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Träfflista för sökning "L4X0:0345 0082 srt2:(1980-1984)"

Sökning: L4X0:0345 0082 > (1980-1984)

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1.
  • Larsby, Birgitta, 1950- (författare)
  • Different neurophysiological methods for studying the vestibular system : evaluation of old methods and development of a new test procedure
  • 1980
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Different methods were used to study the physiology and anatomy of the vestibular system. 1) A primary vestibular cortical area in the cat was located and tested for somatosensory inflow by recordings of vestibular evoked potentials and extracellular single unit activity. 2) The enzyme horseradish peroxidase was used as a retrograde anatomical tracer to identify thalamo-cortical vestibular pathways. 3) Vestibular disturbances aused  by the industrial solvents methylchloroform and styrene were recorded by electro-oculography. Positional nystagmus was seen above a concentration of 75 ppm of methylchloroform and 40 ppm of styrene in blood. 4) A clinical vestibular rotatory test procedure is described and evaluated in an animal model before and after unilateral labyrinthectomy. A long time reduction in gain is seen at higher rotational frequencies and a trend that serves to define the side of a peripheral lesion is superimposed on the oscillatory eye movements after unilateral vestibular damage.
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2.
  • Lövsund, Per, 1948- (författare)
  • Biological effects of alternating magnetic fields with special reference to the visual system
  • 1980
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aims of the present investigation were to contribute to more knowledge of the interaction between extremely low frequency magnetic fields and excitable tissue and to widen the basic understanding of the mechanisms behind these effects. The human visual system and the frog retina were used as model systems.In order to ensure that industrial magnetic flux densities and frequencies were employed in the laboratory studies, the magnetic field levels in the welding and electrosteelindustries at the site ordinarily occupied by the operator were first measured. These processes usually generated fields with a frequency of 50 Hz and a magnetic flux density of 01-10 mT. In the laboratory magnetic fields (0-40 mT, 10-50Hz) were used to induce visual light phenomena, so-called magnetophosphenes, in volunteers. The threshold values for these phosphcnes were detennined as functions of magnetic field frequency as well as of colour and intensity of the background illumination. Maximum field sensitivity occurred at a frequency of approximately 20-30 Hz. With broad spectrum light the threshold flux density was about 10-12 mT. The thresholds were found to be dependent upon the intensity and the spectral distribution of the background light. During dark-adaptation the magnetic field sensitivity decreased. In certain respects volunteers with normal colour vision differed from colour defective ones as far as threshold values are concerned. Possible mechanisms for generation of magnetophosphenes are discussed. The threshold values for magnetophosphenes (0-40 mT) and electrophosphenes (0-0.3 mA) were compared under otherwise identical experimental conditions. In both broad spectrum and monochromatic background lighting the two types of phosphenes had a concurring sensitivity maximum at 20Hz. At higher frequencies there were significant differences in the threshold values. Applying electric current stimulation in different directions did not give rise to any great differences with regard to threshold values within the frequency range 10-30Hz. Frog retinas were exposed to magnetic fields (0-80 mT, 20-30 Hz). The electrical activity in the retina induced by the fields was registered from the ganglion cell layer with the aid of microelectrode technique, whereby a threshold value was obtained at approximately 20 mT and a sensitivity maximum was found at 20 Hz. The magnetic field response occurred within approximately 5 ms, while the light stimulus response occurred only after an average of approximately 85 ms. The latency from light stimulus to response in the ganglion cell layer was significantly prolonged if the preparation was simultaneously and continuously exposed to a magnetic field. Magnetic stimuli similar to light stimuli only induced a response upon 'on', 'off or 'on/off and not during continuous stimulation. Cells which were on-cells during light stimulation became off-cells during magnetic stimulation and vice versa. Addition of Na-aspartate or CoCl2 extinguished simultaneously the response both to light and to magnetic field stimuli. The results indicate that magnetophosphenes are generated in the retina and in the same channels that normally propagate signals induced by light.
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3.
  • Nygårds, Mats-Erik, 1944- (författare)
  • Computer-based detection of cardiac arrhythmias : methods and systems
  • 1983
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to develop methods and systems which could improve the accuracy or arrhythmia monitoring and analysis of long-term ECGs and eliminate or reduce the need for continuous visual ECG screening. The detection of arrhythmias was based on an automatic classification of heart beats, using waveform features obtained from a basis signals representation. Ventricular fibrillation, a condition in which individual QRS complexes cannot be discerned, was diagnosed from a spectral analysis of the ECG.The methods were put into practice in a computer-based system with the capacity for simultaneous monitoring of eight patients. The accuracy of the system with respect to arrhythmia alarms was studied during ten 24-h periods of clinical routine use, with 55 patients. monitored for a total time of about 1000 h. Seventy percent of the time during which an alarm message should have been present (134 h) a correct alarm was given. An incorrect alarm cause was reported 17% of the time, while 13% of the time no alarm at all was given. The ratio between true and false or incorrect alarms was 3:1.The methods for arrhythmia detection were also utilized in a computer program for offline analysis of long-term ECGs from ambulatory patients. Here, the automatic analysis was combined with a subsequent interactive examination of the analysis results for highest accuracy.
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4.
  • Rundquist, Ingemar, 1947- (författare)
  • Cytofluorometry : technique and applications
  • 1981
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aims of this investigation were to examine the conditions for rapid fluorescence measurements on cellular material, to improve the performance of measurement systems for microscope fluorometry, and to apply this technique in studies on mast cell biology. Fluorescence fading, a general complication of cytofluorometry, was studied during illumination times in the millisecond range, and a new fading phenomenon characterized by short duration and rapid recovery was described. The findings of the study formed the basis for the construction of two instfurnent systems for microscope fluorometry based on Leitz MPV I and MPV II microscope photometers. Rapid fluorescence measurements were performed by a completely automatic measuring sequence, except forselectionandfocusing of the objects to be measured. Automation was mainly achieved by the integration of computers in the measurement systems, which also resulted in easily interchangeable programdetermined measuring routines and proper data processing and presentation of results. The systems were mainly used for rapid analysis of cell populations. The precision of the measurements was improved by different standardization techniques, and the measuring speed, about 500 cells per h on well prepared specimens, was high enough to permit analysis of relatively large cell populations within a reasonable time.The cytofluorometric technique was applied to studies on the biology of the connective tissue mast cell. Rat peritoneal mast cells were used for this purpose. The proliferation of mast cells was estimated by cytofluorometric measurements of DNA in mast cell populations after staining with the fluorescent dye Hoechst 33258. Formaldehyde-induced fluorescence was used to study the uptake and turnover of dopamine in mast cells in vivo. Measurements of the mast cell content of heparin, a constituent of the mast cell granule matrix, were performed by a combination of microscope fluorometry, which permits visual identification of the cells, and flow cytofluorometry, by which rapid measurements of large populations can be made.
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5.
  • Sundqvist, Tommy, 1949- (författare)
  • Probing intestinal permeability in man using different-sized, low-molecular-weight polyethyleneglycols and mathematical modelling
  • 1981
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Selective intestinal permeability as reflected by the urinary recovery of low-molecular-weight polyethylene glycols (PEG 400) of dlfferentsizes after oral administration was characterized with a mathematical filter-function. There was relative loss of both large and small PEG molecules on their way from the intestine to the urine. The reduced recovery of the large molecules is explained by selective intestinal absorption, since intravenous instillation abolished the effect. After curve-fitting to the experimental data, the mathematical procedure gives a quantitative measure of the fraction of selective and non-selective passage, and of filter-efficiency at different molecular weights. When applied to patients treated by bypass surgery for morbid obesity the method indicated a less permeable intestine with a reduced effective absorbtive surface area. In patients with rheumatoid arthritis a fasting diet gave a similar effect, which was accompanied by a reduction in disease activity. However, after changing to lactovegetarian diet the intestinal selectivity returned towards the control values, as did the inflammatory indices. Finally, to evaluate the importance of different physiological criteria for the outcome of the PEG 400 absorption test, a mathematical multi-compartment model was constructed and simulated on a computer.
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6.
  • Tenland, Torsten, 1952- (författare)
  • On laser Doppler flowmetry : methods and microvascular applications
  • 1982
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • A laser Doppler flowmeter for non-invasive microcirculatory blood flow studies has been developed. The tissue under study is illuminated by laser light (helium-neon laser, output power 2 mW) via an optical fibre and the Doppler shift oflight scattered in moving red cells is analysed. By the use of two photodetectors for detection of the backscattered light, the influences of mode interference and broadband noise from the laser and noise from surrounding light sources have been suppressed. The instrument is designed to give a continuous, stable and linear real-time measure of the flux of red cells (i.e. the number of red cells times their velocity) in the outermost layer (1 mm) of tissue, in which the red cell volume fractions are low or moderate. Linearity, measuring depth and the influence of blood oxygen tension were evaluated in a flow model with optical properties similar to those of human skin. Laser Dopplerflowmetry was found to be versatile for measurements of blood flow in human skin and rat testis and did not influence the flow under study.An extensive study of spatial and temporal variations of human skin blood flow was performed. As it was found that skin blood flow shows wide day-to-day variations and significant differences between adjacent probe sites, earlier reported "normal" values of skin blood flow were seriously questioned. It is proposed that this study can serve as a base for further functional studies.Testicular blood flow in rats was studied in order to evaluate acute effects of stress-linked substances such as adrenaline and noradrenaline. Both substances lowered the blood flow at high doses.Rhythmical variations of blood flow (frequency 5-12 min-1) in human skin and rat testis were observed and found to be in agreement with earlier findings in microscopic studies on other types of tissue. The nature and origin of this rhythmicity point towards a local regulatory mechanism operating also under "steady state" conditions.
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