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Sökning: AMNE:(NATURAL SCIENCES Chemistry Environmental chemistry) > Övrigt vetenskapligt > Linköpings universitet

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  • Bidleman, Terry, et al. (författare)
  • Chapter 2: Properties, sources, global fate and transport
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Canadian Arctic Contaminants Assessment Report III 2013 : Persistent Organic Pollutants in Canada’ s North. - Ottawa : Northern Contaminants Program, Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada. - 978-1-100-54652-0 ; s. 19-146
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Part II of the second Canadian Arctic Contaminants Assessment Report (CACAR-II) began with a section on “Physicochemical Properties of Persistent Organic Pollutants”, which identified key physicochemical (pchem) properties, provided the rationale for their measurement or prediction and tabulated literature citations for chemicals that are of concern to the NCP (Bidleman et al. 2003). The section also discussed temperature dependence of pchem properties and their applications to describing partitioning in the physical environment.There is, and will continue to be, emphasis on predictive approaches to screening chemicals for persistence, bioaccumulation and toxic (PB&T)properties, as well as long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) potential (Brown and Wania 2008, Czub et al. 2008, Fenner et al. 2005, Gouin andWania 2007, Howard and Muir 2010, Klasmeier et al. 2006, Matthies et al. 2009, Muir and Howard 2006). This has created the need for determining pchem properties of new and emerging chemicals of concern.Predicting gas exchange cycles of legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and new and emerging chemicals of concern places a high demand on the accuracy of pchem properties, particularly the air/water partition coefficient, KAW. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) in Arctic Ocean surface waters are close to air-water equilibrium, with excursions toward net volatilization or deposition that vary with location and season (Hargrave et al. 1993, Jantunen et al. 2008a, Lohmann et al. 2009, Su et al. 2006, Wong et al. 2011) while hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (Lohmann et al. 2009, Su et al. 2006, Wong et al. 2011) and some current use pesticides (CUPs) (Wong et al. 2011) are undergoing net deposition. The predicted Arctic Contamination Potential (ACP) for persistent organic chemicals is strongly influenced by ice cover due to its effect on air-water gas exchange (Meyer and Wania 2007).Many advances have taken place and numerous papers have been published since CACAR-II, which present new measurements and predictions of pchem properties. This section does not attempt to provide a comprehensive review of the field, or to compile pchem properties from the many studies. The approach taken is to highlight the reports which are most relevant to polar science, particularly in areas of improving reliability of pchem properties for POPs, improving experimental techniques and comparing predictive methods. The section ends with a discussion of polyparameter linear free energy relationships (pp-LFERs), which goes beyond partitioning descriptions based on single pchem properties by taking into account specific chemical interactions that can take place in airsurface and water-surface exchange processes. A detailed list of chemical names and nomenclature are provided in the Glossary.
  • Bergbäck, Bo, et al. (författare)
  • Metals in society
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: The global environment. - Oslo : Scandinavian Science Publ.. - 9783527287710 - 9783527619658 ; s. 276-289
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • These two volumes provide an authoritative overview of all the major environmental topics. Focusing on the current 'state of the art' as well as the examination of future perspectives. The first volume spotlights the basic sciences and environmental exploitation, exploring issues such as global climates, marine pollution, tourism and the environment, chemical time bombs and the ozone layer. The second volume is devoted to preventitive strategies, technology and management. Recommended techniques for environmental monitoring, waste management, responses to oil spills, ecological engineering are described, as are environmental education and international law. Volume 2 highlights strategies for solving 'man-made' environmental problems. This reference is addressed to scientists and engineers in industry and in academia, government planners and administrators, political scientists, lawyers and economists and promotes understanding between experts in various disciplines.
  • Chen, Weimin (författare)
  • Optically detected magnetic resonance of defects in semiconductors
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: EPR of Free Radicals in Solids II : Trends in Methods and Applications. - Dordrecht : Springer Netherlands. - 978-94-007-4886-6 - 978-94-007-4887-3 ; s. 345-366
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • EPR of Free Radicals in Solids: Trends in Methods and Applications, 2nd ed. presents a critical two volume review of the methods and applications of EPR (ESR) for the study of free radical processes in solids. Emphasis is on the progress made in the developments in EPR technology, in the application of sophisticated matrix isolation techniques and in the advancement in quantitative EPR that have occurred since the 1st edition was published. Improvements have been made also at theoretical level, with the development of methods based on first principles and their application to the calculation of magnetic properties as well as in spectral simulations. EPR of Free Radicals in Solids II focuses on the trends in applications of experimental and theoretical methods to extract structural and dynamical properties of radicals and spin probes in solid matrices by continuous wave (CW) and pulsed techniques in nine chapters written by experts in the field. It examines the studies involving radiation- and photo-induced inorganic and organic radicals in inert matrices, the high-spin molecules and metal-based molecular clusters as well as the radical pro-cesses in photosynthesis. Recent advancements in environmental applications in-cluding measurements by myon resonance of radicals on surfaces and by quantitative EPR in dosimetry are outlined and the applications of optical detection in material research with much increased sensitivity reviewed. The potential use of EPR in quantum computing is considered in a newly written chapter. This new edition is aimed to experimentalists and theoreticians in research involving free radicals, as well as for students of advanced courses in physical chemis-try, chemical physics, materials science, biophysics, biochemistry and related fields.
  • Roos, Caroline, et al. (författare)
  • Organic micro-pollutant profiles from urban, industrial, and rural soils and sediments from South Africa.
  • 2012
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Despite having the largest economy in Africa, very little is known about organic pollutants in soils and sediments from urban and industrial areas of South Africa. Here, we present the results of the first studies to investigate levels and distribution of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, PAHs, chlorinated paraffins, and dioxin-like chemicals from the highly industrialised regions south of Johannesburg. Industries here include petro-chemicals, ferrous and non-ferrous metal production, paper and pulp, coking, mining, and coal-fired power plants.The concentration of PAHs ranged between 44-39 000 ng/g dw and the concentration of carcinogenic PAHs ranged between 19-19 000 ng/g dw. Pyrogenic processes were the most likely sources, with some petrogenic contributions. Carcinogenic PAHs at low-income residential sites were sufficient to potentially cause health effects such as cancer considering direct contact with soil. PCB concentrations ranged between 120‑4 700 ng/kg dw in soils and sediments with highest concentrations from industrial and associated residential areas. Concentrations of dioxin TEQWHO2005 ranged between 0.12 -32 ng/kg TEQ dw in sediments, and between 0.34-20 ng/kg dw in soils. Various combustion and high-temperature processes were likely sources of pollution at the majority of the sites. The polychlorinated paraffins had concentrations between 1.8‑1 200 ng/g dw. Levels of organochlorine pesticides were at or close to limits of detection.The sources, processes and threats that govern and the lesser concentrations in sediment and higher concentrations in soils need further investigation as it may affect human exposure. Bio-accumulation into humans and biota from terrestrial and aquatic food webs under developing-country conditions as examined here needs further investigation before conclusive statements about threats and the need for mitigating interventions can be made. These studies have contributed towards a much better understanding of organic chemical pollutants in sediments and soils from the largest industrial and urban area in South Africa.
  • Nordén, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Interaction of Strontium and Europium with an Aquatic Fulvic Acid Studied by Ultrafiltration and lon Exchange Techniques
  • 1991
  • Ingår i: Humic substances in the aquatic and terrestrial environment : proceedings of an international symposium, Linköping, Sweden, August 21-23, 1989. - Berlin Heidelberg New York : Springer. - 3-540-53702-3 ; s. 297-303
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The complexation of an aquatic fulvic acid, FA, with Sr2+ and Eu3+ was studied using an ultrafiltration technique and an ion exchange distribution method. The total amount of bound metal (Sr2+ and Eu3+) was measured as a function of pH at low meta! concentrations (trace levels) and constant FA concentration. In the Sr-FA system the bound meta! fraction increased slightly with pH, and the values obtained from the two experimental techniques were comparable. For Eu-FA, according to the ultrafiltration data, the fraction of bound meta! ion was relatively insensitive to pH changes, whereas values from the ion exchange measurements showed a strong and positive dependence on pH. The results are discussed in the light of possible intrinsic problems of the two methods.
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