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1.
  • de Jong, Roelof S., et al. (författare)
  • 4MOST-4-metre Multi-Object Spectroscopic Telescope
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy V. - SPIE. - 1996-756X .- 0277-786X. ; 9147
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • 4MOST is a wide-field, high-multiplex spectroscopic survey facility under development for the VISTA telescope of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Its main science drivers are in the fields of galactic archeology, high-energy physics, galaxy evolution and cosmology. 4MOST will in particular provide the spectroscopic complements to the large area surveys coming from space missions like Gaia, eROSITA, Euclid, and PLATO and from ground-based facilities like VISTA, VST, DES, LSST and SKA. The 4MOST baseline concept features a 2.5 degree diameter field-of-view with similar to 2400 fibres in the focal surface that are configured by a fibre positioner based on the tilting spine principle. The fibres feed two types of spectrographs; similar to 1600 fibres go to two spectrographs with resolution R> 5000 (lambda similar to 390-930 nm) and similar to 800 fibres to a spectrograph with R> 18,000 (lambda similar to 392-437 nm & 515-572 nm & 605-675 nm). Both types of spectrographs are fixed-configuration, three-channel spectrographs. 4MOST will have an unique operations concept in which 5 year public surveys from both the consortium and the ESO community will be combined and observed in parallel during each exposure, resulting in more than 25 million spectra of targets spread over a large fraction of the southern sky. The 4MOST Facility Simulator (4FS) was developed to demonstrate the feasibility of this observing concept. 4MOST has been accepted for implementation by ESO with operations expected to start by the end of 2020. This paper provides a top-level overview of the 4MOST facility, while other papers in these proceedings provide more detailed descriptions of the instrument concept[1], the instrument requirements development[2], the systems engineering implementation[3], the instrument model[4], the fibre positioner concepts[5], the fibre feed[6], and the spectrographs[7].
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2.
  • Harvey, Christopher, et al. (författare)
  • High-energy gamma-ray beams from nonlinear Thomson and Compton scattering in the ultra-intense regime
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of SPIE - Relativistic Plasma Waves and Particle Beams as Coherent and Incoherent Radiation Sources; Prague; Czech Republic; 15-16 April 2015. - 0277-786X. - 978-1-62841-630-5 ; 9509
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We consider the Thomson and Compton scattering of high-energy electrons n an intense laser pulse. Our simulations show that energy losses due o radiation reaction cause the emitted radiation to be spread over a roader angular range than the case without these losses included. We xplain this in terms of the effect of these energy losses on the article dynamics. Finally, at ultra-high intensities, i.e. fields with dimensionless parameter a(0)similar to 200, the energy of the ission pectrum is significantly reduced by radiation reaction and also the lassical and QED results begin to differ. This is found to be due to he classical theory overestimating the energy loss of the electrons. uch findings are relevant to radiation source development involving e ext generation of high-intensity laser facilities.
3.
  • Infahsaeng, Yingyot, et al. (författare)
  • Transient photocurrent of bulk heterojunction solar cell characterized by ns-laser and sub-ms LED
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of SPIE. - SPIE. - 1996-756X .- 0277-786X. ; 9659
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We measure the transient photocurrent of APFO3:PCBM bulk heterojunction solar cells illuminated with ns-laser and sub-ms LED light sources. The ratio of the number of collective charges to the number of excited photon (external quantum efficiency, EQE) and the transient photocurrent fall times have been carried out with difference pulse durations and fluences. The EQEs characterized by ns-laser source are shown to obey the bimolecular recombination at high excitation fluences. The increasing of transient photocurrent fall times suggests that the fall times of free charge carriers are effected by deep trap density of state (DoS) and thus the free charge carriers have a sufficient time for bimolecular recombination at short circuit condition. At the same fluences, however, the EQEs characterized by sub-ms LED sources exhibit an excitation fluences independence of EQE. The transient photocurrent fall times with sub-ms LED sources are rather constant when the excitation fluences increases indicating that the deep trap DoS has less effect at short circuit condition for longer pulse duration.
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4.
  • Hamngren, C., et al. (författare)
  • Design and evaluation of a microfluidic system for inhibition studies of yeast cell signaling
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering. Optical Trapping and Optical Micromanipulation IX, San Diego, 12-16 August 2012. - 0277-786X. - 978-08-19-49175-6 ; 8458
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In cell signaling, different perturbations lead to different responses and using traditional biological techniques that result in averaged data may obscure important cell-to-cell variations. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a four-inlet microfluidic system that enables single-cell analysis by investigating the effect on Hog1 localization post a selective Hog1 inhibitor treatment during osmotic stress. Optical tweezers was used to position yeast cells in an array of desired size and density inside the microfluidic system. By changing the flow rates through the inlet channels, controlled and rapid introduction of two different perturbations over the cell array was enabled. The placement of the cells was determined by diffusion rates flow simulations. The system was evaluated by monitoring the subcellular localization of a fluorescently tagged kinase of the yeast "High Osmolarity Glycerol" (HOG) pathway, Hog1-GFP. By sequential treatment of the yeast cells with a selective Hog1 kinase inhibitor and sorbitol, the subcellular localization of Hog1-GFP was analysed on a single-cell level. The results showed impaired Hog1-GFP nuclear localization, providing evidence of a congenial design. The setup made it possible to remove and add an agent within 2 seconds, which is valuable for investigating the dynamic signal transduction pathways and cannot be done using traditional methods. We are confident that the features of the four-inlet microfluidic system will be a valuable tool and hence contribute significantly to unravel the mechanisms of the HOG pathway and similar dynamic signal transduction pathways.
5.
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6.
  • Lindström, Jan, et al. (författare)
  • Optimizing two radioluminescence based quality assurance devices for diagnostic radiology utilizing a simple model
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Medical Imaging 2014 : Physics of Medical Imaging. - SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering. ; s. 90333R-1-90333R-15
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The extrinsic (absolute) efficiency of a phosphor is expressed as the ratio of light energy emitted per unit area at the phosphor surface to incident x-ray energy fluence. A model described in earlier work has shown that by knowing the intrinsic efficiency, the particle size, the thickness and the light extinction factor ξ, it is possible to deduce the extrinsic efficiency for an extended range of particle sizes and layer thicknesses for a given design. The model has been tested on Gd 2O2S:Tb and ZnS:Cu fluorescent layers utilized in two quality assurance devices, respectively, aimed for the assessment of light field and radiation field congruence in diagnostic radiology. The first unit is an established device based on both fluorescence and phosphorescence containing an x-ray sensitive phosphor (ZnS:Cu) screen comprising a long afterglow. Uncertainty in field edge position is estimated to 0.8 mm (k=2). The second unit is under development and based on a linear CCD sensor which is sensitized to x-rays by applying a Gd 2O2S:Tb scintillator. The field profiles and the corresponding edge location are then obtained and compared. Uncertainty in field edge location is estimated to0.1 mm (k=2). The properties of the radioluminescent layers are essential for the functionality of the devices and have been optimized utilizing the previously developed and verified model. A theoretical description of the maximization of phosphorescence is also briefly discussed as well as an interesting finding encountered during the development processes: focal spot wandering. The oversimplistic physical assumptions made in the radioluminescence model have not been found to lead the optimizing process astray. The obtained functionality is believed to be adequate within their respective limitations for both devices.
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7.
  • Maziz, Ali, et al. (författare)
  • Lab on chip microdevices for cellular mechanotransduction in urothelial cells
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Proc. SPIE 9798, Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices (EAPAD) 2016. - SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering. - 978-1-5106-0039-3 ; s. 97981R-1-97981R-9
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cellular mechanotransduction is crucial for physiological function in the lower urinary tract. The bladder is highly dependent on the ability to sense and process mechanical inputs, illustrated by the regulated filling and voiding of the bladder. However, the mechanisms by which the bladder integrates mechanical inputs, such as intravesicular pressure, and controls the smooth muscles, remain unknown. To date no tools exist that satisfactorily mimic in vitro the dynamic micromechanical events initiated e.g. by an emerging inflammatory process or a growing tumour mass in the urinary tract. More specifically, there is a need for tools to study these events on a single cell level or in a small population of cells. We have developed a micromechanical stimulation chip that can apply physiologically relevant mechanical stimuli to single cells to study mechanosensitive cells in the urinary tract. The chips comprise arrays of microactuators based on the electroactive polymer polypyrrole (PPy). PPy offers unique possibilities and is a good candidate to provide such physiological mechanical stimulation, since it is driven at low voltages, is biocompatible, and can be microfabricated. The PPy microactuators can provide mechanical stimulation at different strains and/or strain rates to single cells or clusters of cells, including controls, all integrated on one single chip, without the need to preprepare the cells. This paper reports initial results on the mechano-response of urothelial cells using the micromechanical stimulation chips. We show that urothelial cells are viable on our microdevices and do respond with intracellular Ca2+ increase when subjected to a micro-mechanical stimulation.
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8.
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9.
  • Ringaby, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Co-aligning Aerial Hyperspectral Push-broom Strips for Change Detection
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Proc. SPIE 7835, Electro-Optical Remote Sensing, Photonic Technologies, and Applications IV. - SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering. - 978-0-8194-8353-9 ; s. Art.nr. 7835B-36
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have performed a field trial with an airborne push-broom hyperspectral sensor, making several flights over the same area and with known changes (e.g., moved vehicles) between the flights. Each flight results in a sequence of scan lines forming an image strip, and in order to detect changes between two flights, the two resulting image strips must be geometrically aligned and radiometrically corrected. The focus of this paper is the geometrical alignment, and we propose an image- and gyro-based method for geometric co-alignment (registration) of two image strips. The method is particularly useful when the sensor is not stabilized, thus reducing the need for expensive mechanical stabilization. The method works in several steps, including gyro-based rectification, global alignment using SIFT matching, and a local alignment using KLT tracking. Experimental results are shown but not quantified, as ground truth is, by the nature of the trial, lacking.
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10.
  • Svensson, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • Radiometric uncertainty of radiance measured with infrared cameras under variable ambient conditions
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: MODELING ASPECTS IN OPTICAL METROLOGY V. - Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). - 978-1-62841-686-2
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Radiometric calibration and non-uniformity correction are key operations in a signature measurement, which is a special challenge in the infrared range where a large number of parameters need to be characterized. The radiation hitting the cameras pixels will not only be due to the target, but will also depend on the atmosphere and optical components like lens and spectral filters. To obtain broadband radiative properties of a target, the spectral properties of these components must be accurately characterized. In addition to signal contributions from the incident radiation, the pixels digital numbers will also depend on the individual responses of the pixels. Results are presented for an infrared camera of the following parameters: stabilization period, dynamic response, dynamic range, ambient temperature dependence and non-uniformity. In radiometric calibrations using area blackbody sources, an estimate of the sensor signal is obtained by pixel averaging (which reduces the influence of non-uniformity), and the spectral distributions of the sources are known (via the Planck distribution). These conditions do not normally apply for signature measurements e.g. of small hot spots involving only a few pixels. The measurement uncertainty is compared between calibrations based on mean values and pixel-wise calibration. A discussion is given of the effects of unknown spectral distributions on the measurement uncertainty.
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