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1.
  • Hassellöv, Martin, 1970-, et al. (författare)
  • REACH missar nano!
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Miljöforskning. ; 3/4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (populärvet., debatt m.m.)
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5.
  • Hardell, Lennart, et al. (författare)
  • Adipose tissue concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and the risk of prostate cancer
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. - 1076-2752. ; 48:7, s. 700-707
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: We sought to study the concentrations of certain persistent organic pollutants with endocrine-disrupting properties in cases with prostate cancer and controls with benign prostate hyperplasia. METHODS: Adipose tissue was obtained from 58 cases and 20 controls. RESULTS: The median concentration among controls was used as cut-off in the statistical analysis. In the total material, a greater-than median concentration of PCB congener 153 yielded an odds ratio (OR) of 3.15 and 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.04-9.54 and one chlordane type, trans-chlordane, yielded OR 3.49 (95% CI = 1.08-11.2). In the group of case subjects with PSA levels greater than the median level of 16.5 ng/mL, PCB 153 was OR 30.3 (95% CI = 3.24-284), hexachlorobenzene OR = 9.84 (95% CI = 1.99-48.5), trans-chlordane OR = 11.0 (95% CI = 1.87-64.9), and the chlordane-type MC6 OR = 7.58 (95% CI = 1.65-34.9). The grouping of PCBs according to structural and biological activity was found to produce significantly increased risks for enzyme and phenobarbital-inducing PCBs and lower chlorinated PCBs in the case group with PSA levels greater than 16.5 ng/mL. CONCLUSIONS: These chemicals might be of etiologic significance but need to be further investigated. The biological relevance of the arbitrary cut-off point of PSA is unclear.
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6.
  • Olsman [Takner], Helena, et al. (författare)
  • Relative differences in aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated response for 18 polybrominated and mixed halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans in cell lines from four different species
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. - 0730-7268. ; 26:11, s. 2448-2454
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • As a consequence of ubiquitous use of brominated organic chemicals, there is a concern for persistent or increasing environmental levels of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs) and mixed polychlorinated and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PXDD/Fs). Hence, there is a need to broaden the toxicological and environmental knowledge about these compounds, as a basis for risk assessment. In the study presented here, the relative potencies (REPs) for 18 PBDD/F and PXDD/ F congeners were determined in four dioxin-specific bioassays from different species: dioxin receptor chemically activated luciferase expression assay (DR-CALUX, rat hepatoma cells), TV101L (human hepatoma cells), and GPC.2D (guinea pig adenoma cells), as well as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase induction in the fish cell line RTL-W1 (rainbow trout liver cells). The bioassay specific REP factors presented here enable the assessment of the contribution from PBDD/Fs and PXDD/Fs to total 2,3,7,8-tetrachl orodibenzop-dioxin (TCDD) equivalents (TEQs: toxic equivalents), using bioassay analysis. The PBDD/Fs were found to be equally potent as their chlorinated analogues in the three mammalian assays, whereas the PXDD/Fs showed relatively higher potencies. Of special concern were the 2,3,7,8-substituted penta- and tetrahalogenated congeners, for which mean REPs were >= 1. The 2-B-1,3,7,8-CDD (2-bromo-1,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) was up to three times more potent than TCDD in individual experiments (on weight basis). The RTL-W1 was less sensitive to the tested compounds with overall 10-fold lower REPs than the mammalian cell lines. Although the REP factors exhibited species-specific differences, overall resembling rank orders of dioxin-like potency were obtained.
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7.
  • de Boer, J., et al. (författare)
  • United Nations Environment Programme Capacity Building Pilot Project : training and interlaboratory study on persistent organic pollutant analysis under the Stockholm Convention
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Analytica Chimica Acta. - 0003-2670. ; 617:1-2, s. 208-215
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Within the framework of a United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Capacity Building Project for training of laboratory staff in developing countries on persistent organic pollutant (POP) analysis, an interlaboratory study was organised following an initial evaluation of the performance of laboratories (reality check) and a series of training sessions. The target compounds were polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine pesticides (OCP). Seven laboratories from five countries (Ecuador, Uruguay, Kenya, Moldova, and Fiji) participated. Most of the laboratories had no experience in determining PCBs. Although chromatograms improved considerably after the training and installation of new gas chromatographic (GC) columns at participating laboratories, the level of performance in the interlaboratory study was essentially on par with the moderate performance level achieved by European POP laboratories in the 1980s. Only some individual results were within +/-20% of the target values. The relative standard deviations (R.S.D.s) in POP concentrations determined by laboratories in a sediment sample were >200% in a number of cases. The results for a certified herring sample were better with at least some R.S.D. values below 50% and most below 100%. Clean up was as one of the main sources of error. After inspection it was ascertained that training of laboratory staff and investments in simple consumables such as glassware and GC columns would help to improve the quality of the analysis more than major investments in expensive instrumentation. Creating an effective network of POP laboratories at different continents together with a series of interlaboratory studies and workshops is suggested to improve the measurements of POPs in these countries.
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8.
  • Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid, et al. (författare)
  • Human exposure to perfluorinated chemicals through the diet : intake of perfluorinated compounds in foods from the Catalan (Spain) market
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. - 0021-8561. ; 56:5, s. 1787-1794
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to determine the dietary intake of perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) by the population of Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain). PFC levels were determined in 36 composite samples of foodstuffs randomly purchased in various locations. Exposure to PFCs through the diet was estimated for various age/gender groups. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorocarboxylate perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) were the only detected PFCs in foodstuffs. On average, for a standard adult man (70 kg of body weight), the dietary intake of PFOS was estimated to be 62.5 or 74.2 ng/day (assuming ND=0 or ND=1/2 LOD, respectively). Fish, followed by dairy products and meats, were the main contributors to PFOS intake. For an adult man, the intake of PFOS (1.07 ng/kg/day) and those of PFOA and PFHpA were lower than that recently reported for Canada (4.0 ng/kg/day), and considerably lower than that previously found in the United Kingdom, the only two countries where, to date, results concerning this issue have been reported. A correlation between dietary intake and blood levels of PFOS is suggested. However, the current results do not justify dietary intake as the main route of exposure governing blood concentrations of other PFCs.
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9.
  • Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid, et al. (författare)
  • Levels of perfluorochemicals in water samples from Catalonia, Spain : is drinking water a significant contribution to human exposure?
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Environmental science and pollution research international. - 0944-1344. ; 15:7, s. 614-619
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND, AIM, AND SCOPE: In recent years, due to a high persistence, biomagnification in food webs, presence in remote regions, and potential toxicity, perfluorochemicals (PFCs) have generated a considerable interest. The present study was aimed to determine the levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and other PFCs in drinking water (tap and bottled) and river water samples from Tarragona Province (Catalonia, Spain). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Municipal drinking (tap) water samples were collected from the four most populated towns in the Tarragona Province, whereas samples of bottled waters were purchased from supermarkets. River water samples were collected from the Ebro (two samples), Cortiella, and Francolí Rivers. After pretreatment, PFC analyses were performed by HPLC-MS. Quantification was done using the internal standard method, with recoveries between 68% and 118%. RESULTS: In tap water, PFOS and PFOA levels ranged between 0.39 and 0.87 ng/L (0.78 and 1.74 pmol/L) and between 0.32 and 6.28 ng/L (0.77 and 15.2 pmol/L), respectively. PFHpA, PFHxS, and PFNA were also other detected PFCs. PFC levels were notably lower in bottled water, where PFOS could not be detected in any sample. Moreover, PFHpA, PFHxS, PFOA, PFNA, PFOS, PFOSA, and PFDA could be detected in the river water samples. PFOS and PFOA concentrations were between <0.24 and 5.88 ng/L (<0.48 and 11.8 pmol/L) and between <0.22 and 24.9 ng/L (<0.53 and 60.1 pmol/L), respectively. DISCUSSION: Assuming a human water consumption of 2 L per day, the daily intake of PFOS and PFOA by the population of the area under evaluation was calculated (0.78-1.74 and 12.6 ng, respectively). It was found that drinking water might be a source of exposure to PFCs as important as the dietary intake of these pollutants. CONCLUSIONS: The contribution of drinking water (tap and bottled) to the human daily intake of various PFCs has been compared for the first time with data from dietary intake of these PFCs. It was noted that in certain cases, drinking water can be a source of exposure to PFCs as important as the dietary intake of these pollutants although the current concentrations were similar or lower than those reported in the literature for surface water samples from a number of regions and countries. RECOMMENDATIONS AND PERSPECTIVES: Further studies should be carried out in order to increase the knowledge of the role of drinking water in human exposure to PFCs.
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10.
  • Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid, et al. (författare)
  • Perfluorinated chemicals in blood of residents in Catalonia (Spain) in relation to age and gender : a pilot study
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - 0160-4120. ; 33:5, s. 616-623
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fluorinated organic compounds (FOCs) are a group of chemicals widely used as surfactants, lubricants, polymers, and fire-fighting foams. Recent studies have shown the ubiquitous distribution of FOCs in the environment, wildlife, and humans. We here report the results of a pilot study conducted to provide preliminary data on the levels of 13 FOCs in the blood of 48 residents in Catalonia, Spain, in relation to gender and age (25+/-5 and 55+/-5 years). The highest mean concentration was obtained for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, 7.64 ng/ml), followed by perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS, 3.56 ng/ml) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 1.80 ng/ml). Four other FOCs showed mean levels between 0.30 and 0.44 ng/ml, whereas those of the remaining 6 compounds were below the detection limit. Regarding gender, the blood levels of PFHxS and PFOA were significantly higher (p<0.05) in men than in women, while differences according to age were only noted for PFHxS (p<0.05) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) (p<0.001), for which the levels were higher in the younger (25+/-5 years) group of subjects. A significant correlation between PFOS levels and those of the remaining detected FOCs (except PFDA) was found. In general terms, the current FOC concentrations were lower than those found in recent studies concerning levels of these chemicals in human blood and serum of subjects from different countries.
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