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Sökning: AMNE:(NATURAL SCIENCES Chemistry Environmental chemistry) > Övrigt vetenskapligt > Linköpings universitet

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1.
  • Chen, Weimin (författare)
  • Optically detected magnetic resonance of defects in semiconductors
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: EPR of Free Radicals in Solids II : Trends in Methods and Applications. - Dordrecht : Springer Netherlands. - 978-94-007-4886-6 - 978-94-007-4887-3 ; s. 345-366
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • EPR of Free Radicals in Solids: Trends in Methods and Applications, 2nd ed. presents a critical two volume review of the methods and applications of EPR (ESR) for the study of free radical processes in solids. Emphasis is on the progress made in the developments in EPR technology, in the application of sophisticated matrix isolation techniques and in the advancement in quantitative EPR that have occurred since the 1st edition was published. Improvements have been made also at theoretical level, with the development of methods based on first principles and their application to the calculation of magnetic properties as well as in spectral simulations. EPR of Free Radicals in Solids II focuses on the trends in applications of experimental and theoretical methods to extract structural and dynamical properties of radicals and spin probes in solid matrices by continuous wave (CW) and pulsed techniques in nine chapters written by experts in the field. It examines the studies involving radiation- and photo-induced inorganic and organic radicals in inert matrices, the high-spin molecules and metal-based molecular clusters as well as the radical pro-cesses in photosynthesis. Recent advancements in environmental applications in-cluding measurements by myon resonance of radicals on surfaces and by quantitative EPR in dosimetry are outlined and the applications of optical detection in material research with much increased sensitivity reviewed. The potential use of EPR in quantum computing is considered in a newly written chapter. This new edition is aimed to experimentalists and theoreticians in research involving free radicals, as well as for students of advanced courses in physical chemis-try, chemical physics, materials science, biophysics, biochemistry and related fields.
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  • Bergbäck, Bo, et al. (författare)
  • Metals in society
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: The global environment. - Oslo : Scandinavian Science Publ.. - 3-527-28771-X - 9783527287710 (Print) - 9783527619658 (Online) ; s. 276-289
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • These two volumes provide an authoritative overview of all the major environmental topics. Focusing on the current 'state of the art' as well as the examination of future perspectives. The first volume spotlights the basic sciences and environmental exploitation, exploring issues such as global climates, marine pollution, tourism and the environment, chemical time bombs and the ozone layer. The second volume is devoted to preventitive strategies, technology and management. Recommended techniques for environmental monitoring, waste management, responses to oil spills, ecological engineering are described, as are environmental education and international law. Volume 2 highlights strategies for solving 'man-made' environmental problems. This reference is addressed to scientists and engineers in industry and in academia, government planners and administrators, political scientists, lawyers and economists and promotes understanding between experts in various disciplines.
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  • Björn, Annika, 1972- (författare)
  • Microbial Transformation of Organotin Compounds under Simulated Landfill Conditions
  • 2007
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Mono- and di-alkyltins are used extensively as heat stabilizers for processing of poly vinyl chloride (PVC). Tin mercaptide stabilizers are some of the most effective PVC stabilizers available. The main applications for tin stabilizers are building/construction products, such as pipes, fittings, siding and profiles (windows etc.), packaging and flexible PVC plastics. Most PVC products have been and are subjected to landfilling, when their use is terminated. The structure of the polymer itself and the substances used as additives have been a concern for environmental authorities in many countries since long, which also includes their presence in landfills. In the case of the organotin stabilizers their leaching out from (PVC) plastics into the leachate phase of landfills with the risk for further transport to ground and surface waters is in focus.The main objectives of this thesis take their start in this background and, thus, included the elucidation of whether organotin compounds (OTs) in stabilized PVC products contribute to the pool of OTs observed in landfill leachates and if these compounds are degradable by the microorganisms developing under anaerobic landfill conditions.To reach these aims and the research questions raised the forwarded PVC materials were added to muniscipal solid waste (MSW) processed in containers used to simulate the ageing of landfills under forced conditions. These include traditional landfill simulation reactors (LSRs) at a scale of ca 100 L and also at a smaller scale ca 5 L constructed for the purpose of this study, i.e. the modular environmental test system (METS). The latter were used to investigate temperature effects on the possible release of OTs from different types of PVC materials. The capacity by microorganisms in landfill environments were used to investigate their capacity to degrade or transform organotin stabilizer compounds focused on in this thesis. Differences in this capacity in relation to the ageing of landfills and exposure to the alkyltin stabilizers were studied with microorganisms sampled from LSRs spiked with PVC over time and from landfill site.Access to sensitive and reliable equipment and analytical protocols for the analysis of OTs and their transformation intermediates and end products are prerequisites for this kind of studies. This necessitated an adoption and adaptation of analytical methods for the low concentrations occurring in the environment. Two methods were established and well served the requirements.Indeed OTs migrated out from especially flexible PVC materials, while rigid PVC was less prone for OT release as judged from the METS simulations. The METS studies showed that the OT release increase substantially at higher temperatures and especially so when the temperature was higher than the glass transition of the PVC.materials.The organotin stabilizers were transformed, partly or completely degraded, by anaerobic microorganisms derived from landfill environments. Upon prolonged exposure to OTs leaching from PVC in LSR simulations the microorganisms displayed a higher efficiency in degradation of the leached OTs. The microorganisms would methylate inorganic tin and metyltin present in the MSW material as well as perform dealkylation depending on the tin concentrations prevailing. During these studies it was discovered that the organotin stabilzers were inhibiting the methanogens and fermentative bacteria, which lead to a retardation of the anaerobic mineralisation of the MSW in the assays. An in depth study revealed that the OTs themselves but also their ligands and degradation products from these together effected the inhibition.However, given the extent of leaching in relation to the water flows in landfills, the concentrations will mainly be too low to pose any risks to the surrounding environment.
9.
  • Hörsing, Maritha, 1970- (författare)
  • Leaching and Transformation of Flame Retardants and Plasticizers under Simulated Landfill Conditions
  • 2008
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Många av de varor och produkter vi kommer i kontakt med dagligen innehåller kemikalier, som tillsats för att materialen i produkterna skall få specifika egenskaper. Till dessa sk funktionella kemiska föreningar hör till exempel flamskyddsmedel och mjukgörare. Den förra förhindrar att produkter fattar eld eller minskar omfattningen av brand. Mjukgörare ingår fr a i plaster för att dessa skall bli smidiga och formbara. Eftersom stora mängder av dessa substanser används eller har använts i produkter i samhället har de spridits till många miljöer. Produkterna hamnar ofta på soptipp, då de inte används mer eller är utnötta. Eftersom flera av dessa substanser innebär risk för hälsa och miljö, är det påkallat att utreda hur de beter sig i soptippsmiljön.Syftet med detta avhandlingsarbete är att undersöka eventuell frisättning och omvandling av dessa två typer av funktionella kemikalier i deponimiljö. Sedan tidigare vet man att sådan frisättning kan var starkt kopplad till åldern och därmed utvecklingen av den kemiska och fysiska miljön förändrats fr a genom tillväxten av mikroorganismer i soptippen. För att komma åt att studera frisättningen under de för deponier karakteristiska utvecklingsfaserna utvecklades en metod (Modualr Environmetal Test System; METS) för att simulera faserna över relativt kort tid (ca 1-2 år). I avhandlingen presenteras två studier, där METS utnyttjats: 1) Frisättning av mjukgörare från en PVC-matta i relation till temperaturer, som uppträder i soptippar (20-70oC) samt 2) Läckage av olika flamskyddsmedel i reaktiv respektive additiv användning studerades för olika applikationer. Vid reaktive applikation är flamskyddsmedlet kovalent bundet till polymeren i produktmaterialet, medan det additivt använda flamskyddsmedlet är inblandat i materialet.Två ftalater (di-2-etylhexyl ftalat, DEHP och bensyl-butyl ftalat (BBP), visade sig läcka från mattan, vilket ökade med högre temperature. De frisattes dock som mest vid 37oC, vilket sannolikt beror på den höga mikrobiella aktiviteten vid denna temperatur. Båda ftalterna bröts ned i soptippsmiljön och hastigheten var störst i den metanogena fasen.En epoxyoligomer (tetrabromobishpenol A TBBPA) och Pyrovatex, som bygger på en fosforförening, användes som modeller för reaktiva flamskyddsmedel. Melamin, som klassas som ett kvävebaserat flamskyddsmedel, fick tillsammans med Proban (fosforbaserat) represen-tera de som används additivt. Medan en frisättning av melamin kunde relateras till utvecklingen av deponimiljön simulerad i METS, så verkar den observerade frisättningen av kemikalierna från de reaktivt behandlade Pyrovatexmaterialet och från epoxipolymeren TBBPA förr ha en fysikalisk-kemisk grund oberoende av utvecklingsfaserna i tippmodel-lerna. Flamskyddsmedlen tvättades helt enkelt ut ur de behandlade produkterna. Probanbehandlingen, som motstår förhållandevis många tvättar trots att det används additivt, visade sig läcka långsamt utan en direkt koppling till fasutvecklingen i METS.Kunskaperna om vad som händer med TBBPA:s eterderivat i deponier är i stort sett obefintliga. Flera av dessa derivat används också som flamskyddsmedel. Därför genomfördes en anaerob nedbrytningsstudie av dessa substanser. För att kunna göra denna studie behövdes en omfattande anpassning och utveckling av metodik, vilket resulterade i ett nytt protokoll för analys av dessa ämnen i olika matriser. Studien visade minskning av koncentrationerna av TBBPA, TBBPA-dimetyleter och bisfenol A dimetyl eter, vilket kan tas som ett tecken på att en transformation och/eller nedbrytning skett. Då dessa föreningar kan omvandlas till mer toxiska substanser bör de undersökas vidare.
10.
  • Thuy Nguyen, Lan, 1975- (författare)
  • Mobilization of metals from mining wastes and the resuspension of contaminated sediments
  • 2008
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In some environmental situations, environmental effects caused by elevated metals resulting from past mining and smelting activities can be observed in nearby receiving water bodies several decades after mine and smelter closure. There is a growing need for managing the hazardous solid wastes such as mining wastes as well as for assessing water quality and for sustainable management of sediment quality. The work presented in this thesis examined the mobilization of metals from two metal sources: mining wastes from a mine site in Vietnam and sediments from a contaminated lake in Sweden in order to test the hypothesis that mobilization of metals will be increased, when the environmental conditions change by e.g. exposure of mining wastes to oxidative weathering, change of redox conditions at the water-sediment interface and resuspension of sediments. The results from this work under field and laboratory conditions have verified the hypothesis. The exposure of sulphidic mining wastes in oxidative weathering conditions may cause long-term production of ARD and the resultant long-term mobility of metals. The oxidation/resuspension of sediments is an important factor for the release of trace metals Zn, Cu and Cd into the solution and substantial amounts of particles and, hence, associated metals into overlying water. The concomitant changes in pH during oxidation/resuspension of sediment play a significant role in the metal release both to redox sensitive elements Fe and Mn and trace elements Zn, Cu and Cd. The concomitant change in DOC during oxidation/resuspension can also contribute to the increased mobility of study metals. The field study was coupled to intermittent operation of a hydropower plant. The mobility of the metals was higher under operation compared to non-operation and, thus, the potential impacts on dispersal of metal pollution to downstream aquatic environments. The sudden increase in water flow upon the hydropower plant upon shifts from inactive to active state could cause immediate release of particles and thus particulate metals in the overlying water. However, the magnitude and its integrated effects in fluxes of metals over the season call for further research. There is a need to further investigate the impacts of hydropower generation in a longer period of time and at a higher frequency of observations at the very start of the hydropower operation. The results from this multidisciplinary approach would give a basis for an optimal operation of the hydropower plant to minimize the metal pollution associated with the water flow.
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