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Sökning: L4X0:0436 1121 > (2010-2019) > (2012)

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1.
  • Henry, Alastair, 1963- (författare)
  • L3 Motivation
  • 2012
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The purpose of this thesis was to study secondary school students' motivation to learn a second foreign language in addition to English. In addition to the empirical investigation of L3 motivation over a program of study and the testing of the widely-held assumption that L2 English impacts negatively on L3 motivation, the aim was also to contribute to the conceptual development of self-based motivation theory by examining the evolution and development of language-speaking/using selves, and by addressing the issue of interference between different self-guides.  In Studies I and II the L3 motivational trajectories of two samples of secondary school students (n=532, n=169) were mapped across grades 4 – 6 (Study I) and grades 6 – 9 (Study II), with a particular focus on differences in the trajectories of girls' and boys' ideal language-speaking/using selves. The results of Studies I and II revealed a pattern where initial gender differences, although remaining stable after a year of learning, thereafter follow different developmental paths. While boys' ideal L3 selves declined by the end of grade 9, girls' ideal L3 selves became stronger. Although a similar pattern was found for L2 English selves, the gender gap here was not as marked.  In Study III the hypothesis that, as a result of negative cross-referencing between ideal L2 and ideal L3 selves, L2 English would have a negative effect on L3 motivation was tested in a sample of 9th grade students (n= 101). Analysis of the data indicates that students are aware of the ideal L2 English self in L3 learning situations and support was found for the hypothesised negative effect on L3 motivation, with the impact being stronger among boys. In Study IV the hypothesised processes of negative cross-referencing were examined in a series of in-depth interviews with four participants selected using a maximum variation sampling strategy. Analysis of the data revealed that when cross-referencing takes place, some students seem to invoke counteracting resources. In the discussion of the findings it is suggested that, rather than interference, competition may provide a conceptually more coherent descriptor of the processes of cognition that take place in the working self-concept when more than one possible language self is active. The implications of the findings for theoretical development are discussed in relation to both qualitative applications of the L2 Motivational Self System (Dörnyei, 2005), and the proposed ID component in the Dynamic Model of Multilingualism (Herdina & Jessner, 2002). Finally, the educational implications of the findings are discussed and a series of proposals for classroom interventions are put forward
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  • Gerrbo, Ingemar (författare)
  • Idén om en skola för alla och specialpedagogisk organisering i praktiken
  • 2012
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Based on the assumption that inclusive schools, sometimes put in terms of ‘schools for all’ – i.e. the quest to create and maintain everyone’s learning, participation and social development in school – is a somewhat challenging task to accomplish, this thesis turned to study the work done and efforts made in this field in some mainstream Swedish school settings. In this endeavor, situations involving students at risk of school failure formed a specific focus. The aim of the study was to identify and analyse what, in school, calls for special education and, what is of particular importance in this thesis, the special education measures taken by the teachers to handle such issues; i.e. how special education is being done. Data mainly consisting of special education narratives by classroom teachers and special educators were collected during visits to a total of five mainstream schools units – all inspired and guided by the idea of inclusive schools. In the analysis of the data, narrative tools alongside process theoretical concepts such as sensemaking, mindfulness and tool dropping were used. Since social rather than pure knowledge-related school difficulties appeared to be the main concern for the school units involved, teachers spend a lot of time trying to solve misunderstandings and social tension among their students. Unless dealt with, such situations seemed to jeopardize most of what is supposed to take place in classroom. Creating and maintaining really close mutual relations between the teachers concerned and every specific child involved in any situational school difficulty, appeared to be of utmost importance. By using the tools of dialogue and personal involvement, attentive teachers struggled to make sense of the situations and, above all, tried to comprehend the specific student’s point of view. In addition to this close teaching style, measures in terms of gap reducing, gap bridging and actions taken to widen and develop mutual understanding and acceptance amongst children were employed. Furthermore, teachers tried to prevent social school failures by repeatedly discussing human rights and values in class and, not least, by embracing the uniqueness of every child. Most of the respondents, strongly supported by their principals, viewed such work as a key issue in pursuit of inclusive schools.
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  • Kultti, Anne, 1976- (författare)
  • Flerspråkiga barn i förskolan: Villkor för deltagande och lärande
  • 2012
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of this research was to study the learning conditions in preschool that support young multilingual children’s language and communicative development, and their participation in activities. A sociocultural theoretical approach provides a means to understand the dynamics of children’s learning and development within a strong theoretical framework. Analytical foci used in this research included: activity, activity systems, participation, ZPD, scaffolding, interaction, verbal and non-verbal communication, and artefacts. An ethnographical and interaction analytic approach was used to study the preschool environment as a context for learning through child-initiated play activities and teacher-led group activities. Play, mealtime, singing, and story time activities in eight preschools were analysed through the experiences of ten multilingual children (aged 1.7 to 2.11 years). The findings show that play, mealtime, singing, and story time are a part of regular and recurring patterns of the activity system. Pedagogy; organising of activities in time; spatial and social organisation; play materials and other physical artefacts contributed to creating conditions for children’s communication and language learning. Preschool is an environment where Swedish is the dominant language of communication. From an early age, children make a distinction about what language should be used in any particular context. Languages, other than Swedish, were largely invisible in the preschools studied. There was considerable space for varied individual participation in the activities. The specific nature of this activity system implies that there are opportunities for children to participate in a range of activities with others and also to manage or change their level of participation. The activities offered different resources (other than verbal communications) for participation, such as repetition of actions, use of artefacts and involvement in music. Participation in Swedish by each child was not demanded. Differences in children’s language skills did not therefore constitute a barrier to participation in most activities. However, how effectively the learning resources were used depended on the teachers’ scaffolding. Focusing on the preschool activities and the communication opportunities provides new perspectives for understanding young multilingual children in preschool and the preschool as institutional practice. Additionally, the study provides knowledge about how to use scaffolding as a tool for learning in multilingual contexts.
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  • Parinder, Ann, 1957- (författare)
  • Ungdomars matval – erfarenheter, visioner och miljöargument i eget hushåll
  • 2012
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of this thesis is to increase the knowledge of how young people, who have recently formed their own household, reason about and present their food choices. The study sheds light on the process the young people become a part of when food choices are made and food habits established. Additionally, light is shed on young people’s reasoning about their choices of food, their previous experiences and how they envision the future. The starting point has been how the young people present their food choices in relation to ethical standpoints, particularly with respect to the environment and climate. A central interest of the thesis has been to study young people’s households from a Home Economics perspective. In order to analyse and shed light on young people’s considerations and individual reflections when facing different choices, Archer’s (2003, 2007) “internal conversation” has been used. The empirical material, which comes from a 3-year study, included 51 young people who were studying, 19 of whom participated during all three years. The young people were aged 15 to 23 and had recently formed their own household. The methods used during the fieldwork included questionnaires, written reflections and participant observations as well as individual and group conversations. In addition, 23 young people photo documented their choices of food during a period of one week. The conversations were based on a guide where the young people’s perspective on the choice of food was central. The empirical material provided the prerequisites for the subsequent analysis. The results show that when the young people formed their own household, previously self-evident norms were questioned, opportunities for acquiring new standpoints arose and alternatives in the everyday food choices were found. Ethical, sensory, economical, health-related, social and knowledge-related aspects influenced in different ways the food choices. Daily routines and rituals were created and considerations concerning ethics, taste, social activities, time aspects and a desire to change the food repertoire influenced the choices. The results show clearly how the young people acted in several food arenas and navigated in order to create a functioning everyday life. Usually, ethical standpoints regarding the environment and climate varied and were taken more or less into account when choosing food. All felt that environmentally and climate friendly food choices were important and that in the future, it would be necessary to take this into account when choosing food. In conclusion, the study shows that when young people moved from a familiar life to their own household where they have to take responsibility and where habits and routines are established, they are open to change and to outside influences. Furthermore, they strive for a normative and pragmatic organisation of their food choices.
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  • Signert, Kerstin, 1949- (författare)
  • Variation och invarians i Maria Montessoris sinnestränande materiel
  • 2012
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The purpose of this study was to analyse the Montessori pedagogy with the objective to theoretically describe and explain the Montessori pedagogical method. The aim has been to find an answer to what still makes the Montessori pedagogy, after more than one hundred years, successfully spread to schools all over the world. Using older and newer theory formations, primarily a number of variation theoretical concepts, empirical data of small children using Montessori material were analysed. The study show that nothing will come from nothing. Maria Montessori was a child of her time, and not alone in her aspirations. She made use of many of the current events and ideas, and transformed them into her own. The pedagogical methods that Montessori developed, when she met intellectually challenged, under stimulated children in the hospital, came about at a time when measures for these children were discussed from a medical and educational perspective. Later, when the education in the regular school was debated throughout society, she turned to these children to develop the methods that she had been inspired to by the two doctors Jean Itard and Edouard Séguin. The common characteristics of their method were variation and invariance, a method that they in turn were inspired to use by Jacob Rodriguez Pereira. The result shows that Montessori too made a system of variation and invari¬ance in the training with the sensorial material, which also shows that the method Montessori used for sensorial education can also be appreciated within the scope of variation theory. The Montessori pedagogy is based on a carefully thought-out principle on learning that also proves to be built in to the sensorial material. This is not an antiquated and vague theory but processed though and practices that corresponds with current science. The materials one can literally touch, allows the theory and method to live on relatively unchanged over time and space.
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