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Träfflista för sökning "AMNE:(MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES Clinical Medicine Cancer and Oncology) srt2:(2010-2014);srt2:(2011)"

Sökning: AMNE:(MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES Clinical Medicine Cancer and Oncology) > (2010-2014) > (2011)

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  • Kaderi, Mohd Arifin, et al. (författare)
  • <em>LPL</em> is the strongest prognostic factor in a comparative analysis of RNA-based markers in early chronic lymphocytic leukemia
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Haematologica (online). - 0390-6078 .- 1592-8721. ; 96:8, s. 1153-1160
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>BACKGROUND:</strong></p> <p>The expression levels of LPL, ZAP70, TCL1A, CLLU1 and MCL1 have recently been proposed as prognostic factors in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. However, few studies have systematically compared these different RNA-based markers.</p> <p><strong>DESIGN AND METHODS:</strong></p> <p>Using real-time quantitative PCR, we measured the mRNA expression levels of these genes in unsorted samples from 252 newly diagnosed chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients and correlated our data with established prognostic markers (for example Binet stage, CD38, IGHV gene mutational status and genomic aberrations) and clinical outcome.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS:</strong></p> <p>High expression levels of all RNA-based markers, except MCL1, predicted shorter overall survival and time to treatment, with LPL being the most significant. In multivariate analysis including the RNA-based markers, LPL expression was the only independent prognostic marker for overall survival and time to treatment. When studying LPL expression and the established markers, LPL expression retained its independent prognostic strength for overall survival. All of the RNA-based markers, albeit with varying ability, added prognostic information to established markers, with LPL expression giving the most significant results. Notably, high LPL expression predicted a worse outcome in good-prognosis subgroups, such as patients with mutated IGHV genes, Binet stage A, CD38 negativity or favorable cytogenetics. In particular, the combination of LPL expression and CD38 could further stratify Binet stage A patients.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong></p> <p>LPL expression is the strongest RNA-based prognostic marker in chronic lymphocytic leukemia that could potentially be applied to predict outcome in the clinical setting, particularly in the large group of patients with favorable prognosis.</p>
  • Leja, Justyna, 1982- (författare)
  • Oncolytic Adenovirus Therapy of Neuroendocrine Tumors
  • 2011
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), originally described as carcinoids, represent a rare and heterogeneous group of neoplasms associated with intensive secretion of hormones, bioactive peptides and amines. Most of the patients are diagnosed at a late stage of disease, often with liver metastases. Surgery remains the main treatment to control metastatic disease, but is not curative. Oncolytic virotherapy represents a promising approach to treat cancer and different strategies have been exploited to restrict viral replication to tumor cells. We developed an oncolytic adenovirus based on serotype 5, Ad5[CgA-E1A], where the chromogranin A (CgA) promoter controls expression of the E1A gene and thereby virus replication. We found that Ad5[CgA-E1A], selectively replicates in NET cells and it is able to suppress fast-growing human BON carcinoid tumors in nude mice. The activity of Ad5[CgA-E1A] was not completely blocked in liver cells. We further repressed virus replication in hepatocytes by targeting E1A with miR122, an miRNA specifically expressed in the liver. miRNAs bind to mRNA and induce its cleavage or translational blockage. By insertion of tandem repeats of miR122 target sequences in 3’UTR of E1A gene, we observed reduced E1A protein expression and replication arrest in miR122 expressing liver cells. The oncolytic potency of the miR122-targeted virus was not affected in NET cells. Since some NET and neuroblastoma cells express high levels of somatostatin receptors (SSTRs), we introduced in the virus fiber knob cyclic peptides, which contain four amino acids (FWKT) and mimic the binding site of somatostatin for SSTRs. The FWKT-modified Ad5 transduces midgut carcinoid cells from liver metastases about 3-4 times better than non-modified Ad5. Moreover, FWKT-modified Ad5 overcomes neutralization in an <em>ex vivo</em> human blood loop model to a greater extent than Ad5, indicating that the fiber knob modification may prolong the systemic circulation time. NETs represent a huge therapeutic challenge and novel diagnostic markers are needed for early detection and effective treatment of NETs. We have profiled primary tumors and liver metastases of ileocaceal NETs, using Affymetrix microarrays and advanced bioinformatics. We have identified six novel marker genes and show high similarity between primary lesions and liver metastases transcriptome by hierarchical clustering analysis.</p>
  • Leja, Justyna, et al. (författare)
  • Oncolytic adenovirus modified with somatostatin motifs for selective infection of neuroendocrine tumor cells
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Gene Therapy. - 0969-7128 .- 1476-5462. ; 18:11, s. 1052-1062
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>We have previously described the oncolytic adenovirus, Ad(CgA-E1A-miR122), herein denoted Ad5(CgA-E1A-miR122) that selectively replicates in and kills neuroendocrine cells, including freshly isolated midgut carcinoid cells from liver metastases. Ad5(CgA-E1A-miR122) is based on human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) and infects target cells by binding to the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR) and integrins on the cell surface. Some neuroendocrine tumor (NET) and neuroblastoma cells express low levels of CAR and are therefore poorly transduced by Ad5. However, they often express high levels of somatostatin receptors (SSTRs). Therefore, we introduced cyclic peptides, which contain four amino acids (FWKT) and mimic the binding site for SSTRs in the virus fiber knob. We show that FWKT-modified Ad5 binds to SSTR<sub>2</sub> on NET cells and transduces midgut carcinoid cells from liver metastases about 3-4 times better than non-modified Ad5 while it transduces normal hepatocytes at about 50% of Ad5. Moreover, FWKT-modified Ad5 overcomes neutralization in an <em>ex vivo</em> human blood loop model to greater extent than Ad5, indicating that fiber knob modification may prolong the systematic circulation time. We conclude that modification of adenovirus with the FWKT motif may be beneficial for NET therapy.</p>
  • Campa, Daniele, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic variability of the fatty acid synthase pathway is not associated with prostate cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation on Cancer (EPIC)
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cancer. - Elsevier. - 0959-8049 .- 1879-0852. ; 47:3, s. 420-427
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>A western lifestyle, characterised by low rates of energy expenditure and a high-energy diet rich in animal protein, saturated fats and refined carbohydrates, is associated with high incidence of prostate cancer in men. A high-energy nutritional status results in insulin/IGF signalling in cells, which in turn stimulates synthesis of fatty acids. We investigated whether the genetic variability of the genes belonging to the fatty acid synthesis pathway is related to prostate cancer risk in 815 prostate cancer cases and 1266 controls from the European Prospective Investigation on Cancer (EPIC). Using a tagging approach and selecting 252 SNPs in 22 genes, we covered all the common genetic variation of this pathway. None of the SNPs reached statistical significance after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Common SNPs in the fatty acid synthase pathway are not major contributors to prostate cancer risk.</p>
  • Solberg, Arne, et al. (författare)
  • Residual Prostate Cancer in Patients Treated with Endocrine Therapy with or Without Radical Radiotherapy : A Side Study of the SPCG-7 Randomized Trial.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics. - Elsevier. - 1879-355X. ; 80:1, s. 55-61
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>PURPOSE: The Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group-7 randomized trial demonstrated a survival benefit of combined endocrine therapy and external-beam radiotherapy over endocrine therapy alone in patients with high-risk prostate cancer. In a subset of the study population, the incidence and clinical implications of residual prostate cancer in posttreatment prostate biopsy specimens was evaluated.</p> <p>METHODS AND MATERIALS: Biopsy specimens were obtained from 120 of 875 men in the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group-7 study.</p> <p>RESULTS: Biopsies were performed at median of 45 months follow-up. In 63 patients receiving endocrine treatment only and 57 patients receiving combined treatment, residual cancer was found in 66% (n = 41) and 22% (n = 12), respectively (p &lt; 0.0001). The vast majority of residual tumors were poorly differentiated (Gleason score &gt;/=8). Endocrine therapy alone was predictive of residual prostate cancer: odds ratio 7.49 (3.18-17.7), p &lt; 0.0001. In patients with positive vs. negative biopsy the incidences of clinical events were as follows: biochemical recurrence 74% vs. 27% (p &lt; 0.0001), local progression 26% vs. 4.7% (p = 0.002), distant recurrence 17% vs. 9.4% (p = 0.27), clinical recurrence 36% vs. 13% (p = 0.006), cancer-specific death 19% vs. 9.7% (p = 0.025). In multivariable analysis, biochemical recurrence was significantly associated with residual cancer: hazard ratio 2.69 (1.45-4.99), p = 0.002, and endocrine therapy alone hazard ratio 3.45 (1.80-6.62), p &lt; 0.0001.</p> <p>CONCLUSIONS: Radiotherapy combined with hormones improved local tumor control in comparison with endocrine therapy alone. Residual prostate cancer was significantly associated with serum prostate-specific antigen recurrence, local tumor progression, clinical recurrence, and cancer-specific death in univariable analysis. Residual cancer was predictive of prostate-specific antigen recurrence in multivariable analysis.</p>
  • Kaltsas, Gregory, et al. (författare)
  • Expression of connective tissue growth factor and IGF1 in normal and neoplastic gastrointestinal neuroendocrine cells and their clinico-pathological significance
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Endocrine-Related Cancer. - Uppsala : Uppsala University. - 1351-0088 .- 1479-6821. ; 18:1, s. 61-71
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and IGF1 are both expressed in a variety of tumours and are involved in tumourigenesis. However, information about their expression in the gastrointestinal (GI) neuroendocrine (NE) cells and tumours is mainly limited, with the exception of midgut carcinoids where abundant CTGF expression has been demonstrated. Normal mucosa specimens from stomach and ileum, as well as tumour tissue specimens from gastric NE tumours (GNETs; n=58) and midgut NETs (n=38) were included. Immunohistochemical techniques were used to investigate the possible expression of CTGF and IGF1 in GI NE cells and tumours. The latter results were correlated with various clinico-biochemical and histopathological variables. CTGF was expressed in a proportion of NE cells of the normal GI mucosa but not in enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells, whereas IGF1 was undetectable. CTGF was absent in the foci of ECL cell hyperplasia, and in most of the poorly differentiated carcinomas, but present in some GNETs (mainly in type III ECL cell carcinoids (ECL-CCs)) and in all but one midgut NETs. CTGF correlated with tumour stage in well-differentiated GNETs and with size larger than 1  cm but only in the subgroup of type I ECL-CCs. IGF1 was detected in the foci of ECL cell hyperplasia and in all GI NETs. These findings suggest that both CTGF and IGF1 may be involved in the neoplastic transformation of GI NE cells, whereas IGF1 may play an important role even at early stage.</p>
  • Berglund, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Comorbidity, treatment and mortality : a population based cohort study of prostate cancer in PCBaSe Sweden
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Urology. - Elsevier. - 0022-5347 .- 1527-3792. ; 185:3, s. 833-840
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Purpose</p> <p>We examined associations among comorbidity, treatment decisions and mortality in patients with prostate cancer.</p> <p>Materials and Methods</p> <p>A total of 77,536 men diagnosed with prostate cancer between 1997 and 2006 were identified in PCBaSe Sweden from the National Prostate Cancer Register of Sweden. Logistic, Cox and competing risk regression were used to assess associations among Charlson comorbidity index, treatment and mortality. The Charlson comorbidity index was categorized into no (0), mild (1) and severe comorbidity (2+).</p> <p>Results</p> <p>In men with low risk prostate cancer 5,975 of the 13,245 (45.1%) patients without comorbidity underwent radical prostatectomy compared to 256 of the 1,399 (18.9%) men with severe comorbidity. Following adjustment for age and period of diagnosis, radical prostatectomy was less likely to be offered to men with severe comorbidity (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.41–0.55). In men with high risk prostate cancer, radiotherapy was more common (range 7.7% to 21.3%) than radical prostatectomy (range 3.0% to 11.2%) regardless of comorbidity burden. All cause and competing cause but not prostate cancer specific mortality were increased in men with severe comorbidity (all cause HR 1.99, 95% CI 1.93–2.05; competing cause sHR 2.66, 95% CI 2.56–2.78; prostate cancer specific sHR 0.98, 95% CI 0.93–1.03). The cumulative probability of prostate cancer death given no death from competing causes was significantly higher in men with severe comorbidity in all risk groups (p &lt;0.01).</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>Comorbidity affects treatment choices, and is associated with all cause, competing cause and conditional prostate cancer specific mortality. An increased conditional prostate cancer specific mortality in men with severe comorbidity may reflect less aggressive treatment, impaired tumor defense, lifestyle factors and poor general health behavior.</p> <p></p>
  • Glimelius, Ingrid, et al. (författare)
  • The effect of Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) on Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Experimental Hematology. - 0301-472X .- 1873-2399. ; 39:8, s. 850-858
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>Background</strong> In classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), many eosinophils in tumour tissue indicate poor prognosis, probably caused by stimulation of the tumour cells, the Hodgkin Reed Sternberg (HRS) cells. However, eosinophils are primarily known for their role in innate immunity, where one function is to secrete the toxic substances eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), and eosinophil protein X (EPX). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ECP on HRS cells <em>in vitro</em>.</p><p><strong>Method</strong> The fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity-assay (FMCA) measured survival index (SI) of cells from the HL cell lines HDLM-2, KMH2, and L428 after incubation with ECP or EPX. The gene products of a coding ECP polymorphism, ECP97arg and ECP97thr, and ECPs, with different levels of glycosylation were investigated. Flow cytometry was used to monitor the effects of ECP on markers of cell death.</p><p><strong>Results</strong> A concentration dependent reduction of SI was seen after ECP treatment. For the B-cell derived cell lines, KMH2 and L428, ECP was cytotoxic with a dose response relationship similar to a previously investigated small-cell lung cancer cell-line. In contrast, for HDLM-2, which is a cell line of T-cell origin, the cytotoxicity was even more pronounced at the lowest concentrations tested, and then reached a plateau at about 0.018µM. At a concentration of 0.14µM of ECP, an SI of 71%±1.9 was recorded for HDLM-2, which did not accentuate despite higher concentrations of ECP. ECP97arg and ECP97thr displayed similar cytotoxicity, and the level of glycosylation did not affect cytotoxicity for HDLM-2, in contrast to the small-cell lung cancer cell-line. For EPX, no or very limited reduction in SI was seen, compared to ECP (p&lt;0.001). The majority of cells that died from ECP (the HDLM-2 cell line) were PI positive, and only a few were annexin V positive.</p><p><strong>Conclusions </strong>ECP is cytotoxic for HRS cells, but heterogeneity between cell lines was seen. The two cell lines of B-cell origin, KMH2 and L428, were sensitive to high ECP concentrations, but for HDLM-2, of T-cell origin, the cytotoxicity reached a plateau at higher concentrations. Thus, even at presumably high concentrations, ECP can be present around HRS cells without eradicating all cells.</p>
  • Brännström, Fredrik, et al. (författare)
  • Surgeon and hospital-related risk factors in colorectal cancer surgery
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Colorectal Disease. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 1462-8910 .- 1463-1318. ; 13:12, s. 1370-1376
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>AIM</strong>: The aim of this study was to identify surgeon and hospital-related factors in a well-defined population-based cohort; the results of this study could possibly be used to improve outcome in colorectal cancer.</p><p><strong>METHOD</strong>: Data from the colonic (1997-2006) and rectal (1995-2006) cancer registers of the Uppsala/Örebro Regional Oncology Centre were used to assess 1697 patients with rectal and 2692 with colonic cancer. Putative risk factors and their impact on long-term survival were evaluated using the Cox proportional hazard model.</p><p><strong>RESULTS</strong>: The degree of specialization of the operating surgeon had no significant effect on long-term survival. When comparing the surgeons with the highest degree of specialization, noncolorectal surgeons demonstrated a slightly lower long-term survival for rectal cancer stage I and II (HR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.05-3.92). Surgeons with a high case-load were not associated with better survival in any analysis model. Regional hospitals had a lower survival rate for rectal cancer stage III surgery (HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.08-2.00).</p><p><strong>CONCLUSION</strong>: Degree of specialization, surgeon case-load and hospital category could not be identified as important factors when determining outcome in colorectal cancer surgery in this study.</p>
  • Burgu, Berk, et al. (författare)
  • An unusual cause of infantile gynecomastia: sertoli cell tumor.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology. - 1536-3678. ; 33:3, s. 238-40
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Prepubertal testicular masses are relatively rare. Sertoli cell tumors account for 2% of prepubertal testicular tumors and very few have occurred in the first decade of life. Gynecomastia can be seen in approximately 5% of patients with testicular mass. We present an 8-month-old boy admitted with bilateral gynecomastia and unilateral testicular mass.
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