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Träfflista för sökning "AMNE:(MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES Clinical Medicine Cancer and Oncology) srt2:(1995-1999);srt2:(1997)"

Sökning: AMNE:(MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES Clinical Medicine Cancer and Oncology) > (1995-1999) > (1997)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 56
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  • Tisell, Lars-Eric, 1931-, et al. (författare)
  • Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy in medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: The British journal of surgery. - 0007-1323. ; 84:4, s. 543-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • 111In-radiolabelled (DTPA-D-Phe1)-octreotide scintigraphy can be used to localize neuroendocrine tumours expressing somatostatin receptors (SSTRs). The aim of this paper was to analyse the importance of tumour volume and growth for the visualization by SSTR scintigraphy of metastases from medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC).
  • Carlsson, Maria (författare)
  • Informational support for patients with gynaecological cancer and their families
  • 1997
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>The main purpose of the present thesis was to gain a deeper knowledge and understanding of the informational need by women with gynaecological cancer and their families. The studies evaluate the experience of different kind of information giving; a telephone-help line; a 3 years educational group support programme; and information givings in ordinary care.</p><p>There was a significant correlation to interest in an educational supportive group in the prestudy depending on age, legal status, educational level. Younger individuals, couples and people with a higher formal education were generally more interesting in participating (p&lt;0.05). Patients who actively chose to participate m a an educational support group differed from the unselected control group even prior the intervention, they with a higher formal education were generally more interesting in participating, they felt more confused and angry than the control group. After intervention, the patients in the interventional group reported a significant improved level of knowledge about cancer.</p><p>Both patients and next-of-kin request information about medical- and psychological aspects of the disease and its treatment. The evaluation of the questions in the educational supportive group show that patients and their relatives asked questions of a general nature, related to basic knowledge of cancer and treatment principles, and not directly related to their own illness. There was no general difference in knowledge level between cancer patients and the controls of healthy women. The length of formal education was the most important determinator of correct answers (p&lt;0.01).</p><p>Two main themes were revealed at the interviews about the patients informations preferences. These were to actively address questions and the right to receive honest information;</p><p>It is concluded that differential information giving techniques are required to satisfy the patients' different preferences. The patients express an active role in the information giving process. They preferred information with numerous opportunities to address questions, that the staff have time for questions and that the questions are honestly answered.</p>
  • Johannsson, Oskar Thor (författare)
  • Hereditary Breast Cancer in South Sweden. Early findings from studies on the role of BRCA1
  • 1997
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The thesis presents the results from investigations into the role of BRCA1 in hereditary cancer in South Sweden. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) studies found loss of the wildtype allele of BRCA1 to be common in BRCA1 associated breast cancer, but due to the high degree of LOH on chr. 17q in sporadic breast cancer not to be indicative of the presence of a BRCA1 mutation. Seventeen different germline BRCA1 mutations have been found in 34 separate breast and breast-ovarian cancer families. Five founder mutations were identified. If silent and suspected polymorphism mutations are excluded, frameshift, nonsense and splice mutations account for 93% in our material. mRNA in situ hybridization of BRCA1 was found to be able to identify BRCA1 and sporadic tumors with 95% specificity and sensitivity. The histology and tumor biological features of BRCA1 associated breast cancers was found to be predominantly of the ductal type, histological grade III, non-diploid with a high S-phase, predominantly TP53 positive and E
  • Ding, W Q, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of ethanol on muscarinic receptor-stimulated c-fos expression in human neuroblastoma cells
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Brain Research. Molecular Brain Research. - Elsevier. - 0169-328X. ; 46:1-2, s. 77-84
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The effect of ethanol exposure on muscarinic receptor-stimulated expression of c-fos was investigated in SH-SY5Y cells. Four days of ethanol exposure enhanced carbachol-stimulated c-fos mRNA expression, analyzed with Northern blot, and Fos/AP-1 binding activity, measured with gel mobility super shift assay. Pre-incubation with muscarinic antagonists or the protein kinase C inhibitor GF109203X demonstrated that, in both control and ethanol-treated cells, carbachol-induced c-fos expression was mediated via muscarinic M1 receptors and to a large extent through protein kinase C. However, phorbol ester-induced c-fos expression was unaffected in ethanol-treated cells. Acute exposure to ethanol caused a suppression of both carbachol- and phorbol ester-stimulated c-fos expression. These results demonstrate that muscarinic receptor-stimulated gene expression is sensitive to both acute and long-term ethanol exposure.
  • Ahlman, Håkan, 1947-, et al. (författare)
  • The relevance of somatostatin receptors in thyroid neoplasia.
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: The Yale journal of biology and medicine. - 0044-0086. ; 70:5-6, s. 523-33
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • 111In-octreotide scintigraphy in patients with persistent medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) visualized tumors in about half of the surgically explored sites. Tumor visualization correlated with rapid tumor growth and large tumor volume as judged from calcitonin levels. The 111In concentration ratio between tumor (T) and blood (B) in surgically excised lymph node metastases of MTC showed a large variation, with low values for microscopic and high values for macroscopic metastases in individual patients. Three cases of MTC, Hürthle cell adenoma and papillary thyroid cancer are reported with preoperative scintigraphy, T/B ratios and Northern analyses of the surgical biopsies. Visualization of tumors was possible in the absence of sstr2 (the high affinity receptor for octreotide) with the exception of microscopic tumor growth. T/B values in the patient with Hürthle cell adenoma were similar to those found in the contralateral thyroid lobe with goitre. The relatively high uptake of 111In in benign thyroid conditions probably limits the use of octreotide scintigraphy in the diagnosis of primary tumors. The technique has certain advantages over radioiodine scintigraphy after the surgical treatment of thyroid tumors: no need for withdrawal of thyroxin substitution; a possibility to diagnose metastases of tumors that do not concentrate radioiodine (MTC, Hürthle cell cancer); and complementary information about metastatic sites of non-medullary thyroid cancer (papillary and follicular tumors).
  • Fulda, S., et al. (författare)
  • Betulinic acid triggers CD95 (APO-1/Fas)- and p53-independent apoptosis via activation of caspases in neuroectodermal tumors
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Cancer Research. - American Association for Cancer Research. - 0008-5472 .- 1538-7445. ; 57:21, s. 4956-4964
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Betulinic acid CBA), a melanoma-specific cytotoxic agent, induced apoptosis in neuroectodermal tumors, such as neuroblastoma, medulloblastoma, and Ewing's sarcoma, representing the most common solid tumors of childhood. BA triggered an apoptosis pathway different from the one previously identified for standard chemotherapeutic drugs. BA-induced apoptosis was independent of CD95-ligand/receptor interaction and accumulation of wild-type p53 protein, but it critically depended on activation of caspases (interleukin 1 beta-converting enzyme/Ced-3-like proteases), FLICE/MACH (caspase-8), considered to be an upstream protease in the caspase cascade, and the downstream caspase CPP32/YAMA/Apopain (caspase-3) were activated, resulting in cleavage of the prototype substrate of caspases PARP. The broad-spectrum peptide inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone, which blocked cleavage of FLICE and PARP, also completely abrogated BA-triggered apoptosis. Cleavage of caspases was preceded by disturbance of mitochondrial membrane potential and by generation of reactive oxygen species. Overexpression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-x(L) conferred resistance to BA at the level of mitochondrial dysfunction, protease activation, and nuclear fragmentation. This suggested that mitochondrial alterations were involved in BA-induced activation of caspases. Furthermore, pax and Bcl-x(s), two death-promoting proteins of the Bcl-2 family, were up-regulated following BA treatment. Most importantly, neuroblastoma cells resistant to CD95- and doxorubicin-mediated apoptosis were sensitive to treatment with BA, suggesting that BA may bypass some forms of drug resistance. Because BA exhibited significant antitumor activity on patients' derived neuroblastoma cells ex vivo, BA may be a promising new agent for the treatment of neuroectodermal tumors in vivo.</p>
  • Karlsson, Mats G., 1960-, et al. (författare)
  • No association between immunohistochemical expression of p53, c-erbB-2, Ki-67, estrogen and progesterone receptors in female papillary thyroid cancer and ionizing radiation
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Cancer Letters. - Clare, Ireland : Elsevier. - 0304-3835. ; 120:2, s. 173-177
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An association has previously been reported between exposure to medical diagnostic ionizing radiation and papillary thyroid cancer in women. To further evaluate potential mechanisms in carcinogenesis, the expression of p53, c-erbB-2, as well as Ki-67, estrogen and progesterone receptors were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 19 women exposed to X-rays and for comparison in nine women without such reported exposure. They all had papillary thyroid cancer. No difference was found between these groups. The results of this study showed that p53, c-erbB-2, Ki-67, estrogen and progesterone receptors are not involved in papillary thyroid cancer associated with exposure to medical diagnostic ionizing radiation.
  • Koul, Anjila, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of TP53 gene mutations in uterine corpus cancer with short follow-up
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Gynecologic Oncology. - Academic Press. - 1095-6859. ; 67:3, s. 295-302
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The involvement of the TP53 tumor suppressor gene in uterine corpus cancer was investigated by single-stranded conformation polymorphism and sequence analysis of its exons 4 to 10. Mutations were found in 12 (18.5%) of 65 cases. Ten of these 12 were single-base substitutions (8 missense and 2 nonsense mutations), whereas 2 were frame-shifting mutations. TP53 gene mutations correlated significantly with advanced surgical stage of disease (P = 0.006) and unfavorable tumor histology types (P = 0.003), whereas the association to myometrial wall invasion did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.054). TP53 gene mutations also correlated significantly with allelic loss at TP53 locus (P = 0.024), absence of estrogen (P = 0.045) and progesterone receptors (P = 0.001), DNA nondiploidy (P = 0.002), and high S-phase fraction values (P = 0.002). Our results suggest that inactivation of the TP53 checkpoint function is associated with disease transition into a stage of rapid progression and spread.
  • Johansson, Mikael, et al. (författare)
  • Tumor blood flow and the cytotoxic effects of estramustine and its constituents in a rat glioma model.
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Neurosurgery. - 0148-396X .- 1524-4040. ; 41:1, s. 237-244
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>OBJECTIVE:</strong> Estramustine (EaM) is a conjugate of nor-nitrogen mustard (NNM) and 17 beta-estradiol (E2) that has cytotoxic and radiosensitizing effects on experimental malignant glioma. Its mechanism of action is only partly understood. To further investigate the mechanism in vivo, the effects on tumor blood flow (TBF) and tumor growth were analyzed.</p><p><strong>METHODS:</strong> TBF was measured by radioactive microspheres, and tumor growth was measured by weight. Apoptosis was evaluated by in situ end labeling and gel electrophoresis. The effects of the constituents NNM and E2 were also evaluated.</p><p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> EaM increased TBF to 153.8 ml/100 g/min after 3 days and to 153.9 ml/100 g/min after 10 days of treatment, compared with 94.0 ml/100 g/min in untreated controls. Cerebral blood flow did not change after EaM treatment. NNM increased TBF but also showed a tendency to increase cerebral blood flow. E2 increased TBF, whereas cerebral blood flow was unchanged. EaM resulted in a rapid reduction in tumor weight from 230 mg in untreated animals to 146 mg after 3 days of treatment. EaM induced an early transient fragmentation of deoxyribonucleic acid in glioma but not in the normal brain. Neither NNM nor E2 affected tumor weight.</p><p><strong>CONCLUSION:</strong> EaM increases TBF in the BT4C rat glioma model with a concomitant rapid antitumoral effect. The increase in TBF could partially be induced by an estrogen-like action of EaM, but the rapid cytotoxic effect of the drug is obviously attributed to the intact EaM compound. This cytotoxic effect might be attributable to the induction of programmed cell death.</p>
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