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Sökning: AMNE:(NATURAL SCIENCES Chemistry Environmental chemistry) > Övrigt vetenskapligt > Engelska

  • Resultat 1-10 av 481
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  • Olsman [Takner], Helena, et al. (författare)
  • Relative differences in aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated response for 18 polybrominated and mixed halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans in cell lines from four different species
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. - 0730-7268. ; 26:11, s. 2448-2454
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • As a consequence of ubiquitous use of brominated organic chemicals, there is a concern for persistent or increasing environmental levels of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs) and mixed polychlorinated and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PXDD/Fs). Hence, there is a need to broaden the toxicological and environmental knowledge about these compounds, as a basis for risk assessment. In the study presented here, the relative potencies (REPs) for 18 PBDD/F and PXDD/ F congeners were determined in four dioxin-specific bioassays from different species: dioxin receptor chemically activated luciferase expression assay (DR-CALUX, rat hepatoma cells), TV101L (human hepatoma cells), and GPC.2D (guinea pig adenoma cells), as well as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase induction in the fish cell line RTL-W1 (rainbow trout liver cells). The bioassay specific REP factors presented here enable the assessment of the contribution from PBDD/Fs and PXDD/Fs to total 2,3,7,8-tetrachl orodibenzop-dioxin (TCDD) equivalents (TEQs: toxic equivalents), using bioassay analysis. The PBDD/Fs were found to be equally potent as their chlorinated analogues in the three mammalian assays, whereas the PXDD/Fs showed relatively higher potencies. Of special concern were the 2,3,7,8-substituted penta- and tetrahalogenated congeners, for which mean REPs were >= 1. The 2-B-1,3,7,8-CDD (2-bromo-1,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) was up to three times more potent than TCDD in individual experiments (on weight basis). The RTL-W1 was less sensitive to the tested compounds with overall 10-fold lower REPs than the mammalian cell lines. Although the REP factors exhibited species-specific differences, overall resembling rank orders of dioxin-like potency were obtained.
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  • Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid, 1980- (författare)
  • Assessment of human exposure to per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) : exposure through food, drinking water, house dust and indoor air
  • 2011
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are detected in humans worldwide but all sources of human exposure have not been fully characterized. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the contributions from food, water, air and dust as sources for human PFC exposure in the general population.Per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are detected in humans worldwide but all sources of Up to 27 PFCs were determined at trace levels in blood (ng/mL), water (ng/L), foods (ng/g), dust (ng/g) and air (pg/m3) in a selected Catalan population and PFC intake was estimated from the measured PFC concentrations of the different sources of exposure.The major compounds detected in human blood of the studied population were perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS; 7.6 ng/mL), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS; 3.6 ng/mL) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA; 1.8 ng/mL). In general, PFOS was also the major compound detected in most sources of exposure.Food was found to be the dominant pathway for human PFC exposure accounting for more than 70 % of the total intake of both PFOS and PFOA. In the most populated area (the Barcelona Province) where the highest levels were measured, tap water can contribute to the total exposure substantially with more than 50 % for adults. Indoor sources were negligible in the selected area for most PFCs when compared to food and water intake, except for toddlers under a worst case scenario where contribution from dust and food intake were equal (19 %).Pharmacokinetic (PK) modelling resulted in exposure of 103 ng PFOS/day and 33 ng PFOA/day of adults from the internal PFC blood concentrations. This agrees well with the intake estimated from external exposure through food, drinking water, house dust and indoor air of 80 ng PFOS/day and 32 ng PFOA/day and evidently all major exposure sources for the general population were included (in this study).
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  • Dario, Mårten, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of cement additives on radionuclide mobility
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Scientific basis for radioactive waste management XXVII : symposium held June 15-19, 2003, Kalmar, Sweden. - Warrendale, Pa : Materials Research Society. - 1558997520 ; s. 639-644
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • Hyvönen, Riitta, et al. (författare)
  • The likely impact of elevated [CO2], nitrogen deposition, increased temperature and management on carbon sequestration in temperate and boreal forest ecosystems : a literature review
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: New Phytologist. - Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. - 0028-646X. ; 173:3, s. 463-480
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Temperate and boreal forest ecosystems contain a large part of the carbon stored on land, in the form of both biomass and soil organic matter. Increasing atmospheric [CO2], increasing temperature, elevated nitrogen deposition and intensified management will change this C store. Well documented single-factor responses of net primary production are: higher photosynthetic rate (the main [CO2] response); increasing length of growing season (the main temperature response); and higher leaf-area index (the main N deposition and partly [CO2] response). Soil organic matter will increase with increasing litter input, although priming may decrease the soil C stock initially, but litter quality effects should be minimal (response to [CO2], N deposition, and temperature); will decrease because of increasing temperature; and will increase because of retardation of decomposition with N deposition, although therate of decomposition of high-quality litter can be increased and that of low-quality litter decreased. Single-factor responses can be misleading because of interactions between factors, in particular those between N and other factors, and indirect effects such as increased N availability from temperature-induced decomposition. In the long term the strength of feedbacks, for example the increasing demand for N from increased growth, will dominate over short-term responses to single factors. However, management has considerable potential for controlling the C store.
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