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  • Alvestad, Torgeir, 1960- (författare)
  • Barnehagens relasjonelle verden - små barn som kompetente aktører i produktive forhandlinger
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The present study investigates the negotiations that take place in play among the youngest children in preschool. What are their negotiations about? How do they negotiate? What kinds of strategies do they use during their negotiations? The study has its focus on learning about fellowship through practice and experience in the negotiations that take place among the youngest preschool children. The study’s relevance also relates to the development of pedagogical practice among the youngest children in preschools. The theoretical platform is comprised of the perspectives of childhood psychology (Sommer, 2004) and childhood sociology (Corsaro, 2002). In both perspectives children are regarded as competent active in producing their own culture and active in calling on information and learning. The main concepts used in the analysis of the empirical data are ‘inter-subjectivity’ and ’the role of others’. The concepts are based on the theoretical frameworks of Daniel Stern (1991) and George Herbert Mead (1962). A group of twenty four children, thirteen girls and eleven boys, aged between two to three, were regularly video recorded. The children were enrolled in day-care groups in two of the biggest cities in Norway. The study reveals that the negotiations that take place among the children are mainly about their relationships, play materials, and the content of their play. They negotiate both verbally and nonverbally. They express their intentions towards each other with words and through gestures, glances, laughter and smiles. They use different strategies in their negotiations that relate to content and intentions. They also seem to develop or change their strategy if, for example, an initial strategy is not successful. Their strategies can be both emotional and connected to solving problems. In addition, they often use humour as a strategy. The study shows that the children who play the most with others and who know each other best, are those who are most successful in their negotiations. They often have a common focus and common intentions, as well as sharing emotional conditions in their play and negotiations. It seems that those children who are the most competent playmates are also those who are most competent in negotiations. The reason for this might be the connection between play and negotiations. To be able to play successfully demands that those sharing the play are prepared for negotiations about relations, play materials and the content of the play. However, the children’s negotiations depend on their previous experiences in this field. The more experienced the youngest children are in negotiations, the more complex and flexible their negotiations might be. A pedagogical consequence of this study is that staff in preschools should support the smallest children by giving them more time to meet and play together. This can give the children extended possibilities to develop their own strategies of negotiations in play. This in turn will support children’s learning in becoming creative, seeking and reflective individuals who create their own space of action. The experiences children are gaining through negotiations in play might also be important for other situations of negotiation, contributions and democratic practice.
  • Andishmand, Catarina, 1963- (författare)
  • Fritidshem eller servicehem? En etnografisk studie av fritidshem i tre socioekonomiskt skilda områden
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In recent decades there has been decreased resources and larger groups of children in the leisure-time centres. Statistics show major differences between leisure-time centres in terms of staff education, group size, staffing levels and the number of children enrolled at each leisure-time centre. The overall aim of the thesis is to study social practices in leisure-time centres providing after-school care. Based on Anthony Giddens' theory of structuration, an ethnographic study was conducted of everyday life at leisure-time centres in three socio-economically diverse areas. Fieldwork was conducted at each leisure-time centre over the course of one semester. The study shows how children and adults talk about their neighbourhoods and schools. It also shows the actors notions about the mission of the leisure-time centres, expressed through the actors' talk and interactions, their day-to-day routines and everyday social encounters. In conclusion, the study shows that the geographic location, resources, staff skills, group sizes and children's socio-economic backgrounds together play major roles in the social practices and activities organised at the leisure-time centres. The social changes and developments of recent decades are noticeable in all leisure-time centres. Housing segregation along with freedom of school choice all had consequences for the leisure-time centres. For children attending the same leisure-time centres, the groups become increasingly homogeneous in line with the children's ethnic and socio-economic backgrounds. The results also show that leisure-time centres with large groups of children have reduced opportunities to provide a good learning environment. It becomes evident that the social practices in the leisure-time centres reproduce the contextual conditions, and risk reproducing structural differences in children's lives.
  • Bennerstedt, Ulrika, 1979- (författare)
  • Knowledge at play. Studies of games as members’ matters Kunskap genom spelande. Studier av digitala spel och spelande som kunskapsdomän
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • On a general level, this thesis seeks some answers to the broad question of what one can learn from digital games. With an analytical approach informed by ethnomethodology, the main thrust of the work is an exploration of members’ matters in the area of games and gaming. In response to prevailing discussions about how, where and what gamers learn, the aim is to examine emerging forms of knowledge embedded in practices in and around digital games. The first part of the thesis addresses three themes: the question of whether leisure gaming could be understood to have transfer effects; how games are positioned in a state of restlessness and multistableness; and how the domain encompassing gaming and game development is advancing in terms of professionalization and institutionalization. The second part is comprised of three empirical studies based on two sets of video recordings: collaborative gaming in The Lord of the Rings Online, and assessment practices in game development education. The studies begin to unravel the elusive phenomena of gaming by making some gameplay practices and conventions visible. For instance, the findings suggest that there are specialized coordination practices, developed through long-term engagement with the online game. Furthermore, from the perspective of the institutional framing, it is argued that understandings from other media are not applicable in a straightforward manner, but must be carefully calibrated to matters such as game genre conventions and control over gameplay conduct. By describing the reasoning and knowledge displayed by gamers and game developers, the thesis contributes to interrelated discussions about knowledge development, currently carried out in educational science, interaction studies and game studies. In conclusion, it is suggested that digital games are establishing autonomy from other forms of entertainment media and software industries as a result of the ways games and gaming as multistable objects of knowledge have become deeply embedded in society.
  • Bergviken Rensfeldt, Annika, 1969- (författare)
  • Opening Higher Education: Discursive transformations of distance and higher education government
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis takes as its starting point the 1990s and early 2000s political arguments for a more open and flexible Swedish higher education system. At this time, the issues of accessibility and participation were also brought into the debate by revitalized ideals of distance education. In this study, the aim has been to denaturalize and render discursive shifts visible by examining the assumptions and reasonings of “opening higher education.” The empirical material is Swedish distance and higher education policies; Government bills, Government official reports, and replies from universities and university colleges, from 1992 to 2005. The thesis draws on a Foucauldian, post-structural understanding and approach of governmentality, focusing on how discourses take part in a governing that constitutes certain problems, solutions, and rationalities, made visible in policy. The overall purpose has been to analyze how discourses suggesting widened, flexible, and democratic participation involve regulations and orderings of students, institutions, and higher education systems. The thesis includes four studies that demonstrate how discourses of openness become parts of governing distance and higher education; how rationalities of expansion and flexibility are aligned to securing higher education systems and populations, and how institutions and individuals should adjust to flexible and personalized higher education. The first study examines how a post-war, nation-based higher education expansion is re-configured in scale, into regional, IT-based, European and global spatialities. The second study examines flexible distance education in terms of gendered spatial orderings, problematically intended for female populations. The third study explores how a certain ideal subjectivity and self-technology of personalization is embedded in the notions of IT-based Learning management systems. The last study examines the discursive shift from distance education to flexible learning and how a spatial politics and polarizations of study modes (distance/flexible), university localizations (distance/campus), and ideals of distance education (distance/closeness) are produced. The analyses reveal how liberal rationalities and self-organization of individuals, populations and spatialities take part of the governing and how orderings; differentiation of systems and exclusion of populations through spatial affiliation, gender, distance and IT study modes, market and performance logics, are produced.
  • Bigsten, Airi, 1957- (författare)
  • Fostran i förskolan
  • 2015
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The purpose of the current study is to generate knowledge about the preschool teacher’s incitements to action in the work they conduct around the upbringing of children, as well as how preschool teachers experience their own actions in interactions with children. The current study adopts a phenomenological lifeworld approach (Merleau- Ponty, 1962/2006; Schütz, 1966). This approach has been chosen in order to be able to understand the phenomenon of upbringing from the preschool teacher’s perspective. The study has been carried out in four different sections at four different preschools. Interaction between nine preschool teachers and 64 children (3-5 years old) at the four different sections was video-recorded. The data was comprised of video observations and interviews using the method of stimulated recall (Calderhead, 1981). In the analyses conducted three themes emerged. The first theme that emerged is The preschool teachers wish to respect each child’s uniqueness. In this theme the ways in which the unique child is met both by the preschool teachers and other children is described. The second theme is The preschool teachers want to achieve order. In this theme the ways in which upbringing finds expression through order are revealed. The third theme Existence: the preschool teachers want to lay the foundations for life in the future, shows how – both in the here-and-now, but also from a future-oriented perspective – upbringing finds forms of expression in preschool. The preschool teachers’ incitements to action indicate a striving to respect children’s rights to being unique individuals, the right to order and predictability, and the right to have hope, both in the hereand- now and in the future. These rights are relational and interrelated with one another. For the preschool teachers these rights are of importance, both from the child’s perspective, but also in relation to others. On occasions the adults can abstain from certain rights, if this is regarded as relevant in the particular situation. Rights also involve a degree of responsibility. Using these concepts, dimensions of upbringing can be identified and analysed, both in research as well as in pedagogical practice. In this way the study can contribute to creating a more in-depth understanding of upbringing and its nature, and can challenge teachers to develop their own practice and thus contribute in the ongoing development of the profession.
  • Bjervås, Lise-Lotte, 1960- (författare)
  • Samtal om barn och pedagogisk dokumentation som bedömningspraktik i förskolan - En diskursanalys
  • 2011
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The preschool, nowadays an intergral part of the educational system, is to be found within a welfare state and a knowledge economy, within a society characterized by the idea of lifelong learning. As a conse-quence of this, the preschool is also a part of a strong culture of assessment and measurement of children’s development and learning, and for this purpose there are different tools which may be used by teachers. In Swedish preschools, it is common that teachers carry out pedagogical documentations where they try to capture what is happening in pedagogical practice by video recording, taking photos and writing down what children express during selected moments. The overall aim of this study is to investigate how teachers talk about children during their planning meetings when they are trying to understand together the children in relation to the documentation they have made. Two different teams of teachers in preschool, in total ten teachers, have been followed during planning meetings, each team in the course of about half a year. Data has been constructed through taperecording when the teachers were talking about the children during these planning meetings. The teachers’ utterances have been interpreted in the light of Mikhail Bakhtin’s theory of communication, including his thoughts about the dialogical voice, and with analytical tools derived from Norman Fairclough’s critical discourse analysis. The results of the thesis show that the teachers’ conversations about the preschool children are multifaceted. Discourses coexist in the utterances. Sometimes discourses are involved in hegemonic struggles, and sometimes they work together. The teachers talk about preschool children both as children with an essential identity and as children who take the subject positions which the context offers. When the teachers talk about the children they go back and forth between these images of children’s identity but in spite of this, above all the teachers talk about the preschool children in a manner which describes the children as children with a lot of competence. In the utterances the teachers primarily are discussing the competencies of the children. The teachers look upon the pedagogical documentation as a tool which supports the children’s possibilities to show themselves as competent children, a tool which may help the children to use compe-tencies they already have but also to cross boundaries and become even more competent. In the utterances the teachers also agree with each other about the idea that preschool children may be limited by their age. The teachers seem to talk about the preschool children in a manner that show that they are searching for the point where the children’s capacities reach their limit, and there is nothing in the context that may help the children to cross this border. The teachers also emphasize the responsibility they have to create favourable conditions for the children’s development and learning. The children are assessed by the teachers in relation to the preschool program they take part of. The moment when the teachers document the children’s activities stands out as a critical moment when the teachers may disturb the children in their processes. In the teachers’ utterances they express that the use of pedagogical documentation in preschool offers many advantages for the preschool children and these advantages outweigh the disadvantages.
  • Borgfeldt, Eva (författare)
  • ”Det kan vara svårt att förklara på rader”. Perspektiv på analys och bedömning av multimodal textproduktion i årskurs 3.
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Drawing and coloring have been part of young students text making as  longas the writing system has been used, but with the increased use of digital tools and an enlarged focus on accountability of today there is a reinforced educational interest to understand what constitutes multimodal student texts in the context of classroom practice. This thesis project overall aim is to highlight and discuss the opportunities and difficulties in the assessment of language and knowledge-developing multimodal text work in a multilingual educational context.Conceptually the study is grounded in sociocultural theories, in sociosemiotic theory and in multiliteracies research. The methods used consist of qualitative multimodal text analysis and semi-structured interviews with students and their teacher.The three empirical studies were carried out, each having a different perspective. The first study looks at the text production of students in an integrated work of drawing, coloring and writing. The second study focuses how students reason when they choose to draw, write or both draw and write when they report to their teacher what they have learned. The third study discusses what the teacher highlights when assessing her students’ multimodal text productions. Overall, the results show that the semiotic resources, images and color, dominate students’ text productions and that the teacher attaches great importance to the illustrations, but that she, despite the best intentions, has trouble using multimodal criteria when assessing the students’ different ways of expressions and semiotic resources into a whole. It seems to be problematic for the teacher to allow students to freely interpret and independently design the task while she at the same time intends to make an overall assessment of how the content is presented. The results also indicate that it is difficult  for  the  students  to  verbalize  their  thoughts on the assessment and in practice; the teacher more often is focused on assessing abilities relating to how thoroughly the students carry out the process of documenting rather than encouraging the students to develop and express their knowledge. Finally, the thesis concludes with discussing the content of an ongoing need for research, especially regarding the consequences it may have for younger students, whatever language background they have.
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