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Sökning: AMNE:(SOCIAL SCIENCES Business and economics) > (2010-2011) > Tidskriftsartikel > Linköpings universitet

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1.
  • Aronsson, Håkan, 1961-, et al. (författare)
  • Managing health care decisions and improvement through simulation modeling
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Quality Management in Health Care. - 1063-8628. ; 20:1, s. 15-29
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Simulation modeling is a way to test changes in a computerized environment to give ideas for improvements before implementation. This article reviews research literature on simulation modeling as support for health care decision making. The aim is to investigate the experience and potential value of such decision support and quality of articles retrieved. A literature search was conducted, and the selection criteria yielded 59 articles derived from diverse applications and methods. Most met the stated research-quality criteria. This review identified how simulation can facilitate decision making and that it may induce learning. Furthermore, simulation offers immediate feedback about proposed changes, allows analysis of scenarios, and promotes communication on building a shared system view and understanding of how a complex system works. However, only 14 of the 59 articles reported on implementation experiences, including how decision making was supported. On the basis of these articles, we proposed steps essential for the success of simulation projects, not just in the computer, but also in clinical reality. We also presented a novel concept combining simulation modeling with the established plan-do-study-act cycle for improvement. Future scientific inquiries concerning implementation, impact, and the value for health care management are needed to realize the full potential of simulation modeling.
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2.
  • Hansson, Lisa, et al. (författare)
  • Bypassing public procurement regulation : a study of rationality inlocal decision making
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Regulation and Governance. - Blackwell. - 1748-5983. ; 5:3, s. 368-385
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Using private contractors through procurement is common in most public sector areas. Despite the benefits of procurement, officials are sometimes tempted to circumvent procurement regulations. The aim of the article is to examine strategies used by local governmental decision makers to bypass procurement regulations, analyzing the rationality underlying their actions. Interviews, court documents, municipal documents, and articles describing the actions of Swedish municipal officials concerning special transport service (STS) procurements were collected and analyzed. In a case in which rural municipalities lost regular taxi services after STS procurement, we demonstrate how decisions were driven by pressure from the public and local interest groups, making municipal officials deviate from procurement regulations in striving to secure the existence of regular taxi services. One outcome was that local businesses were given preferential treatment, violating regulations and reducing economic efficiency.
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3.
  • Ahmed, Ali, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • Sexual orientation and occupational rank
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Economics Bulletin. - 1545-2921. ; 31:3, s. 2422-2433
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper presents a study of differences in occupational rank between gay and heterosexual males as well as between lesbian and heterosexual females. We estimate different specifications of an ordered probit model on register data from Sweden. Our data consist of married heterosexual men and women and homosexual men and women living in civil unions. We find that homosexual men have a lower probability of working in a profession demanding a longer university education or a management profession than heterosexual men. In contrast, we find that homosexual women are more likely than heterosexual women to work in such professions.
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4.
  • Ahmed, Ali, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • Can discrimination in the housing market be reduced by increasing the information about the applicants?
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Land Economics. - 0023-7639. ; 86:1, s. 79-90
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We investigate how increasing the information about applicants affects discrimination in the rental housing market. We let four fictitious applicants, two with typical Arab/Muslim names and two with typical Swedish names, use application letters containing different amounts of information to apply for apartments over the Internet in Sweden. The Arab/Muslim applicants received fewer responses from the landlords than did the Swedish applicants. All of the applicants gained by providing more information about themselves, but the amount of discrimination against the Arab/Muslim applicants remained unchanged, indicating that increasing the amount of information about the applicants will not reduce discrimination.
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5.
  • Ahmed, Ali, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • Inter- and intra-household earnings differentials among homosexual and heterosexual couples
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Industrial Relations. - Blackwell Publishing Ltd/London School of Economics. - 0007-1080. ; 49:s2, s. s258-s278
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present earnings differentials between homosexuals and heterosexuals. In line with previous research, we find that gay males earn less than heterosexual males, and that lesbians earn more than heterosexual females. However, when combining the individuals into households, our results are strikingly different: very small earnings differentials between gay households and heterosexual households are found. Lesbian households earn considerably less. The largest earnings inequalities between spouses are found among gay males followed by heterosexuals. Studying sexual orientation and earnings is complex, and household earnings have to be taken into consideration when conclusions are drawn.
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6.
  • Ahmed, Ali, 1977- (författare)
  • Muslim discrimination: : Evidence from two lost letter experiments
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Applied Social Psychology. - 0021-9029. ; 40:4, s. 888-898
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Since the 9/11 terrorist attacks, there has been considerable concern about whether Muslims living in Western countries are targets of prejudice. A considerable amount of survey-based evidence suggests that Muslims are victims of discrimination. This paper tested this hypothesis. Two lost-letter experiments were conducted to test whether the difference in returned letters would be attributable to whether the addressee was Muslim or Swedish. The results show that Muslims receive far fewer letters than do Swedes. However, this discrimination only appears when the lost letters contain money; in which case, the finder gains by not posting the letter.
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7.
  • Ahmed, Ali, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • Sexual orientation and earnings: : A register data-based approach to identify homosexuals
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Population Economics. - 0933-1433. ; 23:3, s. 835-849
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper examines earnings differentials between homo- and heterosexual individuals by identifying sexual orientation with the help of information from register data. Register data enable us to avoid the misclassifications of sexual orientation often mentioned as a potential bias in survey-based studies. The results show that gay men are at an earnings disadvantage as compared to male heterosexuals while the earnings differential between lesbians and heterosexual women is very small. Our results are in line with results from previous research but are more reliable since we use a more reliable measure of sexual orientation than previous research.
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8.
  • Ahmed, Ali, 1977- (författare)
  • What is in a surname? The role of ethnicity in economic decision making
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Applied Economics. - Routledge. - 0003-6846. ; 42:21, s. 2715-2723
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article reports results from two experiments that investigate possible incidence of discrimination against people with foreign backgrounds in Sweden. In the first experiment, participants played the trust game and the dictator game with co-players of different ethnic affiliation. The family name of the players was exposed to their co-players. Results for the trust game showed no significant discrimination against co-players with foreign backgrounds. On the other hand, the results for the dictator game showed a statistically significant discriminatory behaviour by men against co-players with non-European backgrounds. The discriminatory behaviour was solely a male phenomenon. In the second experiment, the dictator game was replicated to check the stability of the results in the first experiment. The second experiment also examined whether people with foreign backgrounds discriminate against other people with foreign backgrounds; that is, the purpose was to discover whether discrimination is systematic. The observations in the second experiment underlined the results found in the first experiment: foreign co-players are discriminated against by Swedish players. However, we did not find that people with foreign backgrounds discriminated against other people with foreign backgrounds.
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9.
  • Bienkowska, Dzamila, et al. (författare)
  • Brain circulation and flexible adjustment:
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Geografiska Annaler. Series B. Human Geography. - 0435-3684. ; 93:1, s. 21-39
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article explores the role of labour mobility as a potential cluster advantage. We review the theoretical arguments as for how and why labour mobility could enhance the dynamism and performance of clusters of similar and related firms. A combination of quantitative and qualitative data from two information and communication technology (ICT) clusters is used to answer two research questions: (1) What is the role of mobility enhancing (or restricting) institutions in clusters? and (2) In what ways does labour mobility contribute to knowledge transfer within clusters? The two ICT clusters studied in the article generally seem to have higher levels of mobility, compared to the labour market at large. Although it is regarded as beneficial in theory, most cluster firms try to restrict mobility of workers since they fear the risk and costs of losing staff. Labour mobility is also rarely viewed as a viable way to increase the knowledge bases or contact networks of firms. However, when firms need to recruit the clustered labour markets seem to benefit them by facilitating the use of informal recruitment processes. By way of conclusion it is suggested that cluster firms might be under-investing in mobility and that innovative institutional solutions could help realize clusters mobility potential.
10.
  • Ekman, Inger, et al. (författare)
  • Person-centered care - Ready for prime time.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: European journal of cardiovascular nursing : journal of the Working Group on Cardiovascular Nursing of the European Society of Cardiology. - 1873-1953. ; 10:4, s. 248-251
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Long-term diseases are today the leading cause of mortality worldwide and are estimated to be the leading cause of disability by 2020. Person-centered care (PCC) has been shown to advance concordance between care provider and patient on treatment plans, improve health outcomes and increase patient satisfaction. Yet, despite these and other documented benefits, there are a variety of significant challenges to putting PCC into clinical practice. Although care providers today broadly acknowledge PCC to be an important part of care, in our experience we must establish routines that initiate, integrate, and safeguard PCC in daily clinical practice to ensure that PCC is systematically and consistently practiced, i.e. not just when we feel we have time for it. In this paper, we propose a few simple routines to facilitate and safeguard the transition to PCC. We believe that if conscientiously and systematically applied, they will help to make PCC the focus and mainstay of care in long-term illness.
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