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  • Beckman, Linda, et al. (författare)
  • Economic costs of antidepressant use : A population-based study in Sweden
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics. - Int Ctr Mental Health Policy & Economics-ICMPE. - 1091-4358. ; 22:4, s. 125-130
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Prescription of antidepressant drugs (ADs) has increased in recent decades, with rising costs for patients as well as for the health care system. There is sparse evidence of which factors explain the high economic costs and financial burden for the general population. Aims of the Study: The aim was to assess individual-level determinants of out-of-pocket and total health care costs of AD use in the Swedish general population. Methods: We randomly sampled 400,000 individuals aged 18+ from Statistics Sweden's population register from 2010 to 2013. Two-part regression models were used for our two primary outcome variables: (i) total health care costs for AD use per year and individual, and (ii) total out-of-pocket costs of AD use per year and individual. Results: Women, the unemployed, unmarried people and residents of big cities have both higher use of ADs and higher associated total health care and out-of-pocket costs. Today, ADs are relatively inexpensive and average cost differences among all groups are therefore minor. The elderly have higher use of ADs, but are more commonly low-volume users and do not have higher total health care or out-of-pocket costs. Discussion and Limitations: Groups with relatively low socioeconomic status are at risk of higher costs for antidepressant use. However, given the Swedish system of drug subsidies, differences in financial burden for individuals are minor. The limitations of this study included that we lacked data on diagnosis and could therefore not categorize the reasons for AD consumption. Furthermore, our results may not be generalized to other countries with a lower AD prevalence then Sweden's, since our estimates are dependent on the point prevalence of antidepressant use in the population. Implications for Health Care Provision and Use: Groups with higher AD consumption and economic costs may suffer from more severe depression owing to more risk factors and less social support in their surroundings, and may be in greater need of additional treatment and support than other groups. Implications for Health Policies and Further Research: Our results offer insight at an aggregate level, and more information on the underlying causes of higher costs is needed to discern the policy implications.
  • Bornhöft, Lena, et al. (författare)
  • More cost-effective management of patients with musculoskeletal disorders in primary care after direct triaging to physiotherapists for initial assessment compared to initial general practitioner assessment.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: BMC musculoskeletal disorders. - 1471-2474. ; 20:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A model for triaging patients in primary care to provide immediate contact with the most appropriate profession to treat the condition in question has been developed and implemented in parts of Sweden. Direct triaging of patients with musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) to physiotherapists at primary healthcare centres has been proposed as an alternative to initial assessment by general practitioners (GPs) and has been shown to have many positive effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness from the societal perspective of this new care-pathway through primary care regarding triaging patients with MSD to initial assessment by physiotherapists compared to standard practice with initial GP assessment.Nurse-assessed patients with MSD (N = 55) were randomised to initial assessment and treatment with either physiotherapists or GPs and were followed for 1 year regarding health-related quality of life, utilization of healthcare resources and absence from work for MSD. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were calculated based on EQ5D measured at 5 time-points. Costs for healthcare resources and production loss were compiled. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERS) were calculated. Multiple imputation was used to compensate for missing values and bootstrapping to handle uncertainty. A cost-effectiveness plane and a cost-effectiveness acceptability curve were construed to describe the results.The group who were allocated to initial assessment by physiotherapists had slightly larger gains in QALYs at lower total costs. At a willingness-to-pay threshold of 20,000 €, the likelihood that the intervention was cost-effective from a societal perspective including production loss due to MSD was 85% increasing to 93% at higher thresholds. When only healthcare costs were considered, triaging to physiotherapists was still less costly in relation to health improvements than standard praxis.From the societal perspective, this small study indicated that triaging directly to physiotherapists in primary care has a high likelihood of being cost-effective. However, further larger randomised trials will be necessary to corroborate these findings.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02218749 . Registered August 18, 2014.
  • Johansson, Naimi, 1988-, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of primary care cost-sharing among young adults Varying impact across income groups and gender
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Health Economics. - Springer. - 1618-7598. ; 20:8, s. 1271-1280
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We estimate the price sensitivity in health care among adolescents and young adults, and assess how it varies across income groups and gender, using a regression discontinuity design. We use the age differential cost-sharing in Swedish primary care as our identification strategy. At the 20th birthday, the copayment increases from €0 to approx. €10 per primary care physician visit and close to this threshold the copayment faced by each person is distributed almost as good as if randomized. The analysis is performed using high-quality health care and economic register data of 73,000 individuals aged 18–22. Our results show that the copayment decreases the average number of visits by 7%. Among women visits are reduced by 9%, for low-income individuals by 11%, and for low-income women by 14%. In conclusion, modest copayments have significant utilization effects, and even in a policy context with relatively low income inequalities, the effect is substantially larger in low-income groups and among women.
  • Kebede, Tayue Tateke, et al. (författare)
  • Cost-effectiveness of childhood pneumococcal vaccination program in Ethiopia: Results from a quasi-experimental evaluation
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: BMC Public Health. - 1471-2458. ; 19:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © 2019 The Author(s). Background: Ethiopia was among the 15 countries that, together accounted for 64% of the world's severe episodes of pneumonia among children below the age of 5 in 2011. To reduce this burden, the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV 10) was introduced into the general childhood national immunization program in Ethiopia in 2011. However, there is little evidence on its cost-effectiveness, and the aim of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of the introduction of PCV 10 vaccination in the Ethiopian setting. Methods: The cost-effectiveness analysis was carried out based on a quasi-experimental evaluation of implementing PCV 10 at the Butajira rural health program site in Ethiopia. The intervention and the control groups consisted 876 and 1010 children, respectively. Using data from program site's surveillance system database as a framework, health outcome and vaccination data were collected from medical records, immunization registration books and reports. Disability- Adjusted Life Year (DALY) was a main health outcome metric complimented by incidence of acute lower respiratory infection/1000-person years. Vaccination and treatment costs were collected by document review and cross-sectional household survey. Results: In the intervention cohort, 626 of 876 (71.5%) children received PCV 10 vaccination. Until the first year of life, the incidence of acute lower respiratory infection was higher in the intervention group. After the first year of life, the incidence rate was 35.2 per 1000-person years in the intervention group compared to 60.4 per 1000-person years in the control group. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) per averted DALY for the intervention group during the total follow-up period was (2013 US) 394.3 (undiscounted) and 413.8 (discounted). The ICER per averted DALY excluding the first year of life was (2013 US) 225 (undiscounted) and 292.7 (discounted). Conclusion: Compared to the WHO's suggested cost-effectiveness threshold value, the results indicate that the general childhood PCV 10 vaccination was a cost-effective intervention in the Butajira rural health program site.
  • Risa Hole, Arne, et al. (författare)
  • Valuation of Health Risks
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Economics and Finance. - Oxford University Press.
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)
  • Svensson, Mikael, 1981- (författare)
  • Hur klass gör skillnad Klasspositionens betydelse för rasistiska och negativt särskiljande praktiker
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Previous research concludes that working-class people in general exhibit more negative attitudes towards people with immigrant backgrounds than people in more privileged class positions. However, whilst primarily drawing on quantitative methods, these studies fail to explain how class comes to matter, and even less is known about tangible everyday practices. The thesis examines how class positions affect racist and negatively distinctive practices against persons of immigrant background. The aim is to explore (i) class differences with regard to which negative distinctive practices mainly occur in relation to different class positions and (ii) to identify generative mechanisms of importance to the practitioners, with particular attention to class-specific contexts, such as the workplace, the labor market and housing.This class-comparative study draws on data from twenty qualitative interviews: ten interviews with people in working class positions, living in a working class area; ten interviews with people in more privileged class positions, living in a socio-economically more privileged area. In addition, participant observations were conducted in the two residential areas. The sampling relies on a combination of Marxian and Weberian class criteria, in which conditions of production, occupation and income have been the main criteria for constructing the two different groups. To enable comparisons, eight categories of practice were constructed on the basis of theoretical and empirical arguments.The result shows that categories of practice vary between class positions; e.g. exploiting and corrective practices are characteristic for those in more privileged class positions, while excluding and avoidance practices are more common among those in working class positions. The study also shows that the causes of these practices can vary depending on the class position of the practitioner. The class structure is a mechanism in itself and has different effects on people in different class positions. Perceived class interests in relation to workers of ‘immigrant  background’ and the degree of authority in the workplace are both examples of this. Moreover, several other mechanisms are identified, negative notions of persons of immigrant background underpinned by imagined and actual norm circles, exclusion mechanisms linked to profession and language and the pursuit of class and upward status mobility in hierarchically racialized labor and housing markets.
  • Dedering, Asa, et al. (författare)
  • The Effects of Neck-Specific Training Versus Prescribed Physical Activity on Pain and Disability in Patients With Cervical Radiculopathy: : A Randomized Controlled Trial
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. - W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC. - 0003-9993. ; 99:12, s. 2447-2456
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To compare the effects of a neck-specific training program to prescribed physical activity with both groups receiving a cognitive behavioral approach, on pain and disability in patients with cervical radiculopathy (CR). Design: Parallel-group randomized clinical trial with follow-up at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. Setting: Recruitment and assessments of participants were performed at a university hospital. Interventions were performed in primary care setting at outpatient physiotherapy clinics. Participants: Patients (N=144) with CR were recruited to participate in this clinical trial. Interventions: Patients were randomly assigned to 3 months of either of a neck-specific training program or prescribed physical activity. Main Outcome Measures: Primary outcomes included self-rated neck and arm pain as collected by the visual analog scale (VAS). Secondary outcomes were self-rated headache measured with the VAS, the Neck Disability Index, the EuroQol 5D, the Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Assessments were performed at baseline and at 3-, 6-, 12-, and 24-month follow-up periods. Results: Intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses showed no significant interaction (group x time) or group effects. There were, however, significant time effects indicating improvement over time for both groups for all outcomes except for levels of depression. Conclusions: The study revealed that neck-specific training as well as prescribed physical activity both including additional cognitive behavioral approach decreased the pain in patients with CR, that is, participants improved regardless of the intervention received. There is a lack of consensus of how to best manage individuals with CR. However, our findings suggest that CR has a natural favorable long-term outcome when patients are prescribed neck-specific training and exercise in combination with a behavioral approach. (C) 2018 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine
  • Holst, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Cost-effectiveness analysis of internet-mediated cognitive behavioural therapy for depression in the primary care setting results based on a controlled trial
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: BMJ Open. - 2044-6055. ; 8:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective To perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of a randomised controlled trial of internet-mediated cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) compared with treatment as usual (Tall) for patients with mild to moderate depression in the Swedish primary care setting. In particular, the objective was to assess from a healthcare and societal perspective the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of ICBT versus TaU at 12 months follow-up. Design A cost-effectiveness analysis alongside a pragmatic effectiveness trial. Setting Sixteen primary care centres (PCCs) in south-west Sweden. Participants Ninety patients diagnosed with mild to moderate depression at the PCCs. Main outcome measure ICERs calculated as (Cost(ICBT)-Cost(TaU))/(Health outcome(ICBT)-Health outcome(TaU))=Delta Cost/Delta Health outcomes, the health outcomes being changes in the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) score and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Results The total cost per patient for ICBT was 4044 Swedish kronor (SEK) ((sic)426) (healthcare perspective) and SEK47679 ((sic)5028) (societal perspective). The total cost per patient for TaU was SEK4434 ((sic)468) and SEK50 343 ((sic)5308). In both groups, the largest cost was associated with productivity loss. The differences in cost per patient were not statistically significant. The mean reduction in BDI-ll score was 13.4 and 13.8 units in the ICBT and Tall groups, respectively. The mean QALYs per patient was 0.74 and 0.79 in the ICBT and TaU groups, respectively. The differences in BDI-11 score reduction and mean QALYs were not statistically significant. The uncertainty of the study estimates when assessed by bootstrapping indicated that no firm conclusion could be drawn as to whether ICBT treatment compared with Tall was the most cost-effective use of resources. Conclusions ICBT was regarded to be as cost-effective as TaU as costs, health outcomes and cost-effectiveness were similar for ICBT and TaU, both from a healthcare and societal perspective.
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