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  • Elert, Kerstin, 1925- (författare)
  • Portraits of women in selected novels by Virginia Woolf and E. M. Forster
  • 1979
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Female characters in novels by Virginia Woolf and E.M. Forster are studied in their relationships as wives, mothers, daughters and prospective brides. The novels selected are those where the writers are concerned with families dominated by Victorian ideals. Virginia Woolf: The Voyage Out (1915), Night and Bay (1919), Mrs Dalloway (1925), To the Lighthouse (1927). E.M. Forster: Where Angels Fear to Tread (1905), The Longest Journey (1907) , A Room with a View (1908), Howards End (1910).The socioeconomic, religious and ideological origins of the Victorian ideals are traced, esp. as they are related to the writers' family background in the tradition of English intellectual life. The central theme of the four novels by Woolf is the mother-daughter relationship which is analyzed in its components of love and resentment, often revealed in an interior monoloque. Forster's novels usually present a widowed mother with a daughter and a son. It is shown how the plot, dialogue and authorial intrusions are used to depict a liberation from the constraints of the Victorian ideals of family life. The mothers in the novels of both writers are shown to be representative of various aspects of the Victorian ideal of womanhood. The attitudes of men towards women vary from those typifying Victorian conceptions of male superiority to more modern ideals of equality and natural companionship.
  • Florin, Christina (författare)
  • Kampen om katedern feminiserings- och professionaliseringsprocessen inom den svenska folkskolans lärarkår 1860-1906
  • 1987
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The thesis deals with the development of the secondary school teaching professionduring the second half of the 19th century and the early 20th century. The emphasisof the study is on the concurrence of three structural processes in this profession:feminization, professionalization and governmental bureaucratization.The "teachers of the people" found themselves deeply affected by radical economicand social structural changes during the transition from classical industrialcapitalism to organized capitalism at the end of the 19th century. These strucuralchanges aggravated the conflicts between the classes and the sexes in society, andthe elementary school became an important institution for social and ideologicalcontrol. But the teachers were not content to be the mindless instruments of thepredominant ideology. At an early stage the elementary school and the teachersthemselves began to live "a life of their own". Both male and female teachers beganto develop strategies in the struggle for power and control over their profession. Inother words, a process of professionalization began.At the same time as the teachers were organized collectively the women's share ofthe profession increased. The teaching of the lower classes was considered verysuitable for unmarried middle-class women, and the cheap female labour wasattractive to the politicians. There were risks of clashes between male and femaleinterests, since the profession also attracted young men from the farming andworking classes, who saw possibilities of social advancement in this sector of theschool system.The men developed different strategies against their female colleagues. Duringthe whole of the 19th century women were integrated into the professional project.At the turn of the century the men developed a strategy of social closure againstwomen, which meant that these were relegated to a lower level. At the same timethe government introduced regulations which were intended to impede women'sfast access to the profession. This triggered off an open conflict between the sexes inthe profession, since the changes were initiated by male elementary school teacherswho were leaders of the professional program as well as leading politicians in thegovernment and the Riksdag.
  • Haar, Maria (författare)
  • The phenomenon of the grotesque in modern southern fiction some aspects of its form and function
  • 1983
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • After a general historical outline of the term and concept 'grotesque' attention is focused on the grotesque in Southern fiction and an attempt is made to explain the abundance of this mode in the literature of the South. It can seemingly be linked to the distinctiveness of that region as compared to the rest of the United States—a distinctiveness that has been brought about by historical, geographical, sociological and economic factors.Basing the discussion on the theory of Philip Thomson, who defines the grotesque as "the unresolved clash between incompatibles in work and response," various critical approaches to the Southern grotesque are examined, all of which are found to be too all-embracing. An effort is then made to analyse the grotesque as displayed particularly in Caldwell, Capote, Faulkner, Goyen, McCullers, O'Connor and Welty. The study deals first with the macabre-grotesque, then the repulsive/frighten-ing-grotesque and finally the comic-grotesque. The last chapter is devoted to more recent authors writing in the 1960s. Their works reveal that the South is still a breeding ground for the grotesque.
  • Lidén, Ulla, 1917- (författare)
  • Der grammatische Tigersprung Studien zu Heimito von Doderers Sprachterminologie
  • 1990
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The Austrian novelist Heimito von Doderer (1896-1966) gained his reputation after World War II with the novels Die Strudlhofstiege (1951) and Die Dämonen (1956). His interest in language, its functions and its innermost essence appears from his novels, his diaries and his essays. In order to express his energetic conception of language he used an individual and partly newly-created terminology.This dissertation deals in the main with an analysis of approximately 25 central sentences {Fundamentalsätze), containing more than 100 terms, according to the criteria of content and formal aspects. Chapter 5 focuses on Doderer's view of life (Lebensphilosophie), a combination of philosophy, psychology and religion. The role of memory, the exploration of thinking and the depiction of creativity constitute combined endeavours in his work, in which he was influenced by Weininger's and Swoboda's terms and theses. Chapter 6 treats linguistic terminology proper. Two different examples may demonstrate Doderer's remarkable intuition for linguistic essentials. Beginning with the indirect essence of language he supposes that there is no fundamental difference between the birth of language and the creation of metaphors. Secondly he conceives of a sentence as being formed as a structural unit, based on a formula (Strukturformel). Similar opinions are represented in modern linguistics.The formal aspects of his terminology are dealt with in Chapter 7, including the different types of terms and the possibilities of word-formation, to express definitions and thematic connections. In the novel Die Merowinger (1962) Doderer constructs a burlesque travesty of erudite professional language.
  • Liliequist, Marianne (författare)
  • Nybyggarbarn Barnuppfostran bland nybyggare i Frostvikens, Vilhelmina och Tärna socknar 1850-1920
  • 1991
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The investigation concerns childrearing among settlers in the northern part of Sweden between 1850-1920. What were the attitudes of the adults towards children and what ideals were there for children's behaviour? By investigating childrearing I also intended to find which general values and norms there were in the settlers' society. When answering these questions it has turned out that the relationship between discourse, ideal norm and practice is of central importance. The source material has been taken mainly from ethnological archives. The specific elements in the settlers' way of bringing up children will be clear from a comparison with other methods from different times and different social systems. I have found it productive to refer to the discussion regarding various theories on the history of civilisation. The problems of historical translation constitute a central methodological issue in the comparison between different ways of bringing up children. I have tried to dissociate myself from the analysis of childrearing in different times which can be found in the thoughts of Philippe Aries and Norbert Elias. Michel Foucault represents a more unprejudiced history of civilisation and his thoughts about an older and a younger form of steering mechanism have turned out to be applicable in the case of historical change in the discourse and practise of childrearing. The childhood of the settlers' children can be divided into two separate periods; the liberal period of the child's first two or three years, and the time when discipline began. During the first period the child was entitled to have all its needs fulfilled. At the age of four or five a more rigorous discipline began. Flogging and fright were used and the purpose was to make the child obedient, humble and willing to work. Adults could openly express tenderness and kiss and fondle the infants. It is more difficult to interpret the language of tenderness where the older children are concerned, since adults did not express their feelings for them in words or gestures. The way the adults related to the children reveals, however, an attitude which deviates from the ideas of the Old Testament. This attitude, which existed on the level of practise, meant loving playfulness and respect. Discipline was used to teach the children proper behaviour in all areas of life, e.g. the social life with all its strict rules of etiquette. The difficulty in discovering the discipline which existed in the settlers' society, is linked to the fact that their idea of proper behaviour did not always correspond with the ideas of the middle class. The settlers taught their children to control their spontaneous feelings of distaste for dirt and uncleanliness. To openly demonstrate warm feelings for other people was also discouraged. By expressing feelings of shame, the children were taught to discipline their sexuality. Training in humbleness was also a training for life. Children who were in service had to learn the manners and the landless people were outside the reciprocity in the' settlers' society.
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