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1.
  • Bornhöft, Lena, et al. (författare)
  • More cost-effective management of patients with musculoskeletal disorders in primary care after direct triaging to physiotherapists for initial assessment compared to initial general practitioner assessment.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: BMC musculoskeletal disorders. - 1471-2474. ; 20:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A model for triaging patients in primary care to provide immediate contact with the most appropriate profession to treat the condition in question has been developed and implemented in parts of Sweden. Direct triaging of patients with musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) to physiotherapists at primary healthcare centres has been proposed as an alternative to initial assessment by general practitioners (GPs) and has been shown to have many positive effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness from the societal perspective of this new care-pathway through primary care regarding triaging patients with MSD to initial assessment by physiotherapists compared to standard practice with initial GP assessment.Nurse-assessed patients with MSD (N = 55) were randomised to initial assessment and treatment with either physiotherapists or GPs and were followed for 1 year regarding health-related quality of life, utilization of healthcare resources and absence from work for MSD. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were calculated based on EQ5D measured at 5 time-points. Costs for healthcare resources and production loss were compiled. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERS) were calculated. Multiple imputation was used to compensate for missing values and bootstrapping to handle uncertainty. A cost-effectiveness plane and a cost-effectiveness acceptability curve were construed to describe the results.The group who were allocated to initial assessment by physiotherapists had slightly larger gains in QALYs at lower total costs. At a willingness-to-pay threshold of 20,000 €, the likelihood that the intervention was cost-effective from a societal perspective including production loss due to MSD was 85% increasing to 93% at higher thresholds. When only healthcare costs were considered, triaging to physiotherapists was still less costly in relation to health improvements than standard praxis.From the societal perspective, this small study indicated that triaging directly to physiotherapists in primary care has a high likelihood of being cost-effective. However, further larger randomised trials will be necessary to corroborate these findings.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02218749 . Registered August 18, 2014.
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3.
  • Johansson, Naimi, 1988-, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of primary care cost-sharing among young adults: varying impact across income groups and gender.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: The European journal of health economics : HEPAC : health economics in prevention and care. - 1618-7601.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We estimate the price sensitivity in health care among adolescents and young adults, and assess how it varies across income groups and gender, using a regression discontinuity design. We use the age differential cost-sharing in Swedish primary care as our identification strategy. At the 20th birthday, the copayment increases from €0 to approx. €10 per primary care physician visit and close to this threshold the copayment faced by each person is distributed almost as good as if randomized. The analysis is performed using high-quality health care and economic register data of 73,000 individuals aged 18-22. Our results show that the copayment decreases the average number of visits by 7%. Among women visits are reduced by 9%, for low-income individuals by 11%, and for low-income women by 14%. In conclusion, modest copayments have significant utilization effects, and even in a policy context with relatively low income inequalities, the effect is substantially larger in low-income groups and among women.
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4.
  • Kebede, Tayue Tateke, et al. (författare)
  • Cost-effectiveness of childhood pneumococcal vaccination program in Ethiopia: Results from a quasi-experimental evaluation
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: BMC Public Health. - 1471-2458. ; 19
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © 2019 The Author(s). Background: Ethiopia was among the 15 countries that, together accounted for 64% of the world's severe episodes of pneumonia among children below the age of 5 in 2011. To reduce this burden, the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV 10) was introduced into the general childhood national immunization program in Ethiopia in 2011. However, there is little evidence on its cost-effectiveness, and the aim of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of the introduction of PCV 10 vaccination in the Ethiopian setting. Methods: The cost-effectiveness analysis was carried out based on a quasi-experimental evaluation of implementing PCV 10 at the Butajira rural health program site in Ethiopia. The intervention and the control groups consisted 876 and 1010 children, respectively. Using data from program site's surveillance system database as a framework, health outcome and vaccination data were collected from medical records, immunization registration books and reports. Disability- Adjusted Life Year (DALY) was a main health outcome metric complimented by incidence of acute lower respiratory infection/1000-person years. Vaccination and treatment costs were collected by document review and cross-sectional household survey. Results: In the intervention cohort, 626 of 876 (71.5%) children received PCV 10 vaccination. Until the first year of life, the incidence of acute lower respiratory infection was higher in the intervention group. After the first year of life, the incidence rate was 35.2 per 1000-person years in the intervention group compared to 60.4 per 1000-person years in the control group. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) per averted DALY for the intervention group during the total follow-up period was (2013 US) 394.3 (undiscounted) and 413.8 (discounted). The ICER per averted DALY excluding the first year of life was (2013 US) 225 (undiscounted) and 292.7 (discounted). Conclusion: Compared to the WHO's suggested cost-effectiveness threshold value, the results indicate that the general childhood PCV 10 vaccination was a cost-effective intervention in the Butajira rural health program site.
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5.
  • Risa Hole, Arne, et al. (författare)
  • Valuation of Health Risks
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Economics and Finance. - Oxford University Press.
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)
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7.
  • Dedering, Asa, et al. (författare)
  • The Effects of Neck-Specific Training Versus Prescribed Physical Activity on Pain and Disability in Patients With Cervical Radiculopathy: : A Randomized Controlled Trial
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. - W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC. - 0003-9993. ; 99:12, s. 2447-2456
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To compare the effects of a neck-specific training program to prescribed physical activity with both groups receiving a cognitive behavioral approach, on pain and disability in patients with cervical radiculopathy (CR). Design: Parallel-group randomized clinical trial with follow-up at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. Setting: Recruitment and assessments of participants were performed at a university hospital. Interventions were performed in primary care setting at outpatient physiotherapy clinics. Participants: Patients (N=144) with CR were recruited to participate in this clinical trial. Interventions: Patients were randomly assigned to 3 months of either of a neck-specific training program or prescribed physical activity. Main Outcome Measures: Primary outcomes included self-rated neck and arm pain as collected by the visual analog scale (VAS). Secondary outcomes were self-rated headache measured with the VAS, the Neck Disability Index, the EuroQol 5D, the Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Assessments were performed at baseline and at 3-, 6-, 12-, and 24-month follow-up periods. Results: Intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses showed no significant interaction (group x time) or group effects. There were, however, significant time effects indicating improvement over time for both groups for all outcomes except for levels of depression. Conclusions: The study revealed that neck-specific training as well as prescribed physical activity both including additional cognitive behavioral approach decreased the pain in patients with CR, that is, participants improved regardless of the intervention received. There is a lack of consensus of how to best manage individuals with CR. However, our findings suggest that CR has a natural favorable long-term outcome when patients are prescribed neck-specific training and exercise in combination with a behavioral approach. (C) 2018 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine
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8.
  • Djerf, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • Cost-effectiveness of revascularization in patients with intermittent claudication.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: The British journal of surgery. - 1365-2168. ; 105:13, s. 1742-1748
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Revascularization is a treatment option for patients with intermittent claudication. However, there is a lack of evidence to support its long-term benefits and cost-effectiveness. The aim of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of revascularization and best medical therapy (BMT) with that of BMT alone.Data were used from the IRONIC (Invasive Revascularization Or Not in Intermittent Claudication) RCT where consecutive patients with mild-to-severe intermittent claudication owing to aortoiliac or femoropopliteal disease were allocated to either BMT alone (including a structured, non-supervised exercise programme) or to revascularization together with BMT. Inpatient and outpatient costs were obtained prospectively over 24 months of follow-up. Mean improvement in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) was calculated based on responses to the EuroQol Five Dimensions EQ-5D-3 L™ questionnaire. Cost-effectiveness was assessed as the cost per QALY gained.A total of 158 patients were randomized, 79 to each group. The mean cost per patient in the BMT group was €1901, whereas it was €8280 in the group treated with revascularization in addition to BMT, with a cost difference of €6379 (95 per cent c.i. €4229 to 8728) per patient. Revascularization in addition to BMT resulted in a mean gain in QALYs of 0·16 (95 per cent c.i. 0·06 to 0·24) per patient, giving an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of €42 881 per QALY.The costs associated with revascularization together with BMT in patients with intermittent claudication were about four times higher than those of BMT alone. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of revascularization was within the accepted threshold for public willingness to pay according to the Swedish National Guidelines, but exceeded that of the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines.
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9.
  • Holst, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Cost-effectiveness analysis of internet-mediated cognitive behavioural therapy for depression in the primary care setting : results based on a controlled trial
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: BMJ Open. - 2044-6055. ; 8:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective To perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of a randomised controlled trial of internet-mediated cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) compared with treatment as usual (Tall) for patients with mild to moderate depression in the Swedish primary care setting. In particular, the objective was to assess from a healthcare and societal perspective the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of ICBT versus TaU at 12 months follow-up. Design A cost-effectiveness analysis alongside a pragmatic effectiveness trial. Setting Sixteen primary care centres (PCCs) in south-west Sweden. Participants Ninety patients diagnosed with mild to moderate depression at the PCCs. Main outcome measure ICERs calculated as (Cost(ICBT)-Cost(TaU))/(Health outcome(ICBT)-Health outcome(TaU))=Delta Cost/Delta Health outcomes, the health outcomes being changes in the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) score and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Results The total cost per patient for ICBT was 4044 Swedish kronor (SEK) ((sic)426) (healthcare perspective) and SEK47679 ((sic)5028) (societal perspective). The total cost per patient for TaU was SEK4434 ((sic)468) and SEK50 343 ((sic)5308). In both groups, the largest cost was associated with productivity loss. The differences in cost per patient were not statistically significant. The mean reduction in BDI-ll score was 13.4 and 13.8 units in the ICBT and Tall groups, respectively. The mean QALYs per patient was 0.74 and 0.79 in the ICBT and TaU groups, respectively. The differences in BDI-11 score reduction and mean QALYs were not statistically significant. The uncertainty of the study estimates when assessed by bootstrapping indicated that no firm conclusion could be drawn as to whether ICBT treatment compared with Tall was the most cost-effective use of resources. Conclusions ICBT was regarded to be as cost-effective as TaU as costs, health outcomes and cost-effectiveness were similar for ICBT and TaU, both from a healthcare and societal perspective.
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10.
  • Holst, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Cost-effectiveness of a care manager collaborative care programme for patients with depression in primary care: economic evaluation of a pragmatic randomised controlled study.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: BMJ open. - 2044-6055. ; 8:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a care manager (CM) programme compared with care as usual (CAU) for treatment of depression at primary care centres (PCCs) from a healthcare as well as societal perspective.DESIGN: Cost-effectiveness analysis.SETTING: 23 PCCs in two Swedish regions.PARTICIPANTS: Patients with depression (n=342).MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A cost-effectiveness analysis was applied on a cluster randomised trial at PCC level where patients with depression had 3 months of contact with a CM (11 intervention PCCs, n=163) or CAU (12 control PCCs, n=179), with follow-up 3 and 6 months. Effectiveness measures were based on the number of depression-free days (DFDs) calculated from the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale-Self and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Results were expressed as the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio: ∆Cost/∆QALY and ∆Cost/∆DFD. Sampling uncertainty was assessed based on non-parametric bootstrapping.RESULTS: Health benefits were higher in intervention group compared with CAU group: QALYs (0.357 vs 0.333, p<0.001) and DFD reduction of depressive symptom score (79.43 vs 60.14, p<0.001). The mean costs per patient for the 6-month period were €368 (healthcare perspective) and €6217 (societal perspective) for the intervention patients and €246 (healthcare perspective) and €7371 (societal perspective) for the control patients (n.s.). The cost per QALY gained was €6773 (healthcare perspective) and from a societal perspective the CM programme was dominant.DISCUSSION: The CM programme was associated with a gain in QALYs as well as in DFD, while also being cost saving compared with CAU from a societal perspective. This result is of high relevance for decision-makers on a national level, but it must be observed that a CM programme for depression implies increased costs at the primary care level.TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02378272; Results.
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