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Träfflista för sökning "AMNE:(MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES Clinical Medicine Cancer and Oncology) srt2:(1995-1999);srt2:(1995)"

Sökning: AMNE:(MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES Clinical Medicine Cancer and Oncology) > (1995-1999) > (1995)

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1.
  • Sjöholm, H, et al. (författare)
  • Necrosis of malignant gliomas after intratumoral injection of 201Tl in vivo in the rat
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: Anti-Cancer Drugs. - Rapid Communications. - 0959-4973. ; 6:1, s. 109-114
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fourteen adult Fischer 344 rats were inoculated in vivo unilaterally in the caudate nucleus in the brain with malignant RG 2 glioma cells. By 3 weeks a tumor with a diameter of 3-6 mm normally develops. Ten animals which survived the repeated periods of anesthesia and thallium (Tl) injections (intratumorally three times of 201Tl, 15-23 days after inoculation) showed a prolonged retention of radioactivity at the site of injection with no uptake in other organs except for the kidneys. Singular circumscribed necroses were found post-mortem at the site of injection, comprising malignant glioma tumor tissue, which in six animals was absent, in three animals was markedly reduced in size compared with controls and in one animal had the expected size. In four animals metastases were found in distant locations in the brain; in three of these cases there was a retention of radioactivity in the tumor. The selective necrotizing effect on the tumor cells is interpreted as mainly due to emission of Auger electrons from intracellularly accumulated 201Tl, giving rise to very high energy deposition in the vicinity of the cell nucleus. The results should also have implications for the treatment of human malignant gliomas.
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2.
  • Kjellén, Elisabeth, et al. (författare)
  • A Phase I/II Evaluation of Metoclopramide as a Radiosensitiser in Patients with Inoperable Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lung
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cancer. - Elsevier. - 1879-0852. ; 31:13-14, s. 2196-2202
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The feasibility of administering metoclopramide (MCA) as a radiosensitizer has been evaluated in 23 patients with a pathological or cytological diagnosis of a squamous cell carcinoma of the lung, clinically evaluated as inoperable. All patients received 40-60 Gy radiotherapy fractionated into 1.8 Gy fractions 5 times per week (Monday-Friday). Two MCA treatment regimens were used: (i) MCA at 2 mg/kg administered by intravenous infusion 1-2 h prior to radiotherapy 3 times per week (Monday, Wednesday, Friday); and (ii) MCA at 1 mg/kg administered by intravenous infusion 1-2 h prior to radiotherapy 5 times per week (Monday-Friday). 11 of the 23 patients treated with radiotherapy and MCA had none to mild pneumonitis or fibrosis and another 8 of the 23 had moderate levels. No patient had their therapy interrupted due to radiation-related side-effects. The MCA-related side-effects were as expected, i.e. 78% of the patients experienced sedation/tiredness and 48% expressed restlessness/anxiety symptoms. Both the total dose and serum levels of MCA were significantly associated to the MCA side-effect profile. Tumour response, duration of tumour response and survival were significantly positively correlated to the total and weekly doses of MCA administered to the patients during their radiotherapy treatment. These favourable phase II data have justified the initiation of a phase II/III randomised multicentred trial being carried out in Europe to evaluate MCA as a radiosensitiser.
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3.
  • Forssell-Aronsson, Eva, 1961-, et al. (författare)
  • Indium-111 activity concentration in tissue samples after intravenous injection of indium-111-DTPA-D-Phe-1-octreotide.
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine. - 0161-5505. ; 36:1, s. 7-12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Indium-111 activity concentrations in human tumor and normal tissue samples were determined at 24, 48 and 120 hr after i.v. injection of 111In-DTPA-D-Phe-1-octreotide. Fourteen patients were included in the study. Seven patients had medullary thyroid carcinoma, four had midgut carcinoid tumors, two had endocrine pancreatic tumors and one had chronic pancreatitis.
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5.
  • Lindholm, C-E, et al. (författare)
  • Prognostic factors for tumour response and skin damage to combined radiotherapy and hyperthermia in superficial recurrent breast carcinomas
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Hyperthermia. - Taylor & Francis. - 0265-6736. ; 11:3, s. 337-355
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Prognostic factors for complete tumour response and acute skin damage to combined hyperthermia and radiotherapy were analysed in material of patients with breast cancer, recurrent in previously irradiated areas. Radiotherapy was given daily to a total absorbed dose of 30.0 Gy in 2 weeks or 34.5 Gy in 3 weeks. The first radiotherapy schedule was combined with heat twice weekly, a total of four heat treatments (schedule A). The second radiotherapy schedule was combined with heat either once or twice a week resulting in a total of three (schedule B) or six (schedule C) heat treatments. Heat was induced with microwaves (2450, 915 or 434 MHz) via external applicators and always given after the radiotherapy fraction. The complete response (CR) rate in evaluable patients was 71% (49/69). There was no significant difference in CR rate between the three different hyperthermia schedules. The CR rates were 74% (14/19), 65% (15/23) and 74% (20/27) for schedules A, B and C respectively. The only factor predicting CR, evaluated both uni- and multivariately, was the CRE-value for the present radiotherapy dose (p = 0.02). If only tumours treated with 915 MHz were taken into account, however, then the highest minimum temperature at a given heat session predicted complete response (p = 0.03). This was true also in a multivariate analysis of this subgroup of tumours. A Kaplan-Meier analysis (log rank test) showed no significant difference in duration of CR between the different treatment schedules. Cox's proportional hazards method revealed three significant factors: tumour size (negatively correlated, p = 0.007), the time interval between the diagnosis of the primary tumour and the present treatment (p = 0.02) and the average temperature (0.03). Maximum acute skin reactions in the treatment field were scored according to an ordinal scale of 0-8, modified after WHO 1979. Twenty-six treatment areas (32%) expressed more severe skin damage (score > or = 5) in terms of desquamation with blisters (14%) and necrosis or ulceration (19%). Factors correlated with skin damage were the size of the lesion area (p = 0.011), the highest average maximum temperature during a given heat session (p = 0.03) and the fractionation schedule of hyperthermia (p = 0.05). The extent of previous radiotherapy absorbed dose, previous surgery in the treated area or previous chemotherapy had no significant influence on the acute skin reactions.
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6.
  • Pålsson, Maj-Britt, 1936- (författare)
  • Support for women with breast cancer, and for the district and hospital nurses involved an intervention study
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: digitalisering@umu. - Umeå : Umeå universitet. - 91-7191-082-4
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>The purpose of this study was to investigate breast cancer patients’ experiences of their illness and of traditional nursing care (TNC) or supportive nursing care (SNC) respectively, as well as nurses' experiences of support and of caring for cancer patients. An intervention including extended co-operation between the surgical ward and primary health care, shorter waiting times, and changed routines concerning the information about the diagnosis, as well as training and systematic clinical supervision for the nurses, was implemented. Newly diagnosed breast cancer patients (n=47) from two county councils in the south-east of Sweden were interviewed (IV, V). Thirty-four of them completed scales about well-being, burnout, hopelessness, anxiety and depression (VII). The women who had TNC reported lack of professional support during the initial phase of the disease and suggested changes in the care similar to those implemented in the SNC. In the SNC group the women expressed feelings of safety and security after the professional support and the organizational changes in the care. There were significantly more single women and women who had had breast conserving surgery in the SNC group than in the TNC (VII). The hopelessness scores in the SNC group were significantly higher than in the TNC group.</p><p>Thirty-nine district nurses (DNs) were interviewed at baseline (I), and thirty-three of them completed scales about burnout, empathy, and sense of coherence (SOC) before and after systematic clinical supervision (VI). Twenty-three of the 39 DNs, as well as 9 hospital nurses (HNs) who participated in the clinical supervision, were interviewed about their experiences of this intervention (III). Twenty-nine tape-recorded supervision sessions in three groups of DNs (n=23) were analysed (II). Baseline interviews and analyses of the content of the supervisory sessions strongly emphasized that DNs experienced problems in the home care of seriously ill cancer patients. Deep human contacts were a source of both strain and enrichment. The clinical supervision was said to provide relief from undesirable thoughts and feelings, confirmation of themselves both as individuals and in their professional role, a broader and deeper knowledge and increased self-confidence. There were no significant differences in the burnout, empathy, and SOC scores between the supervisory group (n=21) and a comparison group (n=12) at the first and second measures, nor over time within the groups. There were some correlations between these phenomena and the Karolinska scales of personality, as well as cor­relations between burnout, empathy and SOC.</p><p>The groups of women were not entirely similar as regards demographic and medical characteristics, and the sample size of patients and nurses was small. It is obvious that patients in the TNC missed those factors that were implemented in the SNC, at the same time the latter women expressed hopelessness more often than those who had received TNC. This result may be due to the fact that support from nurses had made the women more prepared to express their feelings, that support had not been provided to an adequate extent or in the right way, or that the applied scales were not appropriate. The finding that the nurses experienced the clinical supervision as very positive but that, despite this, there were no significant differences in attitudes measured by scales within or between the groups, can be interpreted in a similar way. Consequently, further research is needed to judge the effects of intervention. The study has, above all, produced qualitative descriptions of patients' experiences of the nursing care after discharge from hospital, and of DNs’ experiences of the care of cancer patients in their homes, and of systematic clinical supervision.</p>
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7.
  • Ohlsson, Björn, et al. (författare)
  • Follow-up after curative surgery for colorectal carcinoma - Randomized comparison with no follow-up
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: Diseases of the Colon & Rectum. - Springer. - 0012-3706. ; 38:6, s. 619-626
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: This study investigated the value of intense follow-up compared with no follow-up after curative surgery of cancer in the colon or rectum. METHODS: One hundred seven patients were randomized to no follow-up (control group; n=54) or intense follow-up (follow-up group; n=53) after surgery and early postoperative colonoscopy. Patients in the follow-up group were followed at frequent intervals with clinical examination, rigid proctosigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, computed tomography of the pelvis (in patients operated with abdominoperineal resection), pulmonary x-ray, liver function tests, and determinations of carcinoembryonic antigen and fecal hemoglobin. Follow-up ranged from 5.5 to 8.8 years after primary surgery. RESULTS: Tumor recurred in 18 patients (33 percent) in the control group and in 17 patients (32 percent) in the follow-up group. Reresection with curative intent was performed in three patients in the control group and in five patients (four of whom were asymptomatic) in the follow-up group. In the follow-up group two asymptomatic patients with elevated carcinoembryonic antigen levels were disease-free three and five and one-half years after reresection and were the only patients apparently cured by reresection. No patient underwent surgery for metastatic disease in the liver or lungs. Symptomatic metachronous carcinoma was detected in one patient (control group) after three years. Five-year survival rate was 67 percent in the control group and 75 percent in the follow-up group (P >0.05); the corresponding cancer-specific survival rates were 71 percent and 78 percent, respectively. CONCLUSION: Intense follow-up after resection of colorectal cancer did not prolong survival in this study.
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8.
  • Andersson, Lena, et al. (författare)
  • Hydrolysis of galactolipids by human pancreatic lipolytic enzymes and duodenal contents
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: Journal of Lipid Research. - American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. - 1539-7262. ; 36:6, s. 1392-1400
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Monogalactosyldiacylglycerols (MGDG), digalactosyldiacylglycerols (DGDG) and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerols (SQDG) are major lipids in vegetable food. Their digestion and absorption are unknown. This study examines the hydrolysis of galactolipids in vitro with human duodenal contents, pancreatic juice, and purified human pancreatic lipases. Galactolipids were incubated with human duodenal contents, pancreatic juice, pure pancreatic carboxyl ester lipase (CEL), and colipase-dependent lipase with colipase (Lip-Col). Hydrolysis was estimated as release of free fatty acids and by the use of [3H]galactose or [3H]fatty acid-labeled DGDG. Pancreatic juice and duodenal contents hydrolyzed DGDG to fatty acids, digalactosylmonoacylglycerol (DGMG) and water-soluble galactose-containing compounds. The hydrolysis of DGDG was bile salt-dependent and had a pH optimum at 6.5-7.5. Human pancreatic juice released fatty acids from MGDG, DGDG, and SQDG. Purified CEL hydrolyzed all three substrates; the hydrolysis rate was MGDG > SQDG > DGDG. Pure Lip-Col had activity toward MGDG but had little activity against DGDG. Separation of pancreatic juice by Sephadex G100 gel filtration chromatography revealed two peaks with galactolipase activity that coincided with CEL (molecular mass 100 kD) and lipase (molecular mass 50 kD) peaks. In contrast to pure Lip-Col enzymes of the latter peak were as active against DGDG as against MGDG. Thus, DGDG is hydrolyzed both by CEL and by a pancreatic enzyme(s) with a molecular mass of 40-50 kD to fatty acids and lyso DGDG. MGDG, DGDG, and SQDG are all hydrolyzed by human pancreatic juice. Pure CEL hydrolyzed all three substrates.
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9.
  • Jahnson, S., et al. (författare)
  • p53 and Rb immunostaining in locally advanced bladder cancer : relation to prognostic variables and predictive value for the local response to radical radiotherapy
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: European Urology. - Basel, Switzerland : S. Karger. - 0302-2838. ; 28:2, s. 135-142
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The association between known prognostic variables and altered immunostaining for the nuclear proteins retinoblastoma (Rb) and p53 was studied in a homogeneous series of locally advanced bladder cancer. The predictive value of this immunostaining for the local response to intended radical radiotherapy was investigated. Among 262 patients treated with intended radical radiotherapy between 1967 and 1986, a total of 154 patients were evaluable with respect to local response to treatment. The paraffin-embedded specimen from the tumour prior to irradiation was immunostained with the monoclonal antibodies PMG3-245 for Rb and 1801 for p53 nuclear proteins after heating in a microwave oven for 40 min at 650 W. An altered expression of Rb and p53 was observed in 18 and 42% of the tumours, respectively. p53 overexpression was associated with higher tumour grade. However, the results of the p53 and Rb immunostaining procedures had no predictive value for tumor response to radiation treatment, local control or cancer-specific mortality.
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10.
  • Wallin, H, et al. (författare)
  • Altered aromatic amine metabolism in epileptic patients treated with phenobarbital
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology. - American Association for Cancer Research. - 1055-9965. ; 4:7, s. 3-771
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The fate of carcinogens differs among individuals who have different activities of drug-metabolizing enzymes that are important in activating and detoxifying carcinogens. A drug that profoundly alters the metabolism of the drugs and carcinogens is the anticonvulsive agent phenobarbital. To investigate why epileptic patients appear to have a low risk of cancer of the urinary bladder, and on the basis of the observation that levels of aromatic amine-hemoglobin adducts are strongly associated with various risk factors for cancer at that site, we determined aromatic amine-hemoglobin adducts in 62 epileptic patients as a surrogate measure of the reaction of carcinogenic metabolites with DNA in target tissue. Although adducts were detected in all subjects, the levels were proportional to daily tobacco consumption. When the subjects were stratified into groups smoking 20 g tobacco/day or more, smoking <20 g/day, and not smoking, an effect of medication was detected. Epileptic patients treated chronically with phenobarbital or primidone, which is effectively metabolized to phenobarbital, were found to have lower levels of 4-aminobiphenyl adducts than patients on the other treatment (P = 0.02; ANOVA). In nonsmokers, no effect of medication could be demonstrated above background variation; however, an increasing effect was seen with tobacco consumption with only one-half the increase in adducts per g of tobacco smoked as epileptic patients on other treatment. The difference in the increases (slopes of regression lines) was highly significant statistically. This reduction in the level of hemoglobin-aromatic amine adducts is probably due to induction of detoxification enzymes in the patients treated with phenobarbital.
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