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  • Hassellöv, Martin, 1970-, et al. (författare)
  • REACH missar nano!
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Miljöforskning. ; 3/4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (populärvet., debatt m.m.)
  • Ericson Jogsten, Ingrid, et al. (författare)
  • Human exposure to perfluorinated chemicals through the diet : intake of perfluorinated compounds in foods from the Catalan (Spain) market
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. - 0021-8561. ; 56:5, s. 1787-1794
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to determine the dietary intake of perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) by the population of Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain). PFC levels were determined in 36 composite samples of foodstuffs randomly purchased in various locations. Exposure to PFCs through the diet was estimated for various age/gender groups. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorocarboxylate perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) were the only detected PFCs in foodstuffs. On average, for a standard adult man (70 kg of body weight), the dietary intake of PFOS was estimated to be 62.5 or 74.2 ng/day (assuming ND=0 or ND=1/2 LOD, respectively). Fish, followed by dairy products and meats, were the main contributors to PFOS intake. For an adult man, the intake of PFOS (1.07 ng/kg/day) and those of PFOA and PFHpA were lower than that recently reported for Canada (4.0 ng/kg/day), and considerably lower than that previously found in the United Kingdom, the only two countries where, to date, results concerning this issue have been reported. A correlation between dietary intake and blood levels of PFOS is suggested. However, the current results do not justify dietary intake as the main route of exposure governing blood concentrations of other PFCs.
  • Lacayo-Romero, Martha, et al. (författare)
  • Degradation of toxaphene in aged and freshly contaminated soil
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Chemosphere. - 0045-6535. ; 63:4, s. 609-615
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Degradation of toxaphene in soil from both newly contaminated (from Sweden) and aged spills (from Nicaragua) were studied. The newly contaminated soil contained approximately 11 mg kg(-1) toxaphene while the aged Nicaraguan soil contained approximately 100 mg kg(-1). Degradation was studied in anaerobic bioreactors, some of which were supplied with lactic acid and others with Triton X-114. In this study we found that the lower isomers Parlar 11, 12 were degraded while the concentration of isomer Parlar 15 increased. This supported an earlier evaluation which indicated that less chlorinated isomers are formed from more heavily isomers. Lactic acid when added to the soil, interfere with the degradation of toxaphene. Lactic acid was added; several isomers appeared to degrade rather slowly in newly contaminated Swedish soil. The Swedish soil, without any external carbon source, showed the slowest degradation rate of all the compounds studied. When Triton X-114 at 0.4 mM was added, the degradation rate of the compounds increased. This study illustrates that biodegradation of toxaphene is a complex process and several parameters have to be taken into consideration. Degradation of persistent pollutants in the environment using biotechnology is dependent on bioavailability, carbon sources and formation of metabolites.
  • Wolkers, H., et al. (författare)
  • Accumulation, metabolism, and food-chain transfer of chlorinated and brominated contaminants in subadult white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) and narwhals (Monodon monoceros) from Svalbard, Norway
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. - 0090-4341. ; 50:1, s. 69-78
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The concentrations and patterns of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were studied in white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) and narwhals (Monodon monoceros) from Svalbard, Norway. In addition, their main food items were included in the study. In the whales, a broad range of pollutants was found in relatively high concentrations. PCBs and pesticides were approximately 3000 and 8000 ng/g lipid, respectively, for white whales and three times higher for narwhals. PBDEs 47 were approximately 70 ng/g lipid for white whales and 170 ng/g lipid for narwhals. Compared with other marine mammals from the same area, contaminant levels are among the highest levels ever measured. These high levels are likely in part because of a decreased capacity to metabolize contaminants. Metabolic indices indicated that most compounds accumulate to the same degree in white whales and narwhals, but for some toxaphenes and chlordanes, narwhals might have a decreased metabolism and consequently a higher accumulation. The three-times-higher contaminant levels in blubber of narwhals was further explained by substantially higher contaminant levels in their more benthic diet. The high levels and broad pattern of accumulating pollutants make white whales and narwhals excellent indicators for a wide range of contaminants in the Arctic.
  • Wolkers, Hans, et al. (författare)
  • Tissue-specific accumulation and lactational transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorinated pesticides, and brominated flame retardants in hooded seals (Cistophora cristata) from the Gulf of St. Lawrence : applications for monitoring.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Environmental Pollution. - 0269-7491. ; 142:3, s. 476-486
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Accumulation and mother-pup transfer of halogenated organic contaminants was studied in hooded seal tissues from eastern Canada. Blubber polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and total pesticide concentrations were relatively high, possibly due to their high trophic level and demersal feeding habits. Blood plasma showed the lowest contaminant concentrations compared to blubber and liver, possibly due to a lower affinity of these compounds to lipoproteins in blood plasma. Total contaminant body burden correlated well with blubber, liver, and milk contaminants, but not with blood plasma contaminants, indicating that blood plasma might be less suitable to monitor contaminants in hooded seals. Lactational transfer favored less lipophilic contaminants and was associated with relatively high blood plasma PCB and polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations in females. Despite lactational transfer, females did not show significantly lower blubber contaminant concentrations or burdens than males. This might be caused by their low blubber, and thus contaminant, loss during lactation compared to other species.
  • Olsman [Takner], Helena, et al. (författare)
  • Relative differences in aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated response for 18 polybrominated and mixed halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans in cell lines from four different species
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. - 0730-7268. ; 26:11, s. 2448-2454
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • As a consequence of ubiquitous use of brominated organic chemicals, there is a concern for persistent or increasing environmental levels of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs) and mixed polychlorinated and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PXDD/Fs). Hence, there is a need to broaden the toxicological and environmental knowledge about these compounds, as a basis for risk assessment. In the study presented here, the relative potencies (REPs) for 18 PBDD/F and PXDD/ F congeners were determined in four dioxin-specific bioassays from different species: dioxin receptor chemically activated luciferase expression assay (DR-CALUX, rat hepatoma cells), TV101L (human hepatoma cells), and GPC.2D (guinea pig adenoma cells), as well as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase induction in the fish cell line RTL-W1 (rainbow trout liver cells). The bioassay specific REP factors presented here enable the assessment of the contribution from PBDD/Fs and PXDD/Fs to total 2,3,7,8-tetrachl orodibenzop-dioxin (TCDD) equivalents (TEQs: toxic equivalents), using bioassay analysis. The PBDD/Fs were found to be equally potent as their chlorinated analogues in the three mammalian assays, whereas the PXDD/Fs showed relatively higher potencies. Of special concern were the 2,3,7,8-substituted penta- and tetrahalogenated congeners, for which mean REPs were >= 1. The 2-B-1,3,7,8-CDD (2-bromo-1,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) was up to three times more potent than TCDD in individual experiments (on weight basis). The RTL-W1 was less sensitive to the tested compounds with overall 10-fold lower REPs than the mammalian cell lines. Although the REP factors exhibited species-specific differences, overall resembling rank orders of dioxin-like potency were obtained.
  • Nilsson, Helena, et al. (författare)
  • Inhalation exposure to fluorotelomer alcohols yield perfluorocarboxylates in human blood?
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology. - 0013-936X. ; 44:19, s. 7717-7722
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Levels of perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs) in different environmental and biological compartments have been known for some time, but the routes of exposure still remain unclear. The opinions are divergent whether the exposure to general populations occurs mainly indirect through precursor compounds or direct via PFCAs. Previous results showed elevated blood levels of PFCAs in ski wax technicians compared to a general population. The objective of this follow-up study was to determine concentrations of PFCAs, perfluorosulfonates (PFSAs), and fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), precursor compounds that are known to degrade to PFCAs, in air collected in the breathing zone of ski wax technicians during work. We collected air samples by using ISOLUTE ENV+ cartridges connected to portable air pumps with an air flow of 2.0 L min(-1). PFCAs C5-C11 and PFSAs C4, C6, C8, and C10 were analyzed using LC-MS/MS and FTOHs 6:2, 8:2, and 10:2 with GC-MS/MS. The results show daily inhalation exposure of 8:2 FTOH in mu g/m(3) air which is up to 800 times higher than levels of PFOA with individual levels ranging between 830-255000 ng/m(3) air. This suggests internal exposure of PFOA through biotransformation of 8:2 FTOH to PFOA and PFNA in humans.
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