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Träfflista för sökning "AMNE:(MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES Clinical Medicine Cancer and Oncology) srt2:(1995-1999);srt2:(1996)"

Sökning: AMNE:(MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES Clinical Medicine Cancer and Oncology) > (1995-1999) > (1996)

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1.
  • Cwikiel, Magdalena (författare)
  • Pathophysiology of 5-fluorouracil induced cardiotoxicity : a clinical and experimental study
  • 1996
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis concerns the pathophysiology of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) induced cardiotoxicity. The aim of the clinical studies was to determine whether hemorheological factors might explain 5-FU cardiotoxicity (I) and if the syndrome was associated with free radical (FR) generation and lipid peroxidation (II). Changes in blood and plasma viscosity, fibrinogen, hematocrit, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) were studied in patients with esophageal or head and neck carcinoma during treatment with 5-FU. The study showed a decrease in blood and plasma viscosity, probably caused by a decrease in fibrinogen. Study of TBARS did not support the hypothesis that FRs could be involved in the cardiotoxicity of 5-FU. In the experimental studies in rabbits (III,IV) we examined the early and late, local and systemic effect of 5-FU on endothelium, using scanning and transmission electron microscopic evaluation of small arteries, after in vivo treatment with 5-FU. Perfusion fixation was used. The following parameters were evaluated: vessel wall and endothelial cell (EC) contraction, EC edema, cytolysis, denuded areas, platelet accumulation, fibrin formation. The studies showed severe damage to ECs with accompanying thrombus formation, supporting the hypothesis that the thrombogenic effect of 5-FU, secondary to its direct cytotoxic effect on the endothelium is the pathophysiological mechanism of 5-FU cardiotoxicity. The influence of 5-FU on endothelial cell lines in a cell culture model was studied with regard to DNA synthesis, cell death and release of prostacyclin (V). Methotrexate (MTX), an antimetabolite without cardiotoxic properties, was tested in the same way. (3H)thymidine incorporation, total cellular protein, loss of (3H)thymidine from prelabelled cells, 6-keto-prostaglandin F1* were measured. DNA synthesis decreased significantly and the release of prostacyclin by ECs increased significantly when incubated with 5-FU; this effect was not seen for MTX. The study indicate specific susceptibility of benign EC for 5-FU.
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2.
  • Wängberg, Bo, 1953-, et al. (författare)
  • Intraoperative detection of somatostatin-receptor-positive neuroendocrine tumours using indium-111-labelled DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide.
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: British journal of cancer. - 0007-0920. ; 73:6, s. 770-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • After injection of 111In-labelled DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide, intraoperative tumour localisation was performed using a scintillation detector in 23 patients with neuroendocrine tumours. Count rates from suspect tumour lesions and adjacent normal tissue were expressed as a ratio before (Rin situ) and after (Rex vivo) excision. 111In activity concentration ratios of tumour tissue to blood (T/B) were determined in a gamma counter. In patients with midgut carcinoids, (all scintigraphy positive), false Rin situ recordings were found in 4/29 macroscopically identified tumours. T/B ratios were all high (27-650). In patients with medullary thyroid carcinomas (eight out of ten scintigraphy positive), misleading Rin situ results were found in 4/37 macroscopically identified tumours. T/B ratios were lower (3-39) than those seen in midgut carcinoids. Two out of four patients with endocrine pancreatic tumours had positive scintigraphy, reliable intraoperative measurements and very high T/B ratios (910-1500). One patient with a gastric carcinoid had correct measurements in situ and ex vivo with high T/B ratios (71-210). In situ measurements added little information to preoperative scintigraphy and surgical findings using the present detection system. Rex vivo measurements were more reliable. The very high T/B ratios seen in midgut carcinoids and some endocrine pancreatic tumours would be favourable for future radiation therapy via somatostatin receptors.
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4.
  • Jernström, Helena (författare)
  • Effects of Oral Contraceptives on Endogenous Hormones, Body Constitution, and Breast Epithelium in Healthy, Young Women
  • 1996
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis concerns the effects of low-dose oral contraceptives (OCs) on endogenous hormones, insulin-like growth-factor-1 (IGF-1), sexual hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and body constitution in two groups of healthy women aged 19­25 who had never been pregnant. Prolactin concentrations were elevated in a subgroup of present and former users. IGF-1 concentrations were significantly decreased during menstrual cycle days 18­23 in present OC users compared with never users, while no effect was seen during cycle days 5­10. Former users had significantly higher follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations than never users. This rebound-like phenomenon peaked one year after cessation of use. High FSH concentrations could increase the number of ovulations and thereby the ovarian cancer risk, especially among intermittent users who may experience repeated rebound peaks. Among present and former users SHBG concentrations were significantly correlated with reported weight gain in connection with OC start. SHBG was not related to the same hormonal and constitutional parameters in former users as in never users. Breast size was significantly larger in present users than in former and never users, and approximately half of the ever users reported breast tenderness or enlargement in connection with OC start. Breast epithelial proliferation rate was studied by means of a new monoclonal antibody, Ki-S5, in 58 women who had undergone reduction mammoplasties and who were born 1940 or later. There was no significant difference in breast tissue proliferation between present, former and never users. Women who had used OCs before the first full-term pregnancy had a significantly higher proliferation rate in the breast tissue than other women, regardless of present OC status. Women who used exogenous hormones and who had a first and/or second degree relative relative with breast cancer had a significantly higher proliferation rate in the breast tissue than other women. A high proliferation rate may increase the risk of developing breast cancer.
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5.
  • Johnsson, Anders (författare)
  • Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies on cisplatin in mice and men
  • 1996
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Methodological tools for studies of the cytostatic agen cisplatin (CDDP) were explored and applied to elucidate various aspects of pharmacokinetics, drug distribution, chemomodulation and pharmacodynamics. An immunohistochemical assay for analysis of CDDP-DNA adducts, i.e. the drug in its probable target position, was modified to allow quantitation with computerized image analysis. The methodological sources of error were estimated. We found the method to be feasible for comparing samples of the same tissue type, stained in the same batch and preferrably measured by one observer on one occasion. The pharmacokinetics were studied as platinum (Pt) and CDDP-DNA adducts in nude mice. The highest tissue concentration was noted in kidney at 15 min. A biphasic elimination of Pt was observed in most sample types and the terminal half-life was similar (55h-76h) in whole-blood, serum, kidney, liver and testis. In brain the pharmacokinetics differed with a gradual accumulation during the study period of 7 days. Peak adduct levels were reached between 30 min and 4h. Each tissue type had its specific adduct staining pattern. With escalating CDDP doses there was a linear increase in both Pt concentrations and CDDP-DNA adducts including tumor. There were also good correlations between serum-Pt, tissue levels of Pt and adducts, respectively. Heterogeneities in the intratumoral drug distribution were described and a model was presented for investigating the potential influence of vascularization and cell proliferation on intratumoral adduct distribution by using different immunohistochemical stainings of parallel sections. A weak correlation was found between adducts and proliferation, which might indicate that drug uptake and adduct formation is increased in proliferating cells. The antifungal agent amphotericin B was given to glioma-bearing rats with the purpose of enhancing the cytotoxicity of CDDP. The combined treatment resulted in excessive nephrotoxicity and in increase levels of CDDP-DNA adducts on kidneys. This indicates that nephrotoxicity is related to adduct formation in kidneys. It also shows that adduct analysis can be a valuable tool for assessing the mechanisms of interaction between CDDP and modulation agents. Ten patients were studies during the first cycle of CDDP-based chemotherapy. With limited-sampling and a population approach useful pharmacokinetic information was obtained. CDDP-DNA adducts in lymphocytes and buccal cells showed different kinetic profiles, possibly due to differences in cell turn-over. Renal damage, studied in terms of urinary protein excretion, was first displayed as tubular damge and later as impaired glomerular barrier function. Significant correlations were found between tubular dysfunction and pharmacokinetic parameters. These results could be the basis for further pharmacodynamic studies aiming towards individualized dose adaptation for cancer chemotherapy.
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6.
  • Wängberg, Bo, 1953-, et al. (författare)
  • Survival of patients with disseminated midgut carcinoid tumors after aggressive tumor reduction.
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: World journal of surgery. - 0364-2313. ; 20:7, s. 892-9; discussion 899
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sixty-four consecutive patients with disseminated midgut carcinoids were treated during an 8-year period according to a single clinical protocol aimed at aggressive tumor reduction by surgery alone or with subsequent hepatic artery embolization. All patients had markedly elevated urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels (581 +/- 79 micromol/24 h) and hormonal symptoms. Fourteen patients (22%) reached anatomic and biochemical cure by surgery alone. At follow-up, the mean 5-HIAA levels were still normal after 69.0 +/- 6. 2 months; two patients had died from unrelated causes. With the introduction of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy, subclinical disease was diagnosed in 7 of these 14 patients. Forty patients with bilobar hepatic disease underwent embolization in combination with octreotide. In this group, 5-HIAA levels were still reduced by 55% after 71 +/- 11 months of follow-up, and the 5-year survival was 56%, estimated from the total death hazard function. After embolization, two subgroups could be identified with marked differences in their long-term response to treatment. Ten patients were not embolized owing to complicating diseases. The 5-year survival for the entire series was 58%. A significantly increased risk of cardiovascular deaths was seen, which underlines the importance of total survival analysis in a disease with multiple hormonal effects. It is concluded that an active surgical approach must be recommended to patients with the midgut carcinoid syndrome. In patients with bilobar hepatic disease, embolization combined with octreotide treatment markedly reduced the 5-HIAA excretion and suggested a prolonged 5-year survival.
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8.
  • Garkavij, Michael (författare)
  • Improving radioimmunotargeting of tumors : the impact of extracorporeal immunoadsorption and preload in rats
  • 1996
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In radioimmunotherapy of tumors, uptake of the monoclonal antibody (MAb) used is often too low in relation to its uptake in normal tissues. The purpose of these studies was to improve experimental tumor radioimmunotargeting with (a) extracorporeal immunoadsorption (ECIA), where excess of radiolabeled MAbs circulating in blood is removed, (b) or by preload with unlabeled MAb prior to injection of radiolabeled MAb, (c) or by a combination of these. ECIA based on the avidin-biotin concept enables direct adsorption of radiolabeled and biotinylated MAb from blood and increases the tumor-to-normal tissue (T/N) uptake ratio by reducing background radioactivity in radiosensitive organs. 267 rats (athymic or Brown Norwegian) grafted with human adenocarcinoma or rat colon adenocarcinoma tumors intramuscularly, and beneath the kidney or liver capsule were included in the studies. Of these rats, 82 were subjected to ECIA. Two radioiodinated and biotinylated MAbs, murine L6 or chimeric BR96, were used and evaluated. (I) Using 50 µg dosage of L6, ECIA reduced whole body and plasma activity as well as improved the detectability of subrenal capsule tumors. T/N uptake ratios were increased on average 3 times. (II) The efficacy of ECIA in removing different injected amounts of L6 from plasma was similar. The highest T/N ratios persisting 24h after start of the ECIA were obtained by using 10 µg of 125I-L6-biotin. (III) The efficacy of preload in enhancing tumor uptake and simultaneously decreasing uptake in normal tissues was obtained with 250µg of 125I-L6 preceded by a preload of 50µg unlabeled L6 only. (IV) The effects on radioimmunotargeting of preload and ECIA in combination were synergistic and improved T/N uptake ratios up to 17 times. (V) As compared with ECIA, a new method of whole blood immunoadsorption (WBIA) was technically easier to perform, safer and more reliable, but of approx. comparable efficiency. (VI) WBIA was even applicable on the internalizing and highly tumor selective 125I-BR96-biotin MAb, resulting in manifestly improved T/N ratios.
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9.
  • Fjälling, M, et al. (författare)
  • Systemic radionuclide therapy using indium-111-DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide in midgut carcinoid syndrome.
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine. - 0161-5505. ; 37:9, s. 1519-21
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A 55-yr-old woman with a midgut carcinoid syndrome due to metastatic spread of an ileal tumor to the liver, paraortic and mediastinal lymph nodes and to the skeleton was given systemic radionuclide therapy with 111In-DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide. Before therapy, dosimetric calculations were performed on whole-body scintigraphs and 111In retention was shown to be long-lasting. Excretion was mainly seen during the first 24 hr after injection; thereafter whole-body retention remained stationary at 30%. Indium-111 activity in tumor biopsies and blood was measured using a gamma counter. Very high tumor-to-blood ratios were obtained: 150 for the primary tumor and 400-650 for liver metastases, which further justified radiation therapy. Indium-111-DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide treatment was given on three separate occasions (3.0, 3.5 and 3.1 GBq) 8 and 4 wk apart. After each therapy, the patient experienced facial flush and pain over the skeletal lesions followed by symptomatic relief, even though no objective tumor regression was found radiologically after 5 mo. After initiation of octreotide treatment, there was a 14% reduction of the main tumor marker, urinary 5-HIAA. After three subsequent radionuclide therapies, there was a further 31% reduction of 5-HIAA levels. No adverse reactions, other than a slight decrease in leukocyte counts, were seen. The mean absorbed radiation dose after the three treatments was estimated to be about 10-12 Gy in liver metastases and 3-6 Gy in other tumors, depending on the size and location of the metastases. Assuming internalization of 111In into tumor cells and a radiobiological effect from short range Auger and conversion electrons, there might be a therapeutic effect on the tumor.
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10.
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