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Träfflista för sökning "AMNE:(MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES Clinical Medicine Cancer and Oncology) srt2:(2020)"

Sökning: AMNE:(MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES Clinical Medicine Cancer and Oncology) > (2020)

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1.
  • Girma Kebede, Betlehem, et al. (författare)
  • Communicative challenges among physicians, patients, and family caregivers in cancer care: An exploratory qualitative study in Ethiopia
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 15:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Cancer is a growing concern in Ethiopia. Though communication is essential for the treatment process, few studies have looked at communication in Ethiopian cancer care. Due to the large number of patients and scarcity of resources, it is vital to understand how to manage consultations in order to effectively help as many patients as possible in this challenging work environment. Thus, research is needed to analyze and understand the communicative challenges experienced by physicians, patients, and family caregivers, in order to successfully handle patient care in practice. Objective We explore communication in Ethiopian cancer care and present the main challenges faced by physicians, patients, and family caregivers. Methods This explorative qualitative study was conducted at the Oncology Department of the Tikur Anbessa (Black Lion) Specialized Teaching Hospital (TASH) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A triangulation of data collection methods was used: 91 audio-recorded, semi-structured interviews and 21 video-recordings of authentic interactions during hospital rounds. The aim was to obtain as complete a picture as possible of communication from the perspectives of physicians, patients, and family caregivers. The interviews were analyzed using thematic content analysis and the identified themes were supported by excerpts from the transcribed recordings. Results Eight themes emerged from the data. Workload and time pressure, in combination with restricted space for privacy, limited the possibilities for physicians to deliver detailed information and provide emotional support. Furthermore, patient literacy levels, in combination with no or little cancer awareness, financial problems, reliance on traditional and religious treatments, the stigma of cancer, and a fatalistic attitude, resulted in delays in patients seeking care and participating in positive health behaviors, and, subsequently, often resulted in an unwillingness to openly discuss problems with physicians and adhere to treatment. The study also illustrates the paramount role of family in physician-patient communication in Ethiopia. Though family caregivers provide a valuable interpreting support when patients have limited language skills, they can also prevent patients from sharing information with physicians. Another important finding is that family caregivers were often responsible for making decisions about treatment and avoided telling patients about a poor prognosis, believing that conveying bad news may upset them. All of these themes have important implications for the role of ethically acceptable communication in patient-centered care. Conclusions This study has identified a number of serious challenges for successful and ethically acceptable health communication in Ethiopian cancer care. The study contributes to our understanding of the complexity around the role of family, combined with patients’ dependency on family members for communication, support, and access to care, which creates particular ethical dilemmas for the medical staff. The questions raised by this study concern how to organize consultations to achieve patient-centered health communication, while maintaining a constructive alliance with the family and not jeopardizing the patient’s continued access to care. The integration of communication training for medical students in Ethiopia, with a focus on ethical guidelines for family-centered patient consultation suitable for these circumstances, would be an essential step.
2.
  • Berbyuk Lindström, Nataliya, 1978-, et al. (författare)
  • Person- and Family-Centeredness in Ethiopian Cancer Care: Improving Communication, Ethics, Decision Making and Health
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: JMIR Research Protocols. - 1929-0748. ; 9:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Cancer is a major burden in Ethiopia. The Oncology Department of Tikur Anbessa (Black Lion) Specialized Hospital (TASH) in Addis Ababa is the country's sole specialist unit for cancer care. With only a handful of oncologists, a lack of resources, and a huge patient load, the work is challenging, especially in terms of achieving effective and ethical patient consultations. Patients, usually accompanied by family members, often wait for a long time to receive medical attention and frequently depart without treatment. Handling consultations effectively is essential in order to help patients as much as possible within such limitations. OBJECTIVE: The project addresses three main aims: (1) to enhance and expand the understanding of communicative and associated ethical challenges in Ethiopian cancer care; (2) to enhance and expand the understanding of the implications and use of person- and family-centered solutions to address such communicative challenges in practice, and (3) to plan and evaluate interventions in this area. METHODS: This project develops and consolidates a research collaboration to better understand and mitigate the communicative challenges in Ethiopian cancer care, with a focus on the handling and sharing of decision making, and ethical tensions between patients, staff, and family. Using theoretical models from linguistics, health communication, and health care ethics, multiple sources of data will be analyzed. Data sources currently include semi-structured interviews with the Ethiopian staff, patients, and family caregivers (91), survey data on cancer awareness (150) and attitudes to breaking bad news (450), and video-recordings of medical consultations (45). In addition, we will also develop clinical and methodological solutions to formulate educational interventions. RESULTS: The project was awarded funding by the Swedish Research Council in December 2017 for the period 2018-2021. The research ethics board in Sweden and in Ethiopia approved the conduct of the project in May 2018. The results from the studies will be published in 2020 and 2021. CONCLUSIONS: The project is a first step towards producing unique and seminal knowledge for the specific context of Ethiopia in the area of physician-patient communication research and ethics. It contributes to an understanding of the complexity around the role of family and ethical challenges in relation to patient involvement and decision making in Ethiopia. Improved knowledge in this area can provide a fundamental model for ways to improve cancer care in many other low resource settings in Africa and the Middle East, which share central cultural prerequisites (such as a strong patriarchal family structure, combined with strong and devout religiosity). The project will also serve to develop greater understanding about current challenges in Western health systems associated with greater family and patient participation in decision making. In addition, the project will also contribute to improving the education of Ethiopian health professionals working in cancer care by developing a training program to help them better understand and respond to identified challenges associated with communication.
3.
  • Hedén, Lena, et al. (författare)
  • Children’s self-reports of fear and pain levels during needle procedures
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nursing Open. - 2054-1058. ; 7:1, s. 376-382
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AimThe objective was to determine the levels of and potential relationships between, procedure‐related fear and pain in children.DesignClinical based cross‐sectional.MethodsNinety children aged between 7–18 years were included consecutively and self‐reported levels of pain and fear on a 0–100 mm visual analogue scales (VAS) when undergoing routine needle insertion into a subcutaneously implanted intravenous port following topical anaesthesia.ResultsThe needle‐related fear level was reported to be as high as the needle‐related pain level (mean VAS: 14 mm and 12 mm, respectively, N = 90). With fear as the dependent variable, age and pain were significantly associated and explained 16% of the variance. With pain as the dependent variable, fear was significantly associated and explained 11% of the variance. A post hoc analysis indicated that younger children reported their fear levels to be higher than their pain levels.
4.
  • Ge, Chenjie, et al. (författare)
  • Enlarged Training Dataset by Pairwise GANs for Molecular-Based Brain Tumor Classification
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: IEEE Access. - 2169-3536. ; 8:1, s. 22560-22570
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper addresses issues of brain tumor subtype classification using Magnetic Resonance Images (MRIs) from different scanner modalities like T1 weighted, T1 weighted with contrast-enhanced, T2 weighted and FLAIR images. Currently most available glioma datasets are relatively moderate in size, and often accompanied with incomplete MRIs in different modalities. To tackle the commonly encountered problems of insufficiently large brain tumor datasets and incomplete modality of image for deep learning, we propose to add augmented brain MR images to enlarge the training dataset by employing a pairwise Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) model. The pairwise GAN is able to generate synthetic MRIs across different modalities. To achieve the patient-level diagnostic result, we propose a post-processing strategy to combine the slice-level glioma subtype classification results by majority voting. A two-stage course-to-fine training strategy is proposed to learn the glioma feature using GAN-augmented MRIs followed by real MRIs. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, experiments have been conducted on a brain tumor dataset for classifying glioma molecular subtypes: isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutation and IDH1 wild-type. Our results on the dataset have shown good performance (with test accuracy 88.82%). Comparisons with several state-of-the-art methods are also included.
5.
  • Hagström, Josefin, et al. (författare)
  • Heeding the psychological concerns of young cancer survivors A single-arm feasibility trial of CBT and a cognitive behavioral conceptualization of distress
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: PeerJ. - 2167-8359 .- 2167-8359. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <h2>Background</h2>A subgroup of adolescent and young adult (AYA) survivors of cancer during adolescence report high levels of psychological distress. To date, evidence-based psychological interventions tailored to the cancer-related concerns experienced by this population are lacking. The present study aimed to (1) examine the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of an individualized cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention for AYA survivors of cancer during adolescence; and (2) identify and conceptualize cancer-related concerns as well as maintaining factors using cognitive-behavioral theory.<h2>Methods</h2>A single-arm trial, whereby AYA survivors of cancer during adolescence (aged 17–25 years) were provided individualized face-to-face CBT at a maximum of 15 sessions. Clinical outcomes were assessed at baseline, post-intervention, and three-month follow-up. Intervention uptake, retention, intervention delivery, and reliable change index scores were examined. An embedded qualitative study consisted of two unstructured interviews with each participant pre-intervention. Along with individual behavioral case formulations developed to guide the intervention, interview data was analyzed to identify and conceptualize cancer-related concerns and potential maintaining factors.<h2>Results</h2>Ten out of 213 potential participants invited into the study were included, resulting in an overall participation rate of 4.7%. Nine participants completed the intervention, with respectively seven and eight participants completing the post-intervention and three month follow-up assessment. The majority of reported cancer-related concerns and maintaining factors were conceptualized into four themes: social avoidance, fear of emotions and bodily symptoms, imbalance in activity, and worry and rumination.<h2>Conclusions</h2>Given significant recruitment difficulties, further research is required to examine barriers to help-seeking in the AYA cancer survivor population. However, the conceptualization of cancer-related concerns and maintaining factors experienced by the population may represent an important first step in the development of psychological support tailored toward AYA cancer survivors’ unique needs.
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6.
  • Almstedt, Elin, 1988- (författare)
  • New targeted therapies for malignant neural tumors From systematic discovery to zebrafish models
  • 2020
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Cancers in the neural system presents a major health challenge. The most aggressive brain tumor in adults, glioblastoma, has a median survival of 15 months and few therapeutic options. High-risk neuroblastoma, a childhood tumor originating in the sympathetic nervous system, has a 5-year survival under 50%, despite extensive therapy. Molecular characterization of these tumors has had some, but so far limited, clinical impact. In neuroblastoma, patients with ALK mutated tumors can benefit from treatment with ALK inhibitors. In glioblastoma, molecular subgroups have not yet revealed any subgroup-specific gene dependencies due to tumor heterogeneity and plasticity. In this thesis, we identify novel treatment candidates for neuroblastoma and glioblastoma. In paper I, we discover novel drug targets for high-risk neuroblastoma by integrating patient data, large-scale pharmacogenomic profiles, and drug-protein interaction maps. Using a novel algorithm, TargetTranslator, we identify more than 80 targets for this patient group. Activation of cannabinoid receptor 2 (CNR2) or inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 (MAPK8) reduces tumor growth in zebrafish and mice models of neuroblastoma, establishing TargetTranslator as a useful tool for target discovery in cancer. In paper II, we screen approximately 1500 compounds across 100 molecularly characterized cell lines from patients to uncover heterogeneous responses to drugs in glioblastoma. We identify several connections between pathway activities and drug response. Sensitivity to proteasome inhibition is linked to oxidative stress response and p53 activity in cells, and can be predicted using a gene signature. We also discover sigma receptors as novel drug targets for glioblastoma and find a synergistic vulnerability in targeting cholesterol homeostasis.In paper III, we systematically explore novel targets for glioblastoma using an siRNA screen. Downregulation of ZBTB16 decreases cell cycle-related proteins and transcripts in patient-derived glioblastoma cells. Using a zebrafish assay, we find that ZBTB16 promotes glioblastoma invasion in vivo. In paper IV, we characterized the growth of seven patient-derived glioblastoma cell lines in orthotopic zebrafish xenografts. Using automated longitudinal imaging, we find that tumor engraftment strongly correlates with tumor initiation capacity in mice xenografts and that the heterogeneous response to proteasome inhibitors is maintained in vivo. In summary, this thesis identifies novel targets for glioblastoma and neuroblastoma using systematic approaches. Treatment candidates are evaluated in novel zebrafish xenograft models that are developed for high-throughput glioblastoma and neuroblastoma drug evaluation. Together, this thesis provides promising evidence of new therapeutic options for malignant neural tumors.
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7.
  • Li, X. Y., et al. (författare)
  • Classification of clear cell renal cell carcinoma based on PKM alternative splicing
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Heliyon. - 2405-8440. ; 6:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) accounts for 70–80% of kidney cancer diagnoses and displays high molecular and histologic heterogeneity. Hence, it is necessary to reveal the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in progression of ccRCC to better stratify the patients and design effective treatment strategies. Here, we analyzed the survival outcome of ccRCC patients as a consequence of the differential expression of four transcript isoforms of the pyruvate kinase muscle type (PKM). We first extracted a classification biomarker consisting of eight gene pairs whose within-sample relative expression orderings (REOs) could be used to robustly classify the patients into two groups with distinct molecular characteristics and survival outcomes. Next, we validated our findings in a validation cohort and an independent Japanese ccRCC cohort. We finally performed drug repositioning analysis based on transcriptomic expression profiles of drug-perturbed cancer cell lines and proposed that paracetamol, nizatidine, dimethadione and conessine can be repurposed to treat the patients in one of the subtype of ccRCC whereas chenodeoxycholic acid, fenoterol and hexylcaine can be repurposed to treat the patients in the other subtype.
8.
  • Danielsson, Anna, 1973-, et al. (författare)
  • Accumulation of DNA methylation alterations in paediatric glioma stem cells following fractionated dose irradiation
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Clinical Epigenetics. - 1868-7075. ; 12:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Radiation is an important therapeutic tool. However, radiotherapy has the potential to promote co-evolution of genetic and epigenetic changes that can drive tumour heterogeneity, formation of radioresistant cells and tumour relapse. There is a clinical need for a better understanding of DNA methylation alterations that may follow radiotherapy to be able to prevent the development of radiation-resistant cells. Methods We examined radiation-induced changes in DNA methylation profiles of paediatric glioma stem cells (GSCs) in vitro. Five GSC cultures were irradiated in vitro with repeated doses of 2 or 4 Gy. Radiation was given in 3 or 15 fractions. DNA methylation profiling using Illumina DNA methylation arrays was performed at 14 days post-radiation. The cellular characteristics were studied in parallel. Results Few fractions of radiation did not result in significant accumulation of DNA methylation alterations. However, extended dose fractionations changed DNA methylation profiles and induced thousands of differentially methylated positions, specifically in enhancer regions, sites involved in alternative splicing and in repetitive regions. Radiation induced dose-dependent morphological and proliferative alterations of the cells as a consequence of the radiation exposure. Conclusions DNA methylation alterations of sites with regulatory functions in proliferation and differentiation were identified, which may reflect cellular response to radiation stress through epigenetic reprogramming and differentiation cues.
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9.
  • Unterrainer, M., et al. (författare)
  • Recent advances of PET imaging in clinical radiation oncology
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Radiation Oncology. - BioMed Central. - 1748-717X. ; 15:1
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Radiotherapy and radiation oncology play a key role in the clinical management of patients suffering from oncological diseases. In clinical routine, anatomic imaging such as contrast-enhanced CT and MRI are widely available and are usually used to improve the target volume delineation for subsequent radiotherapy. Moreover, these modalities are also used for treatment monitoring after radiotherapy. However, some diagnostic questions cannot be sufficiently addressed by the mere use standard morphological imaging. Therefore, positron emission tomography (PET) imaging gains increasing clinical significance in the management of oncological patients undergoing radiotherapy, as PET allows the visualization and quantification of tumoral features on a molecular level beyond the mere morphological extent shown by conventional imaging, such as tumor metabolism or receptor expression. The tumor metabolism or receptor expression information derived from PET can be used as tool for visualization of tumor extent, for assessing response during and after therapy, for prediction of patterns of failure and for definition of the volume in need of dose-escalation. This review focuses on recent and current advances of PET imaging within the field of clinical radiotherapy / radiation oncology in several oncological entities (neuro-oncology, head & neck cancer, lung cancer, gastrointestinal tumors and prostate cancer) with particular emphasis on radiotherapy planning, response assessment after radiotherapy and prognostication.
10.
  • Kamsvag, T., et al. (författare)
  • Prevention of oral mucositis with cryotherapy in children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantations-a feasibility study and randomized controlled trial
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Supportive Care in Cancer. - 0941-4355. ; 11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose To evaluate the feasibility of oral cryotherapy (OC) in children and to investigate if OC reduces the incidence of severe oral mucositis (OM), oral pain, and opioid use in children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Methods Fifty-three children, 4-17 years old, scheduled for HSCT in Sweden were included and randomized to OC or control using a computer-generated list. OC instructions were to cool the mouth with ice for as long as possible during chemotherapy infusions with an intended time of >= 30 min. Feasibility criteria in the OC group were as follows: (1) compliance >= 70%; (2) considerable discomfort during OC < 20%; (3) no serious adverse events; and (4) ice administered to all children. Grade of OM and oral pain was recorded daily using the WHO-Oral Toxicity Scale (WHO-OTS), Children's International Oral Mucositis Evaluation Scale, and Numerical Rating Scale. Use of opioids was collected from the medical records. Results Forty-nine children (mean age 10.5 years) were included in analysis (OC = 26, control = 23). The feasibility criteria were not met. Compliance was poor, especially for the younger children, and only 15 children (58%) used OC as instructed. Severe OM (WHO-OTS >= 3) was recorded in 26 children (OC = 15, control = 11). OC did not reduce the incidence of severe OM, oral pain, or opioid use. Conclusion The feasibility criteria were not met, and the RCT could not show that OC reduces the incidence of severe OM, oral pain, or opioid use in pediatric patients treated with a variety of conditioning regimens for HSCT.
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