was achieved in 72% compared with 52% for cisplatin regimens (P < 0.0001). Patients without prior experience of chemotherapy had higher control rates of acute nausea and vomiting (72%) compared to patients treated before (57%) during the first course, but not later on. There were no differences in delayed nausea and vomiting.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
  • Ahlman, Håkan, 1947-, et al. (författare)
  • Somatostatin receptors on neuroendocrine tumors--a way to intraoperative diagnosis and localization.
  • 1994
  • Ingår i: The Yale journal of biology and medicine. - 0044-0086. ; 67:3-4, s. 215-21
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intraoperative radionuclide detection using 111In-DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide was evaluated in five patients with midgut carcinoids and in three patients with recurrent medullary thyroid carcinoma. Three different time intervals (24, 48 and 120 hr) from injection of the radiopharmaceutical to surgery were used. At surgery, suspect tumors were measured by probe in situ and ex vivo after excision. All tissue specimens and blood samples withdrawn during surgery were measured for 111In activity, and tissue/blood activity concentration ratios were calculated. In situ measurements were valuable especially in neck surgery, where the probe was helpful not only in localization of tumors but also in the control of tumor clearance. Ex vivo measurements were helpful in diagnosing tumor tissue. All five patients with midgut carcinoids were somatostatin receptor-positive, while only three out of seven patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma were receptor-positive. The tissue/blood activity concentration ratios and probe measurement ratios were in general higher in patients with midgut carcinoid than in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma. Of particular interest were the high tissue/blood concentration ratios in all receptor-positive patients at all time intervals studied. This fact suggests a potential role for radiolabelled octreotide in radiotherapy of these tumor types.
  • Nilsson, Ola, 1957-, et al. (författare)
  • Growth factors and carcinoid tumours.
  • 1993
  • Ingår i: Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden). - 0284-186X. ; 32:2, s. 115-24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The presence of growth factors and their receptors in human midgut carcinoids and in gastric carcinoids of Mastomys have been investigated. Human midgut carcinoid tumours produce IGF-I as demonstrated by immunocytochemistry and radioimmunoassay. IGF-I receptors were detectable in half of the tumours and stimulation of cultured tumour cells with IGF-I enhanced DNA synthesis. IGF-I may therefore act as an autocrine stimulator of carcinoid tumour growth. Expression of TGF-alpha and EGF-receptors could also be demonstrated in midgut carcinoids by immunocytochemistry and Northern analysis, suggesting that TGF-alpha participates in the autocrine modulation of carcinoid growth. Co-culture of human midgut carcinoid tumours and rat fetal cholinergic neurons demonstrated secretion of a potent neuronotrophic factor by cultured tumour cells. IGF-I and TGF-alpha may account for these neuronotrophic effects, but carcinoid tumours may also secrete an as yet unidentified growth factor. Gastric (ECL cell) carcinoids developed rapidly in Mastomys during hypergastrinemia due to histamine2-receptor blockade, suggesting that gastrin is an essential growth factor for these carcinoids.
  • Nilsson, Ola, 1957-, et al. (författare)
  • Praomys (Mastomys) natalensis: a model for gastric carcinoid formation.
  • 1992
  • Ingår i: The Yale journal of biology and medicine. - 0044-0086. ; 65:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The gastric carcinoid tumors of Praomys (Mastomys) natalensis have been reviewed with respect to histogenesis, development, biochemistry, and morphological properties. Multicentric gastric carcinoids frequently develop in the oxyntic mucosa of aging Mastomys. The development of these tumors can be significantly enhanced by drug-induced hypergastrinemia, e.g., histamine2-receptor blockade. Spontaneous and drug-induced gastric carcinoids are endocrine in nature, as evidenced by their argyrophilic staining properties and chromogranin A content. They are also rich in histidine decarboxylase activity and produce large amounts of histamine, although other hormones, such as peptide YY and enteroglucagon, have also been demonstrated in these tumors. Ultrastructurally, gastric carcinoids are composed of tumor cells with typical secretory granules resembling those of enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells. A close examination of the gastric carcinoids in Mastomys reveals striking similarities with gastric carcinoids developing in humans suffering from chronic atrophic gastritis type A or from the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome in combination with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1). Both these conditions are associated with hypergastrinemia and a higher risk for developing multi-centric gastric carcinoids of ECL-cell origin. The Mastomys tumor model therefore appears to be a significant experimental model in which induction and formation of gastric carcinoid tumors can be studied.
  • Evander, Magnus, 1959- (författare)
  • Detection of human papillomavirus a study of normal cells, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer of the uterine cervix
  • 1991
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections of the genital tract are now recognized to be among the most prevalent sexually transmitted diseases and also a contributing factor to some cancers of the lower genital tract of women and men. Presence of HPV in a clinical specimen is confined to detection of the HPV genome by DNA hybridization techniques.In this thesis, the commonly used DNA hybridization techniques Southern blot and filter in situ hybridization (FISH), were first used for detection of genital HPV infection. In order to increase and simplify the detection of HPV in clinical specimens a more sensitive technique, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was subsequently utilized.For type-specific amplificaiton of HPV 6, 16, 18 and 33 by PCR, oligonucleotide primers located in the E6 and E7 regions of the HPV genome were selected. They were found to specifically amplify the four types. To be able to amplify a broad spectrum of genital HPV types, general primers located in the E7 and El region of the HPV genome, were designed and evaluated. They were found to amplify a wide range of genital HPV types. To further increase the sensitivity and specificity, a two-step PCR using general primers, was assembled and evaluated against a one-step PCR on cervical scrapes from young women in a population-based study. The two-step PCR increased the sensitivity about three-fold compared to the one-step PCR.By Southern blot and FISH, 46% of women with abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) smears were shown to carry HPV DNA. Of the women analysed by Southern blot, 39 % harboured HPV DNA and 25 % proved HPV 16 positive. Of the samples analysed with FISH, 27 % contained HPV DNA, compared to 11 % of samples from a group of reference women with normal cytology. With the Southern blot technique, HPV DNA was detected in 66% of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade III (CIN III) lesions. Fifty-four percent of the women with CIN III lesions were positive for HPV 16 DNA.By type-specific PCR, 12 out of 13 women with cervical squamous carcinoma were shown to carry HPV 16 and/or 18. Among women with adenosquamous carcinoma of the cervix, HPV 18 was the most prevalent type (26%) but HPV 16 was also found in a proportion of the women(15 %). Nine of 13 premenopausal cases with cervical adenocarcinoma were HPV positive compared to only 2 of 13 postmenopausal cases (p&lt; 0.015). HPV 16 DNA was detected in 48%of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), by the use of type-specific PCR.Three different groups of women with normal cytology were studied. Among women attending a family planning clinic in Kenya, 19% were shown to carry HPV virus, by the use of general primers. HPV 16 was found in 5.2% of these women and HPV 18 in 3.9%. In anothergroup of women, attending the gynecological department in Umeå, HPV 16 DNA was detected in 21 % by type-specific PCR. However, if consideration was taken to the medical status of the women, only 10% of women without any medical history were HPV 16 DNA positive, versus 54% of women with diseases and women with a relative progesterone dominance. Finally, by use of a two-step PCR using general primers, 20% of young women from Umeå taking part in a population-based study were demonstrated to carry HPV DNA. The most prevalent types were HPV 6 (2.0%) and HPV 16(2.7%). Among the women in this study with normal cytology, 19%were HPV positive.
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