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1.
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2.
  • Lindblad, Anna, 1987-, et al. (författare)
  • IL-1RA is part of the inflammasome-regulated immune response in bladder epithelial cells and influences colonization of uropathogenic E. coli
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Cytokine. - Academic Press. - 1043-4666. ; 123
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The NLRP3 inflammasome, IL-1β release and pyroptosis (cell lysis) have recently been proposed to be essential for the progression of urinary tract infection (UTI) and elimination of intracellular bacterial niches. However, the effects of IL-1R antagonist (IL-1RA) on immune responses during UTI, except for its ability to disrupt IL-1β signalling, are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of IL-1RA in UPEC colonization of bladder epithelial cells and the subsequent host inflammatory response. Human bladder epithelial cells (5637) and CRISPR/Cas9 generated NLRP3 and caspase-1 knockdown cells and IL-1RA knockout cells were stimulated with the UPEC isolate CFT073. The results showed that the UPEC virulence factor α-hemolysin is essential for IL-1RA release, and that the inflammasome-associated proteins caspase-1 and NLRP3 affect the release of IL-1RA. IL-1RA deficient cells showed a reduced adherence and invasion by CFT073 compared to wild-type cells, suggesting that IL-1RA may oppose mechanisms that protects against bacterial colonization. A targeted protein analysis of inflammation-related proteins showed that the basal expression of 23 proteins and the UPEC-induced expression of 10 proteins were significantly altered in IL-1RA deficient bladder epithelial cells compared to Cas9 control cells. This suggests that IL-1RA has a broad effect on the inflammatory response in bladder epithelial cells.
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3.
  • Demirel, Isak, 1987-, et al. (författare)
  • Activation of the NLRP3 Inflammasome Pathway by Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Is Virulence Factor-Dependent and Influences Colonization of Bladder Epithelial Cells
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology. - Frontiers Media S.A.. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The NLRP3 inflammasome and IL-1 beta release have recently been suggested to be important for the progression of urinary tract infection (UTI). However, much is still unknown regarding the interaction of UPEC and the NLRP3 inflammasome. The purpose of this study was to elucidate what virulence factors uropathogenic Escherichia coil (UPEC) use to modulate NLRP3 inflammasome activation and subsequent IL-1 beta release and the role of NLRP3 for UPEC colonization of bladder epithelial cells. The bladder epithelial cell line 5637, CRISPR/Cas9 generated NLRP3, caspase-1 and mesotrypsin deficient cell lines and transformed primary bladder epithelial cells (HBLAK) were stimulated with UPEC isolates and the non-pathogenic MG1655 strain. We found that the UPEC strain CFT073, but not MG1655, induced an increased caspase-1 activity and IL-1 beta release from bladder epithelial cells. The increase was shown to be mediated by et-hemolysin activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in an NE-kappa B-independent manner. The effect of-hemolysin on IL-1 beta release was biphasic, initially suppressive, later inductive. Furthermore, the phase-locked type-1-fimbrial ON variant of CFT073 inhibited caspase-1 activation and IL-1 beta release. In addition, the ability of CFT073 to adhere to and invade NLRP3 deficient cells was significantly reduced compare to wild-type cells. The reduced colonization of NLRP3-deficient cells was type-1 fimbriae dependent. In conclusion, we found that the NLRP3 inflammasome was important for type-1 fimbriae-dependent colonization of bladder epithelial cells and that both type-1 fimbriae and alpha-hemolysin can modulate the activity of the NLRP3 inflammasome.
4.
  • Svensson, Lovisa, 1995-, et al. (författare)
  • Host-Derived Nitric Oxide and Its Antibacterial Effects in the Urinary Tract
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Advances in Microbial Physiology. - Academic Press. - 0065-2911. ; 73, s. 1-62
  • Forskningsöversikt (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections in humans, and the majority are caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). The rising antibiotic resistance among UPEC and the frequent failure of antibiotics to effectively treat recurrent UTI and catheter-associated UTI motivate research on alternative ways of managing UTI. Abundant evidence indicates that the toxic radical nitric oxide (NO), formed by activation of the inducible nitric oxide synthase, plays an important role in host defence to bacterial infections, including UTI. The major source of NO production during UTI is from inflammatory cells, especially neutrophils, and from the uroepithelial cells that are known to orchestrate the innate immune response during UTI. NO and reactive nitrogen species have a wide range of antibacterial targets, including DNA, heme proteins, iron-sulfur clusters, and protein thiol groups. However, UPEC have acquired a variety of defence mechanisms for protection against NO, such as the NO-detoxifying enzyme flavohemoglobin and the NO-tolerant cytochrome bd-I respiratory oxidase. The cytotoxicity of NO-derived intermediates is nonspecific and may be detrimental to host cells, and a balanced NO production is crucial to maintain the tissue integrity of the urinary tract. In this review, we will give an overview of how NO production from host cells in the urinary tract is activated and regulated, the effect of NO on UPEC growth and colonization, and the ability of UPEC to protect themselves against NO. We also discuss the attempts that have been made to develop NO-based therapeutics for UTI treatment.
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5.
  • Bang, Charlotte Sahlberg, 1967-, et al. (författare)
  • Global gene expression profiling and antibiotic susceptibility after repeated exposure to the carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2) in multidrug-resistant ESBL-producing uropathogenic Escherichia coli
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 12:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Treatment of urinary tract infections is today a challenge due to the increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant ESBL-producing uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). There is an urgent need for new treatment strategies for multidrug-resistant UPEC and preferably with targets that have low potential for development of resistance. Carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CORMs) are novel and potent antibacterial agents. The present study examines the transcriptomic targets of CORM-2 in a multidrug-resistant ESBL-producing UPEC isolate in response to a single exposure to CORM-2 and after repeated exposure to CORM-2. The bacterial viability and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) were also examined after repeated exposure to CORM-2. Microarray analysis revealed that a wide range of processes were affected by CORM-2, including a general trend of down-regulation in energy metabolism and biosynthesis pathways and up-regulation of the SOS response and DNA repair. Several genes involved in virulence (ibpB), antibiotic resistance (marAB, mdtABC) and biofilm formation (bhsA, yfgF) were up-regulated, while some genes involved in virulence (kpsC, fepCEG, entABE), antibiotic resistance (evgA) and biofilm formation (artIP) were down-regulated. Repeated exposure to CORM-2 did not alter the gene expression patterns, the growth inhibitory response to CORM-2 or the MIC values for CORM-2, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim. This study identifies several enriched gene ontologies, modified pathways and single genes that are targeted by CORM-2 in a multidrug-resistant UPEC isolate. Repeated exposure to CORM-2 did not change the gene expression patterns or fold changes and the susceptibility to CORM-2 remained after repeated exposure.
6.
  • Demirel, Isak, 1987-, et al. (författare)
  • Transcriptional Alterations of Virulence-Associated Genes in Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)-Producing Uropathogenic Escherichia coli during Morphologic Transitions Induced by Ineffective Antibiotics
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Microbiology. - Frontiers Media S.A.. - 1664-302X. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It is known that an ineffective antibiotic treatment can induce morphological shifts in uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) but the virulence properties during these shifts remain to be studied. The present study examines changes in global gene expression patterns and in virulence factor-associated genes in an extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing UPEC (ESBL019) during the morphologic transitions induced by an ineffective antibiotic and in the presence of human primary bladder epithelial cells. Microarray results showed that the different morphological states of ESBL019 had significant transcriptional alterations of a large number of genes (Transition; 7%, Filamentation; 32%, and Reverted 19% of the entities on the array). All three morphological states of ESBL019 were associated with a decreased energy metabolism, altered iron acquisition systems and altered adhesion expression. In addition, genes associated with LPS synthesis and bacterial motility was also altered in all the morphological states. Furthermore, the transition state induced a significantly higher release of TNF-alpha from bladder epithelial cells compared to all other morphologies, while the reverted state was unable to induce INF-alpha release. Our findings show that the morphological shifts induced by ineffective antibiotics are associated with significant transcriptional virulence alterations in ESBL-producing UPEC, which may affect survival and persistence in the urinary tract.
7.
  • Jonsson, Erik, 1967-, et al. (författare)
  • Fluorapatite-monazite-allanite relations in the Grängesberg apatite-iron oxide ore district, Bergslagen, Sweden
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: American Mineralogist. - 0003-004X. ; 101:7-8, s. 1769-1782
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fluorapatite-monazite-xenotime-allanite mineralogy, petrology, and textures are described for a suite of Kiruna-type apatite-iron oxide ore bodies from the Grangesberg Mining District in the Bergslagen ore province, south central Sweden. Fluorapatite occurs in three main lithological assemblages. These include: (1) the apatite-iron oxide ore bodies, (2) breccias associated with the ore bodies, which contain fragmented fluorapatite crystals, and (3) the variably altered host rocks, which contain sporadic, isolated fluorapatite grains or aggregates that are occasionally associated with magnetite in the silicate mineral matrix. Fluorapatite associated with the ore bodies is often zoned, with the outer rim enriched in Y+REE compared to the inner core. It contains sparse monazite inclusions. In the breccia, fluorapatite is rich in monazite-(Ce) xenotime-(Y) inclusions, especially in its cores, along with reworked, larger monazite grains along fluorapatite and other mineral grain rims. In the host rocks, a small subset of the fluorapatite grains contain monazite xenotime inclusions, while the large majority are devoid of inclusions. Overall, these monazites are relatively poor in Th and U. Allanite-(Ce) is found as inclusions and crack fillings in the fluorapatite from all three assemblage types as well as in the form of independent grains in the surrounding silicate mineral matrix in the host rocks. The apatite-iron oxide ore bodies are proposed to have an igneous, sub-volcanic origin, potentially accompanied by explosive eruptions, which were responsible for the accompanying fluorapatite-rich breccias. Metasomatic alteration of the ore bodies probably began during the later stages of crystallization from residual, magmatically derived HCl- and H2SO4-bearing fluids present along grain boundaries. This was most likely followed by fluid exchange between the ore and its host rocks, both immediately after emplacement of the apatite-iron oxide body, and during subsequent phases of regional metamorphism and deformation.
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8.
  • Sahlberg Bang, Charlotte, 1967-, et al. (författare)
  • Carbon monoxide releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2) inhibits growth of multidrug-resistant uropathogenic Escherichia coli in biofilm and following host cell colonization
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: BMC Microbiology. - London, United Kingdom : BioMed Central. - 1471-2180. ; 16:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Increased resistance to antimicrobial agents is a characteristic of many bacteria growing in biofilms on for example indwelling urinary catheters or in intracellular bacterial reservoirs. Biofilm-related infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria, such as extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, are a major challenge. The aim of this study was to investigate if a carbon monoxide-releasing molecule (CORM-2) has antibacterial effects against ESBL-producing uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) in the biofilm mode of growth and following colonization of host bladder epithelial cells.Results: The effect of CORM-2 was examined on bacteria grown within an established biofilm (biofilm formed for 24 h on plastic surface) by a live/dead viability staining assay. CORM-2 (500 μM) exposure for 24 h killed approximately 60 % of the ESBL-producing UPEC isolate. A non-ESBL-producing UPEC isolate and the E. coli K-12 strain TG1 were also sensitive to CORM-2 exposure when grown in biofilms. The antibacterial effect of CORM-2 on planktonic bacteria was reduced and delayed in the stationary growth phase compared to the exponential growth phase. In human bladder epithelial cell colonization experiments, CORM-2 exposure for 4 h significantly reduced the bacterial counts of an ESBL-producing UPEC isolate.Conclusion: This study shows that CORM-2 has antibacterial properties against multidrug-resistant UPEC under biofilm-like conditions and following host cell colonization, which motivate further studies of its therapeutic potential.
9.
  • Vumma, Ravi, et al. (författare)
  • Antibacterial effects of nitric oxide on uropathogenic Escherichia coli during bladder epithelial cell colonization-a comparison with nitrofurantoin
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of antibiotics (Tokyo. 1968). - Japan Antibiotics Research Association. - 0021-8820. ; 69:3, s. 183-186
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the predominant causative organism of urinary tract infections (UTI) with a high recurrence rate.1 Recurrence of UTI may involve intracellular localization of bacterial colonies within the bladder mucosa, a process that could benefit the bacteria in terms of protection against antibiotics and host immune cells.2, 3 Once internalized, UPEC may multiply and form intracellular bacterial communities with biofilm-like properties4 and/or enter a non-replicating stable and quiescent state that may serve as a source for recurrent UTI.2, 5, 6 A wide range of antimicrobial agents is used for the treatment of UTI but many antibiotics are unable to penetrate biofilm matrix or inhibit bacteria in a metabolically quiescent state. A recent study demonstrated that of seven different functional classes of antibiotics only a few, including nitrofurantoin and some fluoroquinolones, were able to eliminate internalized UPEC within bladder epithelial cells. Nitric oxide (NO) is a small hydrophobic molecule with antibacterial properties that readily diffuses through lipid bilayer membranes. During infection various host cells produce NO enzymatically from inducible nitric oxide synthase and NO has a key role in the innate immune response. It has been shown previously that NO has antibacterial activity against UPEC isolates, including multidrug-resistant extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing isolates. Although NO can interact directly with bacteria, it can also be oxidized to reactive nitrogen species.
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10.
  • Demirel, Isak, 1987-, et al. (författare)
  • Ceftibuten-induced filamentation of extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL)-producing uropathogenic Escherichia coli alters host cell responses during an in vitro infection
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Microbial Pathogenesis. - Elsevier. - 0882-4010. ; 78, s. 52-62
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Inadequate and delayed antibiotic treatment of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing isolates have been associated with increased mortality of affected patients. The purpose of this study was to compare the host response of human renal epithelial cells and polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMN) cells when infected by ESBL-producing uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) isolates in the presence or absence of ineffective antibiotics.The renal epithelial cell line A498 and PMN cells were stimulated with ESBL-producing UPEC isolates in the presence or absence of three different antibiotics (trimetoprim, ceftibuten and ciprofloxacin). Host cell responses were evaluated as release of cytokines (IL-6, IL-8), reactive oxygen species (ROS), ATP and endotoxins. Bacterial morphology and PMN phagocytosis were evaluated by microscopy.In the presence of ceftibuten, 2 out of 3 examined ESBL-isolates changed their morphology into a filamentous form. The presence of ceftibuten enhanced IL-6, IL-8 and ROS-production from host cells, but only from cells stimulated by the filamentous isolates. The bacterial supernatant and not the filamentous bacteria per se was responsible for the increased release of IL-6, IL-8 and ROS. Increased endotoxin and ATP levels were found in the bacterial supernatants from filamentous isolates. Apyrase decreased IL-6 secretion from A498 cells and polymyxin B abolished the increased ROS-production from PMN cells. PMN were able to inhibit the bacterial growth of some ESBL-isolates in the presence of ceftibuten.In conclusion, antibiotic-induced filamentation of ESBL-producing UPEC isolates and the associated release of ATP and endotoxins can alter the host cell response in the urinary tract.
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