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Sökning: AMNE:(SOCIAL SCIENCES Business and economics) > (2010-2011) > Tidskriftsartikel > Linköpings universitet

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1.
  • Aronsson, Håkan, 1961-, et al. (författare)
  • Managing health care decisions and improvement through simulation modeling
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Quality Management in Health Care. - 1063-8628. ; 20:1, s. 15-29
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Simulation modeling is a way to test changes in a computerized environment to give ideas for improvements before implementation. This article reviews research literature on simulation modeling as support for health care decision making. The aim is to investigate the experience and potential value of such decision support and quality of articles retrieved. A literature search was conducted, and the selection criteria yielded 59 articles derived from diverse applications and methods. Most met the stated research-quality criteria. This review identified how simulation can facilitate decision making and that it may induce learning. Furthermore, simulation offers immediate feedback about proposed changes, allows analysis of scenarios, and promotes communication on building a shared system view and understanding of how a complex system works. However, only 14 of the 59 articles reported on implementation experiences, including how decision making was supported. On the basis of these articles, we proposed steps essential for the success of simulation projects, not just in the computer, but also in clinical reality. We also presented a novel concept combining simulation modeling with the established plan-do-study-act cycle for improvement. Future scientific inquiries concerning implementation, impact, and the value for health care management are needed to realize the full potential of simulation modeling.
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2.
  • Bienkowska, Dzamila, et al. (författare)
  • Brain circulation and flexible adjustment:
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Geografiska Annaler. Series B. Human Geography. - 0435-3684. ; 93:1, s. 21-39
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article explores the role of labour mobility as a potential cluster advantage. We review the theoretical arguments as for how and why labour mobility could enhance the dynamism and performance of clusters of similar and related firms. A combination of quantitative and qualitative data from two information and communication technology (ICT) clusters is used to answer two research questions: (1) What is the role of mobility enhancing (or restricting) institutions in clusters? and (2) In what ways does labour mobility contribute to knowledge transfer within clusters? The two ICT clusters studied in the article generally seem to have higher levels of mobility, compared to the labour market at large. Although it is regarded as beneficial in theory, most cluster firms try to restrict mobility of workers since they fear the risk and costs of losing staff. Labour mobility is also rarely viewed as a viable way to increase the knowledge bases or contact networks of firms. However, when firms need to recruit the clustered labour markets seem to benefit them by facilitating the use of informal recruitment processes. By way of conclusion it is suggested that cluster firms might be under-investing in mobility and that innovative institutional solutions could help realize clusters mobility potential.
3.
  • Gremyr, Ida, 1975-, et al. (författare)
  • Service Innovation in Manufacturing Firms
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Managing Service Quality. - 0960-4529. ; 20:2, s. 161-175
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to identify and describe certain critical dimensions related to service innovation in manufacturing firms. The paper focuses on dimensions related to the service transition, the offering and the development project. Design/methodology/approach - A multiple case study was conducted in order to trace specific service innovations and to explore critical dimensions and events throughout their development. A total of 16 interviews were held, covering service innovations in SKF, Volvo Buses, and Volvo Trucks. Findings - Each of the three service innovations studied are examples of recombinative innovations. While there are some differences in terms of what is innovative, a common theme is the bundling of technology and services. Recombinative innovation opens up the possibility to combine standardization and customization, which has been identified as a success factor for services in manufacturing companies. Originality/value - Although a large number of manufacturing firms are introducing services to utilize the entire life-cycle of the installed base, there is a shortage of literature that includes elaborate empirical accounts of service innovations in manufacturing firms. The study expands the scope for viewing service innovation by not only focusing on the offering but also taking into account service transition and the development project.
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4.
  • Tinghög, Gustav, 1979-, et al. (författare)
  • Individual responsibility for what?
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Health Economics, Policy and Law. - Cambridge University Press. - 1744-1331. ; 5:2, s. 201-223
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Policymakers in publicly funded health-care systems are frequently required to make intricate decisions on which health-care services to include or exclude from the basic health-care package. Although it seems likely that the concept of individual responsibility is an essential feature of such decisions, it is rarely explicitly articulated or evaluated in health policy. This paper presents a tentative conceptual framwork for exploring when health-care services contain characteristics that facilitate individual responsibility through private financing. Six attributes for exploring the suitability of private financing for specific health-care commodities are identified: (i) it should enable individuals to value the need and quality both before and after utilization; (ii) it should be targeted toward individuals with a reasonable level of individual autonomy; (iii) it should be associated with low levels of positive externalities; (iv) it should be associated with a demand sufficient to generate a private market; (v) it should be associated with payments affordable for most individuals; and finally, (vi) it should be associated with 'lifestyle enhancements' rather than 'medical necessities'. The tentative framework enables exploration of individual responsibility connected to health care as a heterogeneous group of commodities, and allows policymakers to make decisions on rationing by design rather than default.
5.
  • Westelius, Alf, et al. (författare)
  • Prismodeller - en taxonomi
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Ekonomiska samfundets tidskrift. - 0013-3183. ; 63:3, s. 175-190
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Det sätt som ett företag utformar sina prismodeller på, det vill säga hur det tar betalt försina erbjudanden, påverkar dess konkurrenskraft. Syftet med denna artikel är att skapaen taxonomi som kan användas för att identifiera möjliga prismodeller och diskuteraderas tillämpning. Taxonomin kan också användas för att jämföra verkliga och möjligaalternativ för prissättning och ge underlag för vad som behöver utvecklas för att en vissprismodell skall kunna tillämpas i framtiden. Artikeln är ett resultat av ett kollaborativtforskningsprojekt mellan telekomföretaget Ericsson och Linköpings Universitet. Taxonominbestår av fem dimensioner: erbjudandets omfattning, köparens rättigheter, prisformel,prisbestämningsmekanism samt informationsunderlag.
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6.
  • Ahmed, Ali, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • Sexual orientation and occupational rank
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Economics Bulletin. - 1545-2921. ; 31:3, s. 2422-2433
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper presents a study of differences in occupational rank between gay and heterosexual males as well as between lesbian and heterosexual females. We estimate different specifications of an ordered probit model on register data from Sweden. Our data consist of married heterosexual men and women and homosexual men and women living in civil unions. We find that homosexual men have a lower probability of working in a profession demanding a longer university education or a management profession than heterosexual men. In contrast, we find that homosexual women are more likely than heterosexual women to work in such professions.
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7.
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8.
  • Ahmed, Ali, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • Inter- and intra-household earnings differentials among homosexual and heterosexual couples
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Industrial Relations. - Blackwell Publishing Ltd/London School of Economics. - 0007-1080. ; 49:s2, s. s258-s278
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present earnings differentials between homosexuals and heterosexuals. In line with previous research, we find that gay males earn less than heterosexual males, and that lesbians earn more than heterosexual females. However, when combining the individuals into households, our results are strikingly different: very small earnings differentials between gay households and heterosexual households are found. Lesbian households earn considerably less. The largest earnings inequalities between spouses are found among gay males followed by heterosexuals. Studying sexual orientation and earnings is complex, and household earnings have to be taken into consideration when conclusions are drawn.
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9.
  • Ahmed, Ali, 1977- (författare)
  • Muslim discrimination: : Evidence from two lost letter experiments
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Applied Social Psychology. - 0021-9029. ; 40:4, s. 888-898
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Since the 9/11 terrorist attacks, there has been considerable concern about whether Muslims living in Western countries are targets of prejudice. A considerable amount of survey-based evidence suggests that Muslims are victims of discrimination. This paper tested this hypothesis. Two lost-letter experiments were conducted to test whether the difference in returned letters would be attributable to whether the addressee was Muslim or Swedish. The results show that Muslims receive far fewer letters than do Swedes. However, this discrimination only appears when the lost letters contain money; in which case, the finder gains by not posting the letter.
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