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Träfflista för sökning "AMNE:(MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES Clinical Medicine Cancer and Oncology) srt2:(1995-1999)"

Sökning: AMNE:(MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES Clinical Medicine Cancer and Oncology) > (1995-1999)

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  • Sjöholm, H, et al. (författare)
  • Necrosis of malignant gliomas after intratumoral injection of 201Tl in vivo in the rat
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: Anti-Cancer Drugs. - Rapid Communications. - 0959-4973. ; 6:1, s. 109-114
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fourteen adult Fischer 344 rats were inoculated in vivo unilaterally in the caudate nucleus in the brain with malignant RG 2 glioma cells. By 3 weeks a tumor with a diameter of 3-6 mm normally develops. Ten animals which survived the repeated periods of anesthesia and thallium (Tl) injections (intratumorally three times of 201Tl, 15-23 days after inoculation) showed a prolonged retention of radioactivity at the site of injection with no uptake in other organs except for the kidneys. Singular circumscribed necroses were found post-mortem at the site of injection, comprising malignant glioma tumor tissue, which in six animals was absent, in three animals was markedly reduced in size compared with controls and in one animal had the expected size. In four animals metastases were found in distant locations in the brain; in three of these cases there was a retention of radioactivity in the tumor. The selective necrotizing effect on the tumor cells is interpreted as mainly due to emission of Auger electrons from intracellularly accumulated 201Tl, giving rise to very high energy deposition in the vicinity of the cell nucleus. The results should also have implications for the treatment of human malignant gliomas.
  • Carlsson, Maria (författare)
  • Informational support for patients with gynaecological cancer and their families
  • 1997
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The main purpose of the present thesis was to gain a deeper knowledge and understanding of the informational need by women with gynaecological cancer and their families. The studies evaluate the experience of different kind of information giving; a telephone-help line; a 3 years educational group support programme; and information givings in ordinary care.There was a significant correlation to interest in an educational supportive group in the prestudy depending on age, legal status, educational level. Younger individuals, couples and people with a higher formal education were generally more interesting in participating (p<0.05). Patients who actively chose to participate m a an educational support group differed from the unselected control group even prior the intervention, they with a higher formal education were generally more interesting in participating, they felt more confused and angry than the control group. After intervention, the patients in the interventional group reported a significant improved level of knowledge about cancer.Both patients and next-of-kin request information about medical- and psychological aspects of the disease and its treatment. The evaluation of the questions in the educational supportive group show that patients and their relatives asked questions of a general nature, related to basic knowledge of cancer and treatment principles, and not directly related to their own illness. There was no general difference in knowledge level between cancer patients and the controls of healthy women. The length of formal education was the most important determinator of correct answers (p<0.01).Two main themes were revealed at the interviews about the patients informations preferences. These were to actively address questions and the right to receive honest information;It is concluded that differential information giving techniques are required to satisfy the patients' different preferences. The patients express an active role in the information giving process. They preferred information with numerous opportunities to address questions, that the staff have time for questions and that the questions are honestly answered.
  • Isacsson, Ulf (författare)
  • Comparative treatment planning in external radiotherapy of malignant tumours : Potential gains using protons
  • 1998
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • It is well known that protons have physical characteristics superior to conventional radiation qualities in external beam radiotherapy. The primary aim of this work is to determine if the physical advantages also may lead to clinical advantages. A second aim is to evaluate the treatment planning algorithms incorporated into a 3D treatment planning system, used in the prediction, Helax-TMSTM. The potential benefits of using protons instead of conventional radiation qualities is evaluated by comparing treatment plans. Dose-response models of tumour control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) were used to predict the treatment outcome for the different plans. Uncertainties in the results were studied in sensitivity analyses.Comparative studies were performed in four different tumour types, locally advanced rectal cancer, a paraspinal tumour, oesophageal cancer and left-sided node-positive breast cancer. Advantages with protons were seen in all cases, but the advantages were of different size.Proton therapy in patients with oesophageal carcinoma increases the TCP from 6 to 49% if a risk of 1% in the spinal cord and a total NTCP for the two lungs equivalent to a one-sided pulmectomy is allowed. This gain is relatively insensitive to variations, within reasonable limits, in the dose-response parameters.Proton therapy reduces the risk for cardiac mortality and radiation pneumonitis to almost zero when treating node-positive left-sided breast cancer after breast-conserving surgery.The evaluation of the treatment planning algorithms shows that pencil kernel algorithms are required in order to accurately calculate dose distributions in heterogeneous patient volumes. The scattering phenomenon in the vicinity of interfaces between different materials is modelled. The magnitude of the effect is underestimated (less than 1%) due to the inherent approximations.
  • Cwikiel, Magdalena (författare)
  • Pathophysiology of 5-fluorouracil induced cardiotoxicity : a clinical and experimental study
  • 1996
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis concerns the pathophysiology of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) induced cardiotoxicity. The aim of the clinical studies was to determine whether hemorheological factors might explain 5-FU cardiotoxicity (I) and if the syndrome was associated with free radical (FR) generation and lipid peroxidation (II). Changes in blood and plasma viscosity, fibrinogen, hematocrit, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) were studied in patients with esophageal or head and neck carcinoma during treatment with 5-FU. The study showed a decrease in blood and plasma viscosity, probably caused by a decrease in fibrinogen. Study of TBARS did not support the hypothesis that FRs could be involved in the cardiotoxicity of 5-FU. In the experimental studies in rabbits (III,IV) we examined the early and late, local and systemic effect of 5-FU on endothelium, using scanning and transmission electron microscopic evaluation of small arteries, after in vivo treatment with 5-FU. Perfusion fixation was used. The following parameters were evaluated: vessel wall and endothelial cell (EC) contraction, EC edema, cytolysis, denuded areas, platelet accumulation, fibrin formation. The studies showed severe damage to ECs with accompanying thrombus formation, supporting the hypothesis that the thrombogenic effect of 5-FU, secondary to its direct cytotoxic effect on the endothelium is the pathophysiological mechanism of 5-FU cardiotoxicity. The influence of 5-FU on endothelial cell lines in a cell culture model was studied with regard to DNA synthesis, cell death and release of prostacyclin (V). Methotrexate (MTX), an antimetabolite without cardiotoxic properties, was tested in the same way. (3H)thymidine incorporation, total cellular protein, loss of (3H)thymidine from prelabelled cells, 6-keto-prostaglandin F1* were measured. DNA synthesis decreased significantly and the release of prostacyclin by ECs increased significantly when incubated with 5-FU; this effect was not seen for MTX. The study indicate specific susceptibility of benign EC for 5-FU.
  • Kjellén, Elisabeth, et al. (författare)
  • A Phase I/II Evaluation of Metoclopramide as a Radiosensitiser in Patients with Inoperable Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lung
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cancer. - Elsevier. - 1879-0852. ; 31:13-14, s. 2196-2202
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The feasibility of administering metoclopramide (MCA) as a radiosensitizer has been evaluated in 23 patients with a pathological or cytological diagnosis of a squamous cell carcinoma of the lung, clinically evaluated as inoperable. All patients received 40-60 Gy radiotherapy fractionated into 1.8 Gy fractions 5 times per week (Monday-Friday). Two MCA treatment regimens were used: (i) MCA at 2 mg/kg administered by intravenous infusion 1-2 h prior to radiotherapy 3 times per week (Monday, Wednesday, Friday); and (ii) MCA at 1 mg/kg administered by intravenous infusion 1-2 h prior to radiotherapy 5 times per week (Monday-Friday). 11 of the 23 patients treated with radiotherapy and MCA had none to mild pneumonitis or fibrosis and another 8 of the 23 had moderate levels. No patient had their therapy interrupted due to radiation-related side-effects. The MCA-related side-effects were as expected, i.e. 78% of the patients experienced sedation/tiredness and 48% expressed restlessness/anxiety symptoms. Both the total dose and serum levels of MCA were significantly associated to the MCA side-effect profile. Tumour response, duration of tumour response and survival were significantly positively correlated to the total and weekly doses of MCA administered to the patients during their radiotherapy treatment. These favourable phase II data have justified the initiation of a phase II/III randomised multicentred trial being carried out in Europe to evaluate MCA as a radiosensitiser.
  • Forssell-Aronsson, Eva, 1961-, et al. (författare)
  • Indium-111 activity concentration in tissue samples after intravenous injection of indium-111-DTPA-D-Phe-1-octreotide.
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine. - 0161-5505. ; 36:1, s. 7-12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Indium-111 activity concentrations in human tumor and normal tissue samples were determined at 24, 48 and 120 hr after i.v. injection of 111In-DTPA-D-Phe-1-octreotide. Fourteen patients were included in the study. Seven patients had medullary thyroid carcinoma, four had midgut carcinoid tumors, two had endocrine pancreatic tumors and one had chronic pancreatitis.
  • Tisell, Lars-Eric, 1931-, et al. (författare)
  • Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy in medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: The British journal of surgery. - 0007-1323. ; 84:4, s. 543-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • 111In-radiolabelled (DTPA-D-Phe1)-octreotide scintigraphy can be used to localize neuroendocrine tumours expressing somatostatin receptors (SSTRs). The aim of this paper was to analyse the importance of tumour volume and growth for the visualization by SSTR scintigraphy of metastases from medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC).
  • Wängberg, Bo, 1953-, et al. (författare)
  • Intraoperative detection of somatostatin-receptor-positive neuroendocrine tumours using indium-111-labelled DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide.
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: British journal of cancer. - 0007-0920. ; 73:6, s. 770-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • After injection of 111In-labelled DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide, intraoperative tumour localisation was performed using a scintillation detector in 23 patients with neuroendocrine tumours. Count rates from suspect tumour lesions and adjacent normal tissue were expressed as a ratio before (Rin situ) and after (Rex vivo) excision. 111In activity concentration ratios of tumour tissue to blood (T/B) were determined in a gamma counter. In patients with midgut carcinoids, (all scintigraphy positive), false Rin situ recordings were found in 4/29 macroscopically identified tumours. T/B ratios were all high (27-650). In patients with medullary thyroid carcinomas (eight out of ten scintigraphy positive), misleading Rin situ results were found in 4/37 macroscopically identified tumours. T/B ratios were lower (3-39) than those seen in midgut carcinoids. Two out of four patients with endocrine pancreatic tumours had positive scintigraphy, reliable intraoperative measurements and very high T/B ratios (910-1500). One patient with a gastric carcinoid had correct measurements in situ and ex vivo with high T/B ratios (71-210). In situ measurements added little information to preoperative scintigraphy and surgical findings using the present detection system. Rex vivo measurements were more reliable. The very high T/B ratios seen in midgut carcinoids and some endocrine pancreatic tumours would be favourable for future radiation therapy via somatostatin receptors.
  • Sundgren, P, et al. (författare)
  • Paragangliomas of the spinal canal
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Neuroradiology. - Springer. - 1432-1920. ; 41:10, s. 788-794
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the clinical MRI and histopathological features of five consecutive cases of spinal paraganglioma. Three intradural tumours were found in the typical location (two at the L4, one at the S2 level); one intradural extramedullary tumour arose at an unusual level, from the ventral C2 root, and one extradural tumour growing along the L5 nerve root sheath had an aggressive growth pattern with early, local paraspinal recurrence and, eventually, intradural metastatic spread. This type of growth pattern has not been described previously. Paragangliomas of the spinal canal are more common than previously thought and can be located anywhere along the spine, although the lumbosacral level is the most common. Their appearance on MRI can not distinguish them from other tumours in the spinal canal. Even though paragangliomas in general are benign and slowly growing their growth pattern can vary and be more aggressive, to the point of metastatic spread.
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