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Sökning: AMNE:(SOCIAL SCIENCES Business and economics) > (2010-2011) > Doktorsavhandling

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1.
  • Trumberg, Anders, 1976- (författare)
  • Den delade skolan
  • 2011
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In the beginning of the 1990s the responsibility for the compulsory schools shifted from the government to the local authorities, a freedom of choice was introduced, and several municipalities brought in a school voucher system. With these changes, the educational system in Sweden went from being one of the world’s most government dominated and unified, to one with a high level of freedom of choice. The overall aim for this study is to explore the interplay between the school choice policy in the compulsory school and the process of integration and segregation on a school level. The aim is also specifically to study to what degree the pupils’ choice of school reflect the schools’ composition, with regards to ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds between 1992 and 2004.The thesis is based on three different kinds of materials; registry data from SCB (Statistics Sweden), the municipality’s data surrounding the school applications, and interviews with civil servants, politicians, and head teachers. In conclusion, the study shows that a divide has emerged between different schools, the make-up of pupils is becoming more homogenous, and the school as a meeting place between different ethnic groups is affected in a negative way. The study also shows that the school choices have an influence on this segregation between the schools. However, there are a small number of exceptions. In certain schools, the ethnic mix of pupils is relatively fair.
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3.
  • Bohlin, Lars (författare)
  • Taxation of intermediate goods
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This dissertation is concerned with tax rates for the use of commodities in general, and energy in particular. Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) models are used to analyze the normative question of whether the tax rate for intermediate use by firms should be the same as the tax rate for final consumption by households. To answer this question, a distinction needs to be made between fiscal taxes for the purpose of raising revenue for the government, and Pigovian taxes for the purpose of changing behaviour. Concerning fiscal taxes, firms should not pay taxes on their use of inputs if the tax rates in final consumption are at their optimal level. If the tax rate for households is above the optimal level, intermediate use in firms should be taxed in order to increase the price of other commodities and reduce the distortion of relative prices. Essay 1 ascertains what factors determine the optimal relation between the tax rate for final consumption by households and intermediate use by firms. Essay 2 analyses Swedish energy taxes from the perspective of reducing global emission of CO2. It is found that the welfare maximizing tax rates are equal for households and firms not participating in emission trading, while firms that participate in emission trading should have a zero tax rate. Essays 3 and 4 deal with methodological issues. Essay 3 derives a new method for estimation of symmetric input-output tables from supply and use tables. This method solves the problem of negative coefficients, makes it possible to use both the industry and commodity technology assumptions simultaneously and enables the commodity technology assumption to be used even when the number of commodities is larger than the number of industries. Essay 4 describes the model used in the first two essays. The price structure developed here makes it possible to take into account price differences between different purchasers other than differences in tax rates. This essay also makes a comparison between the Swedish implementation of this model and other Swedish CGE-models used to analyse climate policy and energy taxation.
4.
  • Sund, Björn (författare)
  • Economic evaluation, value of life, stated preference methodology and determinants of risks
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The first paper examines the value of a statistical life (VSL) for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) victims. We found VSL values to be higher for OHCA victims than for people who die in road traffic accidents and a lower-bound estimate of VSL for OHCA would be in the range of 20 to 30 million Swedish crowns (SEK).The second paper concerns hypothetical bias in contingent valuation (CV) studies. We investigate the link between the determinants and empirical treatment of uncertainty through certainty calibration and find that the higher the confidence of the respondents the more we can trust that stated WTP is correlated to actual WTP.The third paper investigates the performance of two communication aids (a flexible community analogy and an array of dots) in valuing mortality risk reductions for OHCA. The results do not support the prediction of expected utility theory, i.e. that WTP for a mortality risk reduction increases with the amount of risk reduction (weak scope sensitivity), for any of the communication aids.The fourth paper presents a cost-benefit analysis to evaluate the effects of dual dispatch defibrillation by ambulance and fire services in the County of Stockholm. The intervention had positive economic effects, yielding a benefit-cost ratio of 36, a cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) of € 13 000 and the cost per saved life was € 60 000.The fifth paper explores how different response times from OHCA to defibrillation affect patients’ survival rates by using geographic information systems (GIS). The model predicted a baseline survival rate of 3.9% and reducing the ambulance response time by 1 minute increased survival to 4.6%.The sixth paper analyzes demographic determinants of incident experience and risk perception, and the relationship between the two, for eight different risk domains. Males and highly educated respondents perceive their risks lower than what is expected compared to actual incident experience.
5.
  • Pham Khanh, Nam, 1975- (författare)
  • Prosocial Behavior, Social Interaction and Development:
  • 2011
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Paper 1. Funding a New Bridge in Rural Vietnam: A Field Experiment on Conditional Cooperation and Default Contributions The ability to provide public goods is essential for economic and social development, yet there is very limited empirical evidence regarding contributions to a real local public good in developing countries. This paper analyzes a field experiment where 200 households in rural Vietnam could make real contributions to an archetypical public good, a bridge. In particular, we study the role of two kinds of social influence: i) conditional cooperation, i.e., that people may be more willing to cooperate if others do, and ii) the effects of the default alternative, i.e., that people are influenced by the default alternative presented to them in the choice situation. We find significant and substantial effects of both kinds of influence. For example, by either giving the subjects the additional information that one of the most common contributions by others is 100,000 dong (a relatively low contribution) or introducing a zero-contribution default alternative, the average contribution decreases by about 20% compared to the baseline case. Paper 2. Are Social Preferences Stable over Time? We use a combination of two natural experiments and one field experiment to measure people’s prosocial behavior in terms of voluntary money and labor time contributions to an archetypical public good – a bridge – in rural Vietnam, at three different points in time from 2005 to 2010. Since the experiments are far apart in time, potentially confounding effects of moral licensing and moral cleansing are presumably small, if at all existent. We find a strong positive and statistically significant correlation between voluntary contributions in these experiments, whether correcting for other covariates or not. This result suggests that prosocial preferences are at least partly stable over long periods of time. Paper 3. Conditional Cooperation and Disclosure in Developing Countries Understanding the patterns behind people’s voluntary contributions to public goods is crucial for the broader issues of economic and social development. By using the experimental design by Fischbacher et al. (2001), we investigate distributions of contribution types in developing countries (Colombia and Vietnam) and compare our findings with those previously found in developed countries. We also investigate the effect of introducing disclosure of contribution. Our experiments show that, on average, the distributions of contribution types are similar both in the two countries and compared to previous findings, except for free-riders, and overall remain unaffected by disclosure of contributions. Paper 4. Social Capital and Private Adaptation to Climate Change: Evidence from the Mekong River Delta in Vietnam Farmers in developing countries often face capital constraints in adapting to climate change. Can farmers’ own social capital be utilized to facilitate the adaptation? This study uses four components of social capital – formal institutions, informal institutions, trust, and cooperativeness – to examine whether social capital is systematically linked to adaptation to climate change. The results suggest, in general, that social capital at the individual level does not affect farmers’ private adaptation to climate change. Yet, some forms of social capital are significantly associated with the choice of some particular adaptation measures. Paper 5. Are Vietnamese Farmers Concerned with their Relative Position in Society? This paper examines the attitude towards relative position or status among rural households in Vietnam. On average, respondents show rather weak preferences for relative position. Possible explanations are the emphasis on the importance of equality and that villagers are very concerned with how the local community perceives their actions. We also investigate what influences the concern for relative position and find, among other things, that if anyone from the household is a member of the Peoples Committee then the respondent is more concerned with the relative position.
6.
  • Vondolia, Godwin Kofi, 1976- (författare)
  • Essays on Natural Resource Economics
  • 2011
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Paper 1: Enforcement of exogenous environmental regulation, social disapproval and bribery Many resource users are not directly involved in the formulation and enforcement of resource management rules and regulations in developing countries. As a result, resource users do not generally accept such rules. An enforcement officer who has social ties with the resource users may encounter social disapproval and possible social exclusion from the resource users if he/she enforces the regulation zealously. The officer, however, may avoid this social disapproval by accepting bribes. In this paper, we present a simple model that characterizes this situation and derive results for situations where the officer is passively and actively involved in the bribery. Paper 2: Bioeconomic model of spatial fishery management in developing countries Fishers in developing countries do not have the resources to acquire advanced technologies to exploit offshore fish stocks. As a result, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea requires countries to sign partnership agreements with distant water fishing nations (DWFNs) to exploit offshore stocks. However, for migratory stocks, the offshore may serve as a natural marine reserve (i.e. a source) to the inshore (i.e. sink); hence these partnership agreements generate spatial externality. In this paper, we present a bioeconomic model in which a social planner uses a landing tax (ad valorem tax) to internalize this spatial externality. We found that the tax must reflect the biological connectivity between the two patches, intrinsic growth rate, the price of fish, cost per unit effort and social discount rate. The results are empirically illustrated using data on Ghana. Paper 3: What do respondents bring into contingent valuation? A comparison of monetary and labour payment vehicles In the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), both the goods being valued and the payment vehicles used to value them are mostly hypothetical. However, although numerous studies have examined the impact of experience with the good on the willingness to pay, less attention has been given to experience with the payment vehicles. This paper examines how experience with payment vehicles influences responses to a CV scenario on the maintenance of irrigation canals. Specifically, the paper uses a split-sample survey to investigate the effects of experience with monetary and labour payment vehicles on the acceptance of a CV scenario and protest bids. Using convergent validity tests, we found that experience acquired from using both monetary and labour payment vehicles reduces the asymmetries in acceptance rates. These findings suggest that experience with payment vehicles reduces time/money response asymmetries in the CVM. Paper 4: Nudging Boserup? The impact of fertilizer subsidies on investment in soil and water conservation The new fertilizer subsidies in Sub-Saharan Africa are intended to increase agricultural production and ensure fertilizer market development. Fertilizer adoption requires complementary inputs such as investment in soil and water conservation for efficient and optimal nutrient uptake, and many fertilizer subsidy programmes implicitly assume that fertilizer subsidies crowd in such investments. The present study, therefore, evaluates the impact of fertilizer subsidies on the provision of soil and water conservation efforts in Ghana. The results indicate that beneficiaries of the studied fertilizer subsidy programme do not invest significantly more in soil and water conservation, which advises against excessive reliance on farmers to respond to fertilizer subsidies with substantial investment in soil and water conservation. Thus, in order to achieve increased investment in soil and water conservation for sustainable agricultural development, more comprehensive measures that include these investments explicitly (such as integrated soil fertility management programmes) may be needed.
7.
  • Gunnarsson, Claes, 1967- (författare)
  • Value creation and loyalty in exchange relationships : a dynamic perspective
  • 2011
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This marketing dissertation focuses on the troublesome aspects of value creation in dynamic business relations including in relation to internal and external customers. The research field points out that relationship-mediated value creation emerges in various forms of organizational arrangements, inter-organizational settings, service systems and networks.The aim of this dissertation is to describe and analyze how loyalty and value creation shortfalls influence business relationship dynamics. It is claimed that shortfalls in value creation reflect a discrepancy between anticipated or present performance compared with business partners’ expectations.In this dissertation, a dynamic perspective is applied to substantiate how critical episodes influence the continuity of relationships taking a progressive or regressive course of development. The study focuses on shortfalls in value creation and indicates troublesome aspects in term of the dimensions of customer satisfaction, trust and commitment. Accordingly, it directs attention towards the heterogeneous influence of business relationship dynamics which is caused by loyalty antecedents in specific episodes of value creation shortfalls.The main contribution of this dissertation is a portrayal of 11 different episodes of shortfalls in value creation, which indicates the stabilizing role of loyalty antecedents in different dynamic business relations.In essence, the findings specify that perceived or anticipated shortfalls in value creation imply an increased awareness among managers to account for loyalty antecedents in dynamic relationships. First, shortfalls in value creation are related to discrepancies between value proposition and value change. Second, stability can be achieved by substitution between trust and commitment (i.e. formalization) when there is a lack of value realization or value capture. Third, the formation of managerial commitment in goal congruence is crucial for stability when shortfalls relate to contingencies in the managerial system of control and coordination. The conclusions in this dissertation signify how loyalty antecedents may not be sequentially connected or activated along the relationship development process. In addition, these loyalty antecedents are occasionally inherently inconsistent in continuous and dynamic relationships.This dissertation consists of an extended summary and seven research papers. The applied method is characterized by both multiple and single case study approaches. Furthermore, the qualitative and multidimensional approach used is pertinent to the discussion of value creation and loyalty in contrast to employing a single theory framework.
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8.
  • Lindh, Kristina, 1964- (författare)
  • Reciprocal Engagement : A grounded theory of an interactive process of actions to establish, maintain, and develop an enterprise
  • 2011
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Reciprocal engagement is a theory of a basic social process that addresses how an organization establishes, maintains, and develops its enterprise by focusing on strengthening its relationships with other actors. It rests on the rationale that one’s relationships are foremost dependent on how well one manages to engage others. If one’s own engagement is demonstrated to others, it stimulates them to respond with actions of engagement in return. When they do respond in such a manner, it expresses an appreciation of a relationship and a will to contribute to maintaining it. The process of reciprocal engagement consists of two categories of actions, i.e. convincing manifestation and caring embrace, each of which has three dimensions of actions. The dimensions of convincing manifestation are framing, meriting, and avowing and of caring embrace they are friending, enriching, and opportunizing. Together these actions imply that to influence others’ willingness to act engaged, an actor such as an organization needs to mediate trustworthy messages that demonstrate and assure them of its identity and intentions. It also needs to treat and include them in a way that they can relate to as having a meaning of personal and/or social value to them. As the theory can be seen as conceptualizing marketing related behaviors, its practical and theoretical contribution is that of a model of thinking that argues that marketing should be viewed as a relationship developing process of interactive communicative actions with rhetorical and creative features. The research that led to the discovery of the theory aimed its attention at an art museum and its interaction with various external actors in its surrounding environment. In order to discover the main pattern of behaviors that take place in interactions as a consequence of the museum’s main area of concerns, the classical grounded theory method was used. It is an empirical reflective method that has an inductive and conceptual approach to research.
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9.
  • Radón, Anita, 1980- (författare)
  • The Rise of Luxury Brands Online : A study of how a sense of luxury brand is created in an online environment
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Luxury brands have only recently tapped into the online market in an attempt to increase revenues and expand their businesses. This leap onto the online world has resulted in several new challenges, including the luxury brand paradox. The luxury brand paradox concerns the inherent difficulty for luxury brands to increase sales and expand their customer base while simultaneously maintaining an aura of mystery and exclusivity. The openness and accessibility of the Internet are believed to pose an extra challenging environment for luxury brands. This research explores how a sense of luxury brand is created in an online environment. Using methodology comprised of different online methods to comprehend what is taking place online, this study primarily concentrates on visual imagery and online communication.The online world of luxury brands is conceptualized into three distinct categories: brand websites, counterfeit websites and community websites. Using these three categories, the thesis demonstrates what role they each play in the creation of a sense of luxury brand. From this analysis, four themes emerge on the sense of a luxury brand (luxury history, authenticity, community and paradox).The concept of an online fair is used to illustrate the environment of luxury brands on the Internet. The online fair consists of a confluence of people involved in it as well as the various activities they perform. In addition, the fairground where the people participate and the activities that take place are described. In conclusion, this thesis proposes a move from the identity-image construct toward a view of handling and co-creation of sense of brand.
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10.
  • Fuentes, Christian (författare)
  • Green Retailing - A socio-material analysis
  • 2011
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The marketing and consumption of green products has grown significantly in recent years. As mediators between producers and consumers, retailing sites play an important role for the distribution of green products. It is through stores and other retail sites that green products are marketed and made available to consumers. But how does retailing work to circulate green products? How are green products made part of specific consumption worlds and practices? And does green retailing facilitate the development of more environmentally sustainable patterns of production and consumption? Green retailing: a socio-material analysis offers a critical account of green retailing. Using practice theory and drawing on an ethnographic study of an outdoors retail chain, this book argues that the understanding of green retailing benefit from the acknowledgement of the complexities involved in retail practices. The book analyses the work done by the Nordic Nature Shop to make their green outdoors products meaningful and functional to consumers. It shows how the retail chain uses its outlets to create a world in where their products are become necessary while simultaneously giving the products the qualities needed to function in this world. Green outdoors products are through the Nordic Nature Shops marketing work framed as tools and problem solvers that mediate between society and nature and protect fragile environments. Through their marketing of green products, the Nordic Nature Shop promises that it is possible to consume the outdoors in a greener way. However, in offering consumers products that resolve the contradiction between wanting to enjoy and wanting to protect the outdoors, the Shop also makes a number of resource intensive outdoors consumption practices possible. This means that while the Nordic Nature Shop contribute to the greening of contemporary consumption practices it simultaneously reproduces consumer culture and discourages the emergence of more reflexive and critical forms of consumption.
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