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Sökning: AMNE:(NATURVETENSKAP Kemi Miljökemi)

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  • de Boer, J., et al. (författare)
  • United Nations Environment Programme Capacity Building Pilot Project : training and interlaboratory study on persistent organic pollutant analysis under the Stockholm Convention
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Analytica Chimica Acta. - 0003-2670. ; 617:1-2, s. 208-215
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Within the framework of a United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Capacity Building Project for training of laboratory staff in developing countries on persistent organic pollutant (POP) analysis, an interlaboratory study was organised following an initial evaluation of the performance of laboratories (reality check) and a series of training sessions. The target compounds were polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine pesticides (OCP). Seven laboratories from five countries (Ecuador, Uruguay, Kenya, Moldova, and Fiji) participated. Most of the laboratories had no experience in determining PCBs. Although chromatograms improved considerably after the training and installation of new gas chromatographic (GC) columns at participating laboratories, the level of performance in the interlaboratory study was essentially on par with the moderate performance level achieved by European POP laboratories in the 1980s. Only some individual results were within +/-20% of the target values. The relative standard deviations (R.S.D.s) in POP concentrations determined by laboratories in a sediment sample were >200% in a number of cases. The results for a certified herring sample were better with at least some R.S.D. values below 50% and most below 100%. Clean up was as one of the main sources of error. After inspection it was ascertained that training of laboratory staff and investments in simple consumables such as glassware and GC columns would help to improve the quality of the analysis more than major investments in expensive instrumentation. Creating an effective network of POP laboratories at different continents together with a series of interlaboratory studies and workshops is suggested to improve the measurements of POPs in these countries.
  • Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid, et al. (författare)
  • Human exposure to perfluorinated chemicals through the diet : intake of perfluorinated compounds in foods from the Catalan (Spain) market
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. - 0021-8561. ; 56:5, s. 1787-1794
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to determine the dietary intake of perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) by the population of Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain). PFC levels were determined in 36 composite samples of foodstuffs randomly purchased in various locations. Exposure to PFCs through the diet was estimated for various age/gender groups. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorocarboxylate perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) were the only detected PFCs in foodstuffs. On average, for a standard adult man (70 kg of body weight), the dietary intake of PFOS was estimated to be 62.5 or 74.2 ng/day (assuming ND=0 or ND=1/2 LOD, respectively). Fish, followed by dairy products and meats, were the main contributors to PFOS intake. For an adult man, the intake of PFOS (1.07 ng/kg/day) and those of PFOA and PFHpA were lower than that recently reported for Canada (4.0 ng/kg/day), and considerably lower than that previously found in the United Kingdom, the only two countries where, to date, results concerning this issue have been reported. A correlation between dietary intake and blood levels of PFOS is suggested. However, the current results do not justify dietary intake as the main route of exposure governing blood concentrations of other PFCs.
  • Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid, et al. (författare)
  • Levels of perfluorochemicals in water samples from Catalonia, Spain : is drinking water a significant contribution to human exposure?
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Environmental science and pollution research international. - 0944-1344. ; 15:7, s. 614-619
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND, AIM, AND SCOPE: In recent years, due to a high persistence, biomagnification in food webs, presence in remote regions, and potential toxicity, perfluorochemicals (PFCs) have generated a considerable interest. The present study was aimed to determine the levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and other PFCs in drinking water (tap and bottled) and river water samples from Tarragona Province (Catalonia, Spain). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Municipal drinking (tap) water samples were collected from the four most populated towns in the Tarragona Province, whereas samples of bottled waters were purchased from supermarkets. River water samples were collected from the Ebro (two samples), Cortiella, and Francolí Rivers. After pretreatment, PFC analyses were performed by HPLC-MS. Quantification was done using the internal standard method, with recoveries between 68% and 118%. RESULTS: In tap water, PFOS and PFOA levels ranged between 0.39 and 0.87 ng/L (0.78 and 1.74 pmol/L) and between 0.32 and 6.28 ng/L (0.77 and 15.2 pmol/L), respectively. PFHpA, PFHxS, and PFNA were also other detected PFCs. PFC levels were notably lower in bottled water, where PFOS could not be detected in any sample. Moreover, PFHpA, PFHxS, PFOA, PFNA, PFOS, PFOSA, and PFDA could be detected in the river water samples. PFOS and PFOA concentrations were between <0.24 and 5.88 ng/L (<0.48 and 11.8 pmol/L) and between <0.22 and 24.9 ng/L (<0.53 and 60.1 pmol/L), respectively. DISCUSSION: Assuming a human water consumption of 2 L per day, the daily intake of PFOS and PFOA by the population of the area under evaluation was calculated (0.78-1.74 and 12.6 ng, respectively). It was found that drinking water might be a source of exposure to PFCs as important as the dietary intake of these pollutants. CONCLUSIONS: The contribution of drinking water (tap and bottled) to the human daily intake of various PFCs has been compared for the first time with data from dietary intake of these PFCs. It was noted that in certain cases, drinking water can be a source of exposure to PFCs as important as the dietary intake of these pollutants although the current concentrations were similar or lower than those reported in the literature for surface water samples from a number of regions and countries. RECOMMENDATIONS AND PERSPECTIVES: Further studies should be carried out in order to increase the knowledge of the role of drinking water in human exposure to PFCs.
  • Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid, et al. (författare)
  • Perfluorinated chemicals in blood of residents in Catalonia (Spain) in relation to age and gender : a pilot study
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Environment International. - 0160-4120. ; 33:5, s. 616-623
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fluorinated organic compounds (FOCs) are a group of chemicals widely used as surfactants, lubricants, polymers, and fire-fighting foams. Recent studies have shown the ubiquitous distribution of FOCs in the environment, wildlife, and humans. We here report the results of a pilot study conducted to provide preliminary data on the levels of 13 FOCs in the blood of 48 residents in Catalonia, Spain, in relation to gender and age (25+/-5 and 55+/-5 years). The highest mean concentration was obtained for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, 7.64 ng/ml), followed by perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS, 3.56 ng/ml) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 1.80 ng/ml). Four other FOCs showed mean levels between 0.30 and 0.44 ng/ml, whereas those of the remaining 6 compounds were below the detection limit. Regarding gender, the blood levels of PFHxS and PFOA were significantly higher (p<0.05) in men than in women, while differences according to age were only noted for PFHxS (p<0.05) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) (p<0.001), for which the levels were higher in the younger (25+/-5 years) group of subjects. A significant correlation between PFOS levels and those of the remaining detected FOCs (except PFDA) was found. In general terms, the current FOC concentrations were lower than those found in recent studies concerning levels of these chemicals in human blood and serum of subjects from different countries.
  • Fuglei, E., et al. (författare)
  • Environmental contaminants in arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) in Svalbard : relationships with feeding ecology and body condition
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Environmental Pollution. - 0269-7491. ; 146:1, s. 128-138
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Adipose tissues from 20 arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) of both sexes from Svalbard were analysed for polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDE), chlordane, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) concentrations. Gender (0.43<p<0.97) and age (0.15<p<0.95) were not significantly related to any of the organohalogen groups. Body condition showed a significant inverse relationship with SigmaPBDE, SigmaChlordane and HCB, suggesting that increased tissue contaminant concentrations are associated with depletion of adipose tissue. The seasonal cyclic storage and mobilisation of adipose tissue, characteristic in Arctic wildlife, may then provide increased input of contaminants to sensitive, vital effect organs. Trophic position was estimated by delta(15)N from muscle samples and showed significantly positive relationship with all contaminants, with the exception of HCB concentrations. This indicates that foxes feeding at high trophic levels had higher tissue contaminant levels as a result of bioaccumulation in the food chain.
  • Hardell, Lennart, et al. (författare)
  • Adipose tissue concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and the risk of prostate cancer
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. - 1076-2752. ; 48:7, s. 700-707
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: We sought to study the concentrations of certain persistent organic pollutants with endocrine-disrupting properties in cases with prostate cancer and controls with benign prostate hyperplasia. METHODS: Adipose tissue was obtained from 58 cases and 20 controls. RESULTS: The median concentration among controls was used as cut-off in the statistical analysis. In the total material, a greater-than median concentration of PCB congener 153 yielded an odds ratio (OR) of 3.15 and 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.04-9.54 and one chlordane type, trans-chlordane, yielded OR 3.49 (95% CI = 1.08-11.2). In the group of case subjects with PSA levels greater than the median level of 16.5 ng/mL, PCB 153 was OR 30.3 (95% CI = 3.24-284), hexachlorobenzene OR = 9.84 (95% CI = 1.99-48.5), trans-chlordane OR = 11.0 (95% CI = 1.87-64.9), and the chlordane-type MC6 OR = 7.58 (95% CI = 1.65-34.9). The grouping of PCBs according to structural and biological activity was found to produce significantly increased risks for enzyme and phenobarbital-inducing PCBs and lower chlorinated PCBs in the case group with PSA levels greater than 16.5 ng/mL. CONCLUSIONS: These chemicals might be of etiologic significance but need to be further investigated. The biological relevance of the arbitrary cut-off point of PSA is unclear.
  • Hardell, Lennart, et al. (författare)
  • High concentrations of organochlorines in a patient with kidney cancer and anorexia-cachexia syndrome
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Medicinal chemistry (Shāriqah (United Arab Emirates)). - 1573-4064. ; 2:6, s. 607-610
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: To determine persistent organic pollutants in adipose tissue in a patient with kidney cancer. METHODS: Adipose tissue was sampled from the abdominal wall during autopsy of a 75-year old man who had died from a kidney cancer. The concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), chlordanes and tetrabromodiphenyl ether (TeBDE) were determined on lipid basis. For comparison results from 29 male population based subjects aged 70-80 years were used. RESULTS: All concentrations except for TeBDE were very high in the patient; sum of PCBs 18 808 ng/g fat (median for controls 997), DDE 14 183 (median for controls 751), HCB 424 (median for controls 46), and sum of chlordanes 2 389 (median for controls 62). The patient lost weight from 80 kg to 48 kg when he died, which may have contributed wholly or partly to the very high concentrations of organochlorines. CONCLUSION: Changes in weight must be recorded in cancer patients and the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants should be normalized to weight. The concentrations in this patient were 10- to almost 40-times higher than in the controls. Such very high concentrations may give clinical symptoms in the final stage of a wasting cancer patient.
  • Julander, A, et al. (författare)
  • Distribution of brominated flame retardants in different dust fractions in air from an electronics recycling facility
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment. - 0048-9697. ; 350:1-3, s. 151-160
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Twelve air samples were collected from an electronic recycling facility in Sweden representing three different dust fractions; respirable, total and inhalable dust. Four samples were collected from each fraction. The highest concentration of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) #209 (ten bromine atoms) was found in the samples from the inhalable dust fraction (ID), which was 10 times higher than for the "total dust" fraction (TD). The concentration ranges were 157.6-208.6; 13.9-16.7; and 2.8-3.3 ng/m3 for inhalable, total and respirable fractions, respectively. The second most abundant PBDE congener was PBDE #183 (seven bromine atoms), followed by the second most abundant substance 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) in all samples. In addition, decabromodiphenyl ethane (DeBDethane) was tentatively identified in five of the samples. Because of the large differences in air concentrations between the three fractions in ID, TD and RD, it is suggested that the inhalable instead of "total dust" fraction should be used to assess air concentrations, in particular for the larger and higher brominated flame retardants (BFRs).
  • Knudsen, Lisa B., et al. (författare)
  • Halogenated organic contaminants and mercury in northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) : levels, relationships to dietary descriptors and blood to liver comparison
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Environmental Pollution. - 0269-7491. ; 146:1, s. 25-33
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) is an interesting candidate for the study of patterns and levels of halogenated organic contaminants (HOCs) since they accumulate high levels of certain HOCs. In the present study we characterized a suite of established and novel HOCs in northern fulmars breeding on Bjørnøya in the Norwegian Arctic. A comparison between blood and liver HOC levels was made, and the levels were related to the ratios of heavier to lighter stable isotopes of nitrogen (15)N/(14)N (delta(15)N) and carbon (13)C/(12)C (delta(13)C) in muscle. A significant difference in congener patterns between blood and liver was found. The delta(13)C was not related to HOCs, neither in liver nor in blood. Weak correlations were found between delta(15)N and liver HOC levels. The 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQs) in northern fulmars were well above thresholds for reproductive effects in seabirds.
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