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Sökning: AMNE:(SOCIAL SCIENCES Business and economics) > Chalmers tekniska högskola

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  • Brostrom, A., et al. (författare)
  • Investing in Localized Relationships with Universities: What are the Benefits for RD Subsidiaries of Multinational Enterprises?
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Industry and Innovation. - 1366-2716. ; 16:1, s. 59-78
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In spite of a long-standing interest in the distribution of knowledge spillovers from university research, there is only limited theoretical understanding of if and when opportunities to interact with a research university constitute a significant force of attraction for globally mobile investment in RD. Based on an empirical investigation of the benefits of interaction with universities, this paper proposes an analytical framework and four ideal types of strategy for localised collaboration between RD subsidiaries and universities. This taxonomy, which largely transcends industry sectors, and the illustrative cases presented in this paper provide insights into the potential scope for localised university-industry interaction from the perspective of multinational enterprises. By connecting the empirical results to the question whether these benefits are significant enough to enhance a region's attractiveness as a location for RD, we are able to develop a better understanding of the alternative strategies for policymakers and university leaders interested in stimulating such linkages.
  • Brink, Johan, 1976- (författare)
  • Accumulation, Boundaries, Capabilities and Dynamics - Explaining Firm Growth
  • 2007
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of this thesis is to further develop the theoretical understanding of the growth of knowledge intensive business organizations. The overall aim is to understand the growth challenges of emerging firms in the knowledge-based economy. In particular this thesis addresses several aspects of the growth of small bioscience based firms. In a world characterized by global markets and rapid information transfer, the existence of firms can no longer be justified by established products and defence of old positions. The traditional logic of economic activities and industrial organization has instead increasingly been replaced by dynamic Schumpeterian competition in which firms compete based upon knowledge and innovations. This thesis depart in the emergent theories of evolutionary economics which focus on economic action and firm behaviour in a restless disequilibrium and endogenous technological change (Nelson and Winter 1982). Within such a restless capitalistic society, new firms play a central role in economic development. As a consequence, economic as well as management researchers has increased their interest in entrepreneurship and industrial dynamics. The emergence and growth new firms have been found to relate to both the introduction and diffusion of new knowledge, innovations, as well as generators of new employment. The growth of new firms is hence vital to understand from the perspective of industrial dynamic throughout the process of Schumpeterian competition and technological evolution and in the longer perspective, economic growth. The thesis is structured around the general, puzzling phenomenon of the relative absence of growing firms within this specific technological and industrial context. In order to investigate the research problem a theoretical framework is put together along two main dimensions. The first consists of a review of the research field of firm growth including such as entrepreneurial and organizational aspects. The second dimension provides a theoretical outline regarding the specific industrial and institutional environment and thus presents a context in which these new firms evolve. The focus within this thesis is primarily on the growth of the individual business organizations. The initial research problem centres around the empirically evident relative low growth rates of bioscience based firms. As a consequence of this low growth rate of firms, the industrial dynamics is instead shaped by entries of new actors, creating a highly turbulent industry. According to the dominant theories of the firm, the reasons for performing activities within the institutional form of a business organization, resulting in economic advantages of being inside the boundaries. Such knowledge and innovation based competition should be seen in the context of the firm’s unique trajectory and as a process of accumulation of associated specific capabilities and distinctive competences. Innovation is thus a process of knowledge accumulation of both internal and external learning, influenced by the specific context in which the firm resides. The lack of growth of new knowledge intensive firms within this specific industry is thus found in the complexities of knowledge accumulation as generating firm capabilities for further actions. The pressure on innovativeness and the ability for firms both to foster and take advantages of knowledge raises several issues regarding growth of knowledge intensive business organizations. Altogether understanding firm growth within this context might potentially be seen as role models for increasingly knowledge intensive firms within other industries. Even with more modest implications such findings might have profound effect when limited to the studied industrial context.
  • Mattsson, Eskil, 1981-, et al. (författare)
  • REDD+ readiness implications for Sri Lanka in terms of reducing deforestation
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Management. - 0301-4797. ; 100:15 June 2012, s. 29-40
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Any system to compensate countries for reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) requires a historical reference level against which future performance can be measured. Here we examine the possibilities Sri Lanka, a small forest country with limited data on forest carbon stocks, has to get ready for REDD+. We construct a historical reference level using available forest inventory data combined with updated 2008 and 2009 in situ carbon density data for Sri Lankan forests. Furthermore, we use a combination of qualitative and quantitative data to attribute the clearing of Sri Lankan forests in the latest years for which national forest inventory data are available, 1992–1996, to various proximate drivers and to estimate the opportunity cost of forest conservation. We estimate that baseline deforestation emissions in Sri Lanka amounted to 17 MtCO2 yr−1 in the 1992–1996 period, but conclude that it is challenging for Sri Lanka to produce a robust and accurate reference level due to the lack of nationally based inventories. We find that the majority of forest clearing (87%) is due to small-scale, rainfed farming, with the two other major drivers being rice and tea cultivation. Further, Sri Lankan revenues from REDD+ participation could be substantial, but they are sensitive to REDD+ policy transaction cost, highly uncertain timber revenues, and particularly the carbon price paid for emission reductions. The latter needs to be higher than $5–10/tCO2 if there are to be substantial incentives for Sri Lanka to participate in REDD+. There is, however, a large gap in the knowledge of deforestation drivers that needs to be filled if Sri Lanka is to formulate an effective policy response to forest degradation in REDD+. For successful REDD+ implementation in Sri Lanka to happen, technological assistance, readiness assistance, and continued political momentum are crucial.
  • Bryngelsson, David, 1981- (författare)
  • On Food Price Implications from Expanded Bioenergy Production
  • 2012
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Bioenergy has been put forward as a solution to energy security and at the same time to climate change. It is, however, dependent on productive agricultural land, which is a limited resource. Introduction of bioenergy on a large scale will thus compete with food production and natural forests for productive land, a competition expected to affect food prices. In this thesis I focus on poverty nourishment issues related to changing food prices and on the mechanisms of land-use competition and how they affect food prices. In the first paper we use two established indicators for poverty and sensitivity to food-price changes, to capture peoples' vulnerability to rising food-prices, in four Sub-Sahara African countries/regions. In contrast to previous studies, we include all food products instead of just one or a few main staples. We found that the vast majority of people are net consumers of food and that the inclusion of more than main staples increases their net position as consumers and thus vulnerability to high food prices. In paper two and three a conceptual and transparent partial equilibrium model of global land-use competition is developed, analyzed and applied. The model is to a large degree analytically explored and price differentials between crops are derived. The model is subjected to a detailed characterization of its mechanisms and parameters in which parameters that are critical to results and conclusions from the model are detected and their impacts depicted. We conclude that the total amount of productive agricultural area is of crucial importance to the price impacts from large-scale introduction of bioenergy. Yields of bioenergy crops are also important since they determine the amount of land required to produce the bioenergy.
  • Brink, Johan, 1976-, et al. (författare)
  • Why do firms change? Sequences of opportunity and changes in business models and capabilities in bioscience firms
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: RIDE working paper series. ; :84426-015
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Our paper sets out to explain how firms change and acts upon additional opportunities by analysing the development of three young bioscience firms by focusing on the relationship between experimentation of their business models and the capabilities that these firms gradually develop over time. We show that only by combining the initial technological capability with a more generic business capability, these firms were able to fully develop and pursue the initially perceived opportunity. Our analysis of these bioscience firms also reveal that the linkages between the initial technological capabilities that these companies develop are only indirectly related to subsequent opportunities acted upon. As the initial opportunity increasingly becomes economically or technologically irrelevant, the more recently acquired generic capabilities provided the firms with the ability to act upon new technological opportunities. That is, the initial technological capability of the firm is frequently not directly linked to the second pursued opportunity. We infer that as these initial capabilities generally are very technologically based they are also rather specific. Instead the link is by the necessary creation of the additional, and indeed more generic, capability within the firm. As these firms develop they are hence continuously leveraging only parts of their accumulated capabilities, meaning that they are both path-dependent and path-breaking in their development. The paper argues that a firm-based analysis of the development of capabilities and business models is warranted as a complement to the numerous sector-level studies of the biosciences. The internalist perspective of the co-evolution of capabilities and business models developed here cannot be substituted by industry or environmental explanations.
  • Lagrosen, Yvonne, 1966-, et al. (författare)
  • Kvalitetsutveckling i sjukvården
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: HEL : hälso- och sjukvårdens ekonomi och logistik. - Göteborg : Sahlgrenska akademin vid Göteborgs universitet. - 91-976136-0-6 ; s. 112-121
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Stenberg, Ann-Charlotte, 1967- (författare)
  • The Social Construction of Green Building: Diachronic and Synchronic Perspectives
  • 2006
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Abstract Although environmental issues have been on the agendas of governments, businesses and scientists for at least three decades, there still remain conceptual difficulties concerning what ‘environment’ or ‘green’ actually encompass. The concepts are in constant flux, shifting as actors who represent different social relevant groups struggle to find support for their specific interests. The overall aim of this research is to contribute new insight concerning the processes through which environmental issues are represented and given meaning in the Swedish building sector. To fulfill this purpose, three research questions have been formulated, all of them focusing on different organizational levels: how are environmental issues (1) framed? (2) made sense of?, and (3) acted upon? Furthermore, to understand the social construction of green building, the topic has been addressed from a diachronic and a synchronic perspective. The thesis draws on theories of social construction of technology, institutional change, travel of ideas, sensemaking and identity construction to explicate the qualitative empirical data, which is mainly collected through interviews, written documents, and field observations. Green building is a contested discursive terrain, where relevant groups struggle for the preferential right of interpretation of ‘green.’ The plurality of meanings enacted in several distinct logics can result in widely differing problem formulations and contradictory solutions. On organizational level, contesting views may mobilize counter-action or non-action, which is destructive for strategic environmental work. The trade magazines bias towards technical measures and their proclivity toward traditional definitions regarding environmental impacts may lock practitioners into a technocratic logic. Environmental areas that are not formulated areas of key concern risk being taken for granted, i.e., being black-boxed. Accordingly, development within these areas may stagnate, especially since those who make strategic environmental decisions in the companies are not the same people who possess environmental expertise. For environmental issues to be enacted at all levels of a company, the environmental experts would need to be empowered with a decision-making mandate. To succeed, the environmental work has to be given adequate resources and also be legitimized by the business management. To conclude, there is no one ‘true’ notion of ‘green building.’ Instead, it is a social construct with multiple interpretations, which is not only a constraint, but may also function as a driver for change and development.
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