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Träfflista för sökning "AMNE:(MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES Clinical Medicine Cancer and Oncology) ;srt2:(2000-2004)"

Sökning: AMNE:(MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES Clinical Medicine Cancer and Oncology) > (2000-2004)

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  • Ahlgren, Johan, 1960- (författare)
  • Studies on Prediction of Axillary Lymph Node Status in Invasive Breast Cancer
  • 2002
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among females in Sweden. Axillary lymph-node dissection is a standard procedure in the management of breast cancer, aiming at obtaining prognostic information for adjuvant therapy decisions. Axillary dissection entails considerable morbidity. The aims of this study were to establish more selective surgical approaches and to investigate angiogenesis, a potential predictor for lymph-node metastases and prognosis.</p><p>Clinical nodal status, tumour size and S-phase were associated with nodal metastases in cohort of 1145 women. The proportion of nodal metastases was 13% in the subgroup with the lowest risk.</p><p>In a study from two registries, 675 and 1035 breast cancers ≤10 mm diagnosed by screening mammography had nodal metastases in 6,5% and 7%, respectively. Clinically detected cancers had a risk of 16% and 14%, respectively.</p><p>In a study on 415 women, a 5-node biopsy of the axilla had a sensitivity of 97,3% and a false negative rate of 2,7% in comparison with axillary dissection.</p><p>Six sections from 21 breast cancers were analysed for microvessel density (MVD). The inter-section variation contributed more to the total variance than inter-tumour variation, 45,0% and 37,3%, respectively.</p><p>In a cohort of 315 women, breast cancers with high MVD more frequently had p53 mutations (27,1%) compared with cases with low MVD (18,4%). This difference was not statistically significant (p=0,075). p53 mutations were associated with a worse outcome, whereas MVD was not.</p><p>In conclusion, women with screening detected ≤10 mm breast cancers have a low risk of lymph node metastases and some may not need axillary dissection in the future. The 5-node biopsy could be an alternative to axillary dissection. MVD is associated with methodological weaknesses and routine use is not recommended.</p>
  • Berglund, Åke, 1961- (författare)
  • Optimisation of Chemotherapy Treatment in Advanced Colorectal Cancer
  • 2002
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignant diseases in Sweden – more than 5000 new cases are diagnosed each year. The overall five-year survival is about 60% and in cases of recurrence the prognosis is poor.</p><p>In a phase III study in advanced colorectal cancer the response rate was doubled when 5-FU was given as a bolus injection versus as a short infusion. The toxicity was similar and time to progression was longer in the injection group. However, overall survival was not significantly different. Dose-effect relationships of 5-FU were studied in another phase III study recruiting 312 patients. A decrease from 500 mg/m<sup>2</sup> to 400 mg/m<sup>2</sup> worsened the treatment results. A low incidence of severe toxicity was seen in both groups. An increase to 600 mg/m<sup>2</sup> worsened the toxicity without any improvement of the results.</p><p>A cytotoxic drug sensitivity test in different tumour types, mainly gastrointestinal cancer, poorly predicted treatment outcome in a phase II study.</p><p>The conventional Nordic Flv regimen was split in a phase I/II trial. An escalation of dose was possible and the response rate was 20%.</p><p>Thymidylate synthase (TS) and the gene expression of p53 were investigated by immunohistochemical technique in the primary tumours of 132 patients. None of the markers predicted the later palliative chemotherapy result. However, TS significantly predicted time to recurrence.</p><p>Serum markers were analysed before and during FLv treatment to early predict outcomes among 87 patients. TPS is promising, both as a predictive marker before start of treatment and after a short period of treatment. In the same setting, CEA had lower predictive value. S-VEGF and S-bFGF did not yield any prognostic information of later outcome. In all studies B-haemoglobin values, performance status and subjective response were strong markers, both for prediction of objective response and for survival.</p>
  • Bergqvist, Michael, 1971- (författare)
  • Radiosensitivity in lung cancer with focus on p53
  • 2002
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>In Sweden approximately 2800 new lung cancer patients are diagnosed every year. Radiotherapy is used with curative intention in certain groups of patients. The aim of this thesis is to study the basis of differences in radioresistance and the possibility to predict response to radiotherapy.</p><p>In the first study we investigated, using the comet assay, four lung cancer cell lines with different sensitivity towards radiation. A clear dose-response relationship for radiation-induced DNA single strand and double strand breaks were found. All cell lines showed a remarkably efficient repair of both the DNA single strand and double strand breaks one hour after irradiation. However, further studies in one radioresistant and one radiosensitive cell line demonstrated that repair during the first 15 min had the best accordance with radiosensitivity measured as surviving fraction.</p><p>In the second and third study, sequencing studies of the p53 gene were performed on cell lines as well as on tumour material. Cell lines that were expressing a mutation in exon 7 were associated with increased radiosensitivity compared with tumor cell lines with mutations in other exons. In the clinical study, 10 patients were found to be mutated in the p53 gene whereas the other 10 patients were not. No correlation to clinical parameters could be drawn.</p><p>In the fourth study, serum from 67 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer was investigated for the presence of p53 antibodies. P53 antibodies in sera, taken prior to radiation treatment, were associated with increased survival.</p><p>The summary of this thesis indicates that the p53 gene has an impact on the effect of radiotherapy in lung cancer. The presence of p53 antibodies might be of clinical interest for predicting survival after radiotherapy. Further studies on the importance of the p53 gene on early repair are of interest. </p>
  • Brattström, Daniel, 1966- (författare)
  • Angiogenesis Related Markers In Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
  • 2003
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis investigated the predictive and the prognostic powers of angiogenesis related markers in both operable and inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients.In the first and second study, we investigated the serological fractions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in 2 cohorts of patients with either operable or inoperable NSCLC. Regarding operable NSCLC, we demonstrated significant correlations between VEGF and tumour volume and overall survival. Regarding bFGF, significant correlations with recurrent disease and survival were demonstrated. VEGF and bFGF correlated to each other and with platelet counts. In multivariate analysis, bFGF proved to be a significantly independent prognostic factor.Regarding inoperable NSCLC, we demonstrated that patients with elevated bFGF levels before any treatment and during chemotherapy had a significantly poorer survival. During chemotherapy, each rise of one unit of bFGF (ng/L) corresponded to a 4 times increased risk of death. Regarding VEGF, elevated levels after radiotherapy corresponded with better survival. All prognostic information demonstrated in this study concerned patients with a, co-sampled, normal platelet count.In the third study, three putative markers, HER-2, EGFR and COX-2, suitable for targeted therapies in resected NSCLC were investigated in a panel of 53 tumours and further investigated for a possible correlation with microvessel density. We demonstrated that HER-2 and COX-2 were mainly expressed in adenocarcinomas, whereas EGFR was only expressed in squamous cell carcinomas. COX-2 showed a trend towards a correlation with microvesssel density. The expression profile, HER-2+/EGFR-, was significantly correlated to poorer survival. In the fourth study, a predictive model for recurrences consisting of p53, CD34 and CD105, and circulating serum fractions of VEGF and bFGF, was investigated. The two endothelial markers correlated with each other. CD105 expression correlated with p53 expression. No other significant correlations between markers could be demonstrated. A significant correlation between p53 overexpression and recurrent disease was demonstrated. The mutational status could not confirm the immunohistochemical correlation between p53 and recurrences. In conclusion, the present thesis demonstrates that the angiogenic factors VEGF and bFGF analysed in sera have both predictive and prognostic information when measured in operable and inoperable NSCLC. Since HER-2 is overexpressed in NSCLC and linked with prognostic information, this marker might be a suitable target for therapy in NSCLC. Furthermore, in patients with operable NSCLC, p53 expression status was linked with recurrent disease and mean MVD.
  • Hong, Jaan (författare)
  • Investigation of Incompatibility Reactions Caused by Biomaterials in Contact with Whole Blood Using a New in vitro Model.
  • 2001
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>This thesis describes a new <i>in vitro</i> slide chamber model that makes it possible to conduct studies of molecular and cellular interactions between whole blood and biomaterials. The model proved to be a suitable tool for detection of cell and platelet binding to a biomaterial surface. It was possible to monitor activation of the blood cascade systems and cells in the fluid phase and detect surface-bound molecules.</p><p>One finding was that thrombin generation is primarily triggered by FXII on a biomaterial surface since corn trypsin inhibitor, inhibited thrombin generation in blood.</p><p>Another finding was that thrombin generation was dependent on variety types of blood cells, since thrombin generation was almost negligible in platelet-rich plasma. When various preparations of blood cells were used to reconstitute platelet-rich and platelet-poor plasma, erythrocytes were shown to be the most efficient cell type in triggering thrombin generation. Inhibition of platelet aggregation with aspirin and Ro44-9883 was associated with a decrease in thrombin generation, confirming that platelet activation is necessary for normal coagulation activation. These findings suggest that the central events consist of an initial low-grade generation of thrombin that involves erythrocytes and possibly leukocytes which leads to activation of platelets; and a second platelet-dependent amplification loop that produces most of the thrombin.</p><p>Titanium exposed to whole blood produced high amounts of thrombin. Stainless steel and PVC, generated lower amounts. This indicates that titanium might be less suitable as a biomaterial in devices that are in direct contact with blood for prolonged time. Considering the superior osteointegrating properties of titanium and titanium's response to blood, a correlation between high thrombogenicity and good osteointegration seems to exist.</p><p>Compstatin, that binds to complement component C3, effectively inhibited the generation of C3a and sC5b-9 and the binding of C3/C3 fragments to the surface. Our results suggest that a biomaterial is able to activate complement through both the classical and alternative pathways and that the classical pathway alone is able to maintain a substantial bioincompatibility reaction. The results show that complement activation is a prerequisite for activation and binding of PMNs to the surface in the <i>in vitro</i> model.</p>
  • Krook, Henrik (författare)
  • Xenograft Rejection : A Study of Cytokine mRNA Expression in Experimental Models
  • 2002
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Acute cellular xenograft rejection of ICCs triggered mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1b and TNF-a), Th1 associated cytokines (IL-12p40, IL-2 and IFN-g) and Th2 associated cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10). The peak values and the kinetics of the mRNA expression indicated that acute cellular xenograft rejection is enhanced by the proinflammatory response and mediated by the Th1 associated response, whereas the function of the Th2 associated response most likely is to counteract the Th1 associated cytokines and thereby inhibit bystander damage by the delayed type hypersensitivity like rejection process. Tacrolimus was shown to have a protective effect on the ICC xenografts, which was linked with inhibition of Th1 associated cytokines. This beneficial effect was paradoxically abrogated by prednisolone. The cytokines were interpreted to mediate the same response during cellular rejection of vascularized xenografts in the mouse-to-rat heart transplant model as in the non vascularized ICC model, even though the the response includes intragraft antibody deposits. Also the xenogeneic neural grafts implanted into the CNS displayed a similar cytokine response, but this process was slower and had less distinguished peak values compared to the ICC xenografts.</p><p>The shortage of organs is the major limitation for clinical allotransplantation. For making clinical xenotransplantation possible and thereby eliminate the organ shortage, issues regarding ethical dilemmas, microbiological hazards, physiological incompatibilities and immunological problems need to be addressed. The aim of the studies in this thesis was to investigate the mechanisms behind acute cellular xenograft rejection. The immunological response, with a focus on the cytokine mRNA expression, was analysed at different time points in rats transplanted with fetal porcine islet like cell clusters (ICCs), mouse hearts, or syngeneic, allogeneic, concordant or discordant xenogeneic neural tissue grafts.</p><p>In conclusion, both the cytokine mRNA expression and the morphology of acute cellular xenograft rejection bear a close resemblance to a delayed type hypersensitivity reaction, primarily mediated by indirect antigen presentation. This might explain why clinically used immunosuppressive protocols normally are inefficient for use in xenotransplantation, since these are presumed to primarily suppress T cell response triggered direct antigen presentation, which dominates during allogeneic acute rejection.</p>
  • Lindman, Henrik, 1963- (författare)
  • Individually Tailored Toxicity-based Chemotherapy Studies on Patients with Primary and Metastatic Breast Cancer
  • 2003
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Standard dosing of chemotherapy based on body surface area (BSA) results in large individual differences in toxicity due to a large inter-patient variability in pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD). This results in under-dosing in certain patients with a potentially weaker antitumoral effect.Three clinical studies of individually tailored dosing of chemotherapy, based on haematological toxicity were conducted. In the first study, 26 women with metastatic breast cancer were treated with tailored and dose-escalated 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide, supported by G-CSF (dFEC). In the second study 525 patients with high-risk primary breast cancer were randomised between dFEC and high-dose chemotherapy with autologous bone-marrow transplantation. The feasibility of a FEC regimen with doubled cyclophosphamide dose to mobilise peripheral stem cells was investigated. In the third study, 44 metastatic patients were treated with tailored epirubicin and docetaxel (ET). PK and PD were also investigated in these patients. The potential effects of G-CSF on MRI tumour evaluation were studied in 18 patients with skeletal metastases.Toxicity-based dosing entailed an evenly distributed two- to three-fold range of tolerated doses in all three studies. Efficacy and toxicity were not correlated to tolerated dose-levels. Tailored dFEC resulted in a response rate of 81% and the same regimen resulted in fewer breast cancer relapses compared with standard FEC followed by high-dose therapy. Toxicity was manageable except for an increased rate of secondary leukaemia. The modified FEC could safely mobilise sufficient numbers of stem-cells. Tailored ET resulted in a response rate of 63%. The inter-individual variability in drug clearance was larger than the inter-occasion variability and a semi-physiological model of PK and PD could predict leukocyte nadir and duration. An increased diffuse MR signal in the long TE IR-TSE sequence was observed in normal bone-marrow during G-CSF treatment; this could be mistaken as disseminated metastatic disease and could obscure focal metastases.In conclusion, the concept of individually tailored toxicity-based dosage of chemotherapy was equally feasible in primary and metastatic breast cancer, in two different chemotherapy regimens and in treatment with or without G-CSF support and may provide a pragmatic way of overcoming the shortcomings of standard BSA-based dosing.
  • Loskog, Angelica (författare)
  • Immunogene Therapy of Bladder Carcinoma A Preclinical Study
  • 2002
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>This thesis comprises studies on murine and human models of bladder carcinoma with the aim to develop novel immunogene therapies. On the basis of the results presented in this thesis, a clinical trial is underway.</p> <p>The potential of activating the immune system to combat cancer has long intrigued immunologists. Research has now been intensified and clinically effective treatments are beginning to materialize. We evaluated the induction of anti-tumor responses by inserting immunomodulating genes into tumor cells with adenovectors. Human biopsies and cell lines were positive for adenovirus attachment receptors, and cell lines were easily transduced. CD40L modified cells efficiently induced maturation of dendritic cell (DC). Phenotypical changes of AdCD40L transduced cells, such as increased apoptotic rate, upregulated MHC-I, Fas and TNFR may further strengthen the anti-tumor response.</p> <p>CD40L modified murine bladder cancer cells activated systemic immunity upon vaccination and in situ injections of AdCD40L inhibited tumor progression. Cytotoxic assays revealed the presence of cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) in vaccinated mice. Many tumors have developed ways to evade the immune system. Bladder carcinoma is associated with immune escape mechanisms like IL10 production. We demonstrated that immunosuppression by IL10 inhibited CTL function and that IL10 suppression may be reverted by AdCD40L therapy.</p> <p>In conclusion, AdCD40L therapy induces systemic immunity and inhibits tumor progression in murine models. The immunological mechanisms involve maturation of nearby DCs and CTL induction. AdCD40L therapy is effective despite immune escape mechanisms, e.g. IL10 secretion. The thesis argues for using AdCD40L immunogene therapy as a treatment of bladder carcinoma.</p>
  • Ullenhag, Gustav, 1968- (författare)
  • Vaccine Therapy of Colorectal Cancer Patients with Tumor Associated Antigens
  • 2003
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>In this thesis, two different vaccines were evaluated as adjuvant therapy for patients with colorectal cancer. The ability of the two candidate vaccines to generate antigen-specific cellular and humoral responses, respectively, was studied. The effectiveness of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) as a cytokine adjuvant to augment the immune response was also examined.</p><p>The first vaccination strategy involved immunization with the recombinant tumor-associated protein, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Recombinant CEA was administered at 4 different dose levels 7 times during one year. Peripheral blood samples were regularly analyzed during 36 months. This vaccination regimen induced a strong immunoglobulin 1 (IgG1) and IgG4 response, a moderate IgG2 response and a weak IgG3 response against CEA. GM-CSF markedly augmented the effect on IgG1 and IgG4 as well as the T cell response. In contrast, dose of rCEA had no or modest effect on induced immune responses. The response gradually increased during the 12 months immunization period. Responses of all three IgG subclasses and of T cells were protracted up to 36 months. The anti-CEA IgG titers related significantly to survival. Functional HLA-DR epitopes of CEA could be defined. These major histocompatibility class II epitopes may serve as putative components of a peptide-based vaccination strategy. </p><p>The other vaccine strategy consisted of the tumor-associated antigen epithelial cell adhesion molecule (Ep-Cam) expressed as a transgene in a viral vector, ALVAC. Patients were immunized subcutaneously/intradermally 3 times over 6 weeks and monitored for immune responses for 46 weeks. No anti-Ep-Cam specific humoral response was induced, but Ep-Cam specific type 1 T cells (interpheron-gamma production) were induced, mainly in the GM-CSF group. The cytotoxic cellular response appeared late, or a few months after the last immunization.</p><p>Both vaccines were well tolerated. Since GM-CSF was an important component for both regimens, immungenicity of this cytokine was assessed. Multiple immunizations with low dose GM-CSF were associated with a low incidence of GM-CSF antibodies that did not neutralize the biological effect of GM-CSF. </p><p>In conclusion, both vaccines are promising candidate vaccines. GM-CSF is necessary to induce a strong humoral and cellular immune response. Large clinical trials are urgently warranted to evaluate the clinical efficacy.</p>
  • Wiklund, Fredrik, 1963- (författare)
  • Genetic epidemiology of prostate cancer
  • 2004
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Prostate cancer is a major health burden throughout the world, yet the etiology of prostate cancer is poorly understood. Evidence has accumulated supporting the existence of a hereditary form of this disease. Improved understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying the development and progression of prostate cancer would be a major advance for improved prevention, detection and treatment strategies. This thesis evaluates different aspects of the genetic epidemiology of prostate cancer.</p> <p>In a genomic scan two chromosomal regions with evidence for linkage was observed. The strongest support was found on chromosome 19p with an allele sharing LOD score of 2.91 (genome-wide P = 0.032). The second region, showing suggestive evidence of linkage, was observed in the centromeric region of chromosome 5. Linkage analyses of densely spaced markers on chromosome 8p22-23 confirmed (P = 0.03) previously reported linkage to this region. A systematic evaluation of the possible impact that the RNASEL gene have on prostate cancer was performed. Overall, limited evidence for association with prostate cancer risk was found. The results provide strong evidence against a role of RNASEL in prostate cancer etiology in Sweden. In a comprehensive evaluation of occurrence of other malignancies in HPC families, previously reported association between gastric and prostate carcinoma was confirmed. The increased risk was of the same magnitude in early and late onset HPC families and confined to only male relatives. A genome-wide linkage analysis, stratified by occurrence of gastric carcinoma, identified a novel susceptibility locus on chromosome Xp21.</p> <p>In summary, chromosome 5q and 19p represents the regions most likely to harbor susceptibility genes predisposing to prostate cancer in the Swedish population. A common genetic basis for both gastric and prostate cancer has been confirmed and a novel susceptibility locus on chromosome Xp21 has been identified.</p>
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