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Träfflista för sökning "AMNE:(SOCIAL SCIENCES Business and economics) srt2:(2010-2011);mspu:(article);lar1:(liu);conttype:(refereed)"

Sökning: AMNE:(SOCIAL SCIENCES Business and economics) > (2010-2011) > Tidskriftsartikel > Linköpings universitet > Refereegranskat

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1.
  • Forsberg, HH, et al. (författare)
  • Managing health care decisions and improvement through simulation modeling
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Quality Management in Health Care. - 1063-8628. ; 20:1, s. 15-29
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Simulation modeling is a way to test changes in a computerized environment to give ideas for improvements before implementation. This article reviews research literature on simulation modeling as support for health care decision making. The aim is to investigate the experience and potential value of such decision support and quality of articles retrieved. A literature search was conducted, and the selection criteria yielded 59 articles derived from diverse applications and methods. Most met the stated research-quality criteria. This review identified how simulation can facilitate decision making and that it may induce learning. Furthermore, simulation offers immediate feedback about proposed changes, allows analysis of scenarios, and promotes communication on building a shared system view and understanding of how a complex system works. However, only 14 of the 59 articles reported on implementation experiences, including how decision making was supported. On the basis of these articles, we proposed steps essential for the success of simulation projects, not just in the computer, but also in clinical reality. We also presented a novel concept combining simulation modeling with the established plan-do-study-act cycle for improvement. Future scientific inquiries concerning implementation, impact, and the value for health care management are needed to realize the full potential of simulation modeling.
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2.
  • Heshmati, Almas, et al. (författare)
  • Effective Corporate Tax Rates and the Size Distribution of Firms
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade. - 1566-1679. ; 10:3, s. 297-317
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We analyze the effects of effective corporate tax rates on the size distribution of firms. In modelling this relationship we account for conditional variables as well as unobservable time and industry effects. A number of hypotheses are tested concerning heterogeneity in the impact of effective corporate tax rates on the size distributions of firms with regard to firm size class, industry and time. The results are based on data covering the whole Swedish economy for the period 1973–2002. The descriptive results suggest that effective corporate tax rates differ by firm size, industry and over time. Application of t-tests demonstrate inequality in mean and variance of effective corporate tax rates between major size classes but not within major size classes: smaller firms report a higher effective corporate tax rate than larger firms. The t-tests also demonstrate inequality in mean and variance of effective corporate tax rates between industrial sectors: service sector reports a higher effective corporate tax rate than production sector. The regressions show effective corporate tax rates to have: a negative effect on the size distribution of large firms, negative effect on transportation, financing and service sector and a positive effect on manufacturing, electricity and on production sector. We conclude that effective corporate tax rates affect the size distribution of firms as well as the composition of industries.
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3.
  • Bienkowska, Dzamila, et al. (författare)
  • Brain circulation and flexible adjustment: Labour mobility as a cluster advantage
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Geografiska Annaler. Series B. Human Geography. - 0435-3684. ; 93:1, s. 21-39
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article explores the role of labour mobility as a potential cluster advantage. We review the theoretical arguments as for how and why labour mobility could enhance the dynamism and performance of clusters of similar and related firms. A combination of quantitative and qualitative data from two information and communication technology (ICT) clusters is used to answer two research questions: (1) What is the role of mobility enhancing (or restricting) institutions in clusters? and (2) In what ways does labour mobility contribute to knowledge transfer within clusters? The two ICT clusters studied in the article generally seem to have higher levels of mobility, compared to the labour market at large. Although it is regarded as beneficial in theory, most cluster firms try to restrict mobility of workers since they fear the risk and costs of losing staff. Labour mobility is also rarely viewed as a viable way to increase the knowledge bases or contact networks of firms. However, when firms need to recruit the clustered labour markets seem to benefit them by facilitating the use of informal recruitment processes. By way of conclusion it is suggested that cluster firms might be under-investing in mobility and that innovative institutional solutions could help realize clusters mobility potential.
4.
  • Westelius, Alf, et al. (författare)
  • Prismodeller – en taxonomi
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Ekonomiska samfundets tidskrift. - 0013-3183. ; :3, s. 175-190
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Det sätt som ett företag utformar sina prismodeller på, det vill säga hur det tar betalt försina erbjudanden, påverkar dess konkurrenskraft. Syftet med denna artikel är att skapaen taxonomi som kan användas för att identifiera möjliga prismodeller och diskuteraderas tillämpning. Taxonomin kan också användas för att jämföra verkliga och möjligaalternativ för prissättning och ge underlag för vad som behöver utvecklas för att en vissprismodell skall kunna tillämpas i framtiden. Artikeln är ett resultat av ett kollaborativtforskningsprojekt mellan telekomföretaget Ericsson och Linköpings Universitet. Taxonominbestår av fem dimensioner: erbjudandets omfattning, köparens rättigheter, prisformel,prisbestämningsmekanism samt informationsunderlag
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5.
  • Hansson, Lisa, et al. (författare)
  • Bypassing public procurement regulation a study of rationality inlocal decision making
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Regulation and Governance. - Blackwell. - 1748-5983. ; 5:3, s. 368-385
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Using private contractors through procurement is common in most public sector areas. Despite the benefits of procurement, officials are sometimes tempted to circumvent procurement regulations. The aim of the article is to examine strategies used by local governmental decision makers to bypass procurement regulations, analyzing the rationality underlying their actions. Interviews, court documents, municipal documents, and articles describing the actions of Swedish municipal officials concerning special transport service (STS) procurements were collected and analyzed. In a case in which rural municipalities lost regular taxi services after STS procurement, we demonstrate how decisions were driven by pressure from the public and local interest groups, making municipal officials deviate from procurement regulations in striving to secure the existence of regular taxi services. One outcome was that local businesses were given preferential treatment, violating regulations and reducing economic efficiency.
6.
  • Gremyr, Ida, 1975-, et al. (författare)
  • Service Innovations in Manufacturing Firms
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Managing Service Quality. - 0960-4529. ; 20:2, s. 161-175
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to identify and describe certain critical dimensions related to service innovation in manufacturing firms. The paper focuses on dimensions related to the service transition, the offering and the development project. Design/methodology/approach - A multiple case study was conducted in order to trace specific service innovations and to explore critical dimensions and events throughout their development. A total of 16 interviews were held, covering service innovations in SKF, Volvo Buses, and Volvo Trucks. Findings - Each of the three service innovations studied are examples of recombinative innovations. While there are some differences in terms of what is innovative, a common theme is the bundling of technology and services. Recombinative innovation opens up the possibility to combine standardization and customization, which has been identified as a success factor for services in manufacturing companies. Originality/value - Although a large number of manufacturing firms are introducing services to utilize the entire life-cycle of the installed base, there is a shortage of literature that includes elaborate empirical accounts of service innovations in manufacturing firms. The study expands the scope for viewing service innovation by not only focusing on the offering but also taking into account service transition and the development project.
7.
  • Nordin, Fredrik, 1967-, et al. (författare)
  • Solutions offerings a critical review and reconceptualisation
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Service Management. - 1757-5818. ; 21:4, s. 441-459
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose – To offer a critical analysis of the literature of solutions offerings; to provide a new conceptual framework, incorporating dimensions that can distinguish between different kinds of solutions, and connect their different characteristics.Design/Methodology/Approach – A critical review of the relevant literature, both 28 contributions identified in a search of three major databases and a range of other published work for the broader perspective, illustrated by real-world examples.Findings – There is no unanimous and rigorous definition of solutions, but rather a number of often broad and generic descriptions that could be applied to a wide array of different offerings, if not generically.Research Limitations/Implications – The sample of subject-specific contributions to the literature may not have been sufficient, and a wider selection of keywords to identify them might have captured a richer variety of concepts and opinions.Originality/Value – This structured and critical review contributes to the literature on services and solutions, by developing a conceptual framework as a basis for future studies and current management strategy.
8.
  • Ahmed, Ali, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • Sexual orientation and occupational rank
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Economics Bulletin. - 1545-2921. ; 31:3, s. 2422-2433
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper presents a study of differences in occupational rank between gay and heterosexual males as well as between lesbian and heterosexual females. We estimate different specifications of an ordered probit model on register data from Sweden. Our data consist of married heterosexual men and women and homosexual men and women living in civil unions. We find that homosexual men have a lower probability of working in a profession demanding a longer university education or a management profession than heterosexual men. In contrast, we find that homosexual women are more likely than heterosexual women to work in such professions.
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9.
  • Nordin, Fredrik, et al. (författare)
  • Building a new supply chain position : an exploratory study of companies in the timber housing industry
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Construction Management and Economics. - 0144-6193. ; 28:10, s. 1071-1083
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Innovation is an important source of growth for many companies. It is also challenging, as it may require that the companies build a new position in the supply chain. The literature is devoid of analysis of different ways to build such positions in the construction industry. The purpose here is to explore the challenges involved in implementing innovations that require companies to establish new positions in a construction supply chain. Three in-depth case studies in the Swedish timber housing industry illustrate different challenges that arise with the different modes of repositioning of organic growth, collaboration and acquisition, and with moving either backward or forward in the supply chain. Organic growth is a slow process that prevents companies from taking a first-mover advantage. Acquisitions can involve difficulties with exploiting acquired competences. Collaboration brings the risks of diversity of interests and transient solutions. Furthermore, and as shown in the cases studied, challenges are associated with pre-existing competencies and relationships, with technology-oriented companies facing customer-related difficulties and market-oriented companies mainly facing ones involving technological solutions. The construction industry's idiosyncrasies amplify these challenges, as its fragmentation makes it difficult to connect with external companies at new positions. Stronger ties with business partners are likely to enable construction companies to exploit more easily innovations that require repositioning in the supply chain.
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10.
  • Ahmed, Ali, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • Can discrimination in the housing market be reduced by increasing the information about the applicants?
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Land Economics. - 0023-7639. ; 86:1, s. 79-90
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We investigate how increasing the information about applicants affects discrimination in the rental housing market. We let four fictitious applicants, two with typical Arab/Muslim names and two with typical Swedish names, use application letters containing different amounts of information to apply for apartments over the Internet in Sweden. The Arab/Muslim applicants received fewer responses from the landlords than did the Swedish applicants. All of the applicants gained by providing more information about themselves, but the amount of discrimination against the Arab/Muslim applicants remained unchanged, indicating that increasing the amount of information about the applicants will not reduce discrimination.
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