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Sökning: L4X0:1402 1544 > (2015-2019) > (2016)

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  • Charles Murgau, Corinne, et al. (författare)
  • Microstructure model for Ti-6Al-4V used in simulation of additive manufacturing
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis is devoted to microstructure modelling of Ti-6Al-4V. The microstructure and the mechanical properties of titanium alloys are highly dependent on the temperature history experienced by the material. The developed microstructure model accounts for thermaldriving forces and is applicable for general temperature histories. It has been applied to study wire feed additive manufacturing processes that induce repetitive heating and cooling cycles.The microstructure model adopts internal state variables to represent the microstructure through microstructure constituents' fractions in finite element simulation. This makes it possible to apply the model efficiently for large computational models of general thermomechanical processes. The model is calibrated and validated versus literature data. It is applied to Gas Tungsten Arc Welding -also known as Tungsten Inert Gas welding-wire feed additive manufacturing process.Four quantities are calculated in the model: the volume fraction of phase, consisting of Widmanstätten, grain boundary, and martensite. The phase transformations during cooling are modelled based on diffusional theory described by a Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov formulation, except for diffusionless martensite formation where the Koistinen-Marburger equation is used. A parabolic growth rate equation is used for the to transformation upon heating. An added variable, structure size indicator of Widmanstätten, has also been implemented and calibrated. It is written in a simple Arrhenius format.The microstructure model is applied to in finite element simulation of wire feed additive manufacturing. Finally, coupling with a physically based constitutive model enables a comprehensive and predictive model of the properties that evolve during processing.
  • Khodadad, Davood (författare)
  • Multiplexed Digital Holography incorporating Speckle Correlation
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In manufacturing industry there is a high demand for on line quality control to minimize the risk of incorrectly produced objects. Conventional contact measurement methods are usually slow and invasive, meaning that they cannot be used for soft materials and for complex shapes without influencing the controlled parts. In contrast, interferometry and digital holography in combination with computers become faster, more reliable and highly accurateas an alternative non-contact technique for industrial shape evaluation. For example in digital holography, access to the complex wave field and the possibility to numerically reconstruct holograms in different planes introduce a new degree of flexibility to optical metrology. With digital holography high resolution and precise three dimensional (3D) images of the manufactured parts can be generated. This technique can also be used to capture data in asingle exposure, which is important when doing measurements in a disturbed environment. The aim of this thesis is devoted to the theoretical and experimental development of shape and deformation measurements. To perform online process control of free-form manufactured objects, the measured shape is compared with the CAD-model to obtain deviations. To do this, a new technique to measure surface gradients and shape based onsingle-shot multiplexed dual-wavelength digital holography and image correlation of speckle displacements is demonstrated. Based on an analytical relation between phase gradients and speckle displacements it is shown that an object is retrieved uniquely to shape, position and deformation without the unwrapping problems that usually appear in dual-wavelength holography. The method is first demonstrated using continues-wave laser light from twotemperature controlled laser diodes operating at 640 nm. Then a specially designed dual core diode pumped fiber laser that produces pulsed light with wavelengths close to 1030 nm is used. In addition, a Nd:YAG laser with the wavelength of 532 nm is used for 3D deformation measurements. One significant problem when using the dual-wavelength single-shot approach is that phase ambiguities are built in to the system that needs to be corrected. An automatic calibration scheme is therefore required. The intrinsic flexibility of digital holography gives a possibility to compensate these aberrations and to remove errors, fully numerically without mechanical movements. In this thesis I present a calibration method which allows multiplexed singleshotonline shape evaluation in a disturbed environment. It is shown that phase maps and speckle displacements can be recovered free of chromatic aberrations. This is the first time that a multiplexed single-shot dual-wavelength calibration is reported by defining a criteria tomake an automatic procedure. Further, Digital Speckle Photography (DSP) is used for the full field measurement of 3D deformations. In order to do 3D deformation measurement, usually multi-cameras and intricate set-up are required. In this thesis I demonstrate the use of only one single camera torecord four sets of speckle patterns recorded by illuminating the object from four different directions. In this manner, meanwhile 3D speckle displacement is calculated and used for the measurement of the 3D deformations, wrapping problems are also avoided. Further, the same scale of speckle images of the surface for all four images is guaranteed. Furthermore, a need for calibration of the 3D deformation measurement that occurs in the multi-camera methods,is removed. By the results of the presented work, it is experimentally verified that the multiplexed singleshot dual wavelength digital holography and numerically generated speckle images can be used together with digital speckle correlation to retrieve and evaluate the object shape. Usingmultidirectional illumination, the 3D deformation measurements can also be obtained. The proposed method is robust to large phase gradients and large movements within the intensity patterns. The advantage of the approach is that, using speckle displacements, shape and deformation measurements can be performed even though the synthetic wavelength is out of the dynamic range of the object deformation and/or height variation.
  • Abiri, Olufunminiyi (författare)
  • Non-local models in manufacturing simulations
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Ductile fracture presents challenges with respect to material modelling andnumerical simulations of localization. The strain and damage localization maybe unwanted as it indicates a failure in the process or, as in the case ofmachining and cutting, a wanted phenomenon to be controlled. The latterrequires a higher accuracy regarding the modelling of the underlying coupledplastic and fracturing/damage behaviour of the material, metal in the currentcontext as well as the stability and robustness of the simulation procedure.This aim of this work is to develop, evaluate and implement formulations thatcan efficiently and reliably handle localization problems in machiningsimulations. The focus is on non-local models. The non-local models extendthe standard continuum mechanics theory by using non-local continuumtheory in order to achieve mesh independent results when simulating fractureor shear localization.The non-local damage model is implemented and various formulations areevaluated in a Matlab™ based finite element code. The chosen algorithm wasthen implemented in commercial software. The implementations remedy themesh sensitivity problem and gives convergent solution for metal cuttingsimulations with reasonable cost. The length scale associated with the nonlocalmodels are in the current context considered as a numericalregularization parameter. The model has been applied in machiningsimulations and compared with measurements from industry.Keywords: Finite element simulation; Non-local damage; Plasticity; Machining
  • Abylayeva, Akbota (författare)
  • Inequalities for some classes of Hardy type operators and compactness in weighted Lebesgue spaces
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This PhD thesis is devoted to investigate weighted differential Hardy inequalities and Hardy-type inequalities with the kernel when the kernel has an integrable singularity, and also the additivity of the estimate of a Hardy type operator with a kernel.The thesis consists of seven papers (Papers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7) and an introduction where a review on the subject of the thesis is given. In Paper 1 weighted differential Hardy type inequalities are investigated on the set of compactly supported smooth functions, where necessary and sufficient conditions on the weight functions are established for which this inequality and two-sided estimates for the best constant hold. In Papers 2, 3, 4 a more general class of <img src="http://www.diva-portal.org/cgi-bin/mimetex.cgi?%5Calpha" />-order fractional integrationoperators are considered including the well-known classical Weyl, Riemann-Liouville, Erdelyi-Kober and Hadamard operators. Here 0 &lt; <img src="http://www.diva-portal.org/cgi-bin/mimetex.cgi?%5Calpha" /> &lt; 1. In Papers 2 and 3 the boundedness and compactness of two classes of such operators are investigated namely of Weyl and Riemann-Liouville type, respectively, in weighted Lebesgue spaces for 1 &lt; p ≤ q &lt; 1 and 0 &lt; q &lt; p &lt; ∞. As applications some new results for the fractional integration operators of Weyl, Riemann-Liouville, Erdelyi-Kober and Hadamard are given and discussed.In Paper 4 the Riemann-Liouville type operator with variable upper limit is considered. The main results are proved by using a localization method equipped with the upper limit function and the kernel of the operator. In Papers 5 and 6 the Hardy operator with kernel is considered, where the kernel has a logarithmic singularity. The criteria of the boundedness and compactness of the operator in weighted Lebesgue spaces are given for 1 &lt; p ≤ q &lt; ∞ and 0 &lt; q &lt; p &lt; ∞, respectively. In Paper 7 we investigated the weighted additive estimates for integral operators K+ and K¯ defined byK+ ƒ(x) := ∫ k(x,s) ƒ(s)ds,  K¯ ƒ(x) := ∫ k(x,s)ƒ(s)ds.It is assumed that the kernel k of the operators K+and K- belongs to the general Oinarov class. We derived the criteria for the validity of these addittive estimates when 1 ≤ p≤ q &lt; ∞
  • Ahlmark, Daniel Innala (författare)
  • Haptic Navigation Aids for the Visually Impaired
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Assistive technologies have improved the situation in society for visually impaired individuals.The rapid development the last decades have made both work and education much more accessible. Despite this, moving about independently is still a major challenge, one that at worst can lead to isolation and a decreased quality of life. To aid in the above task, devices exist to help avoid obstacles (notably the white cane), and navigation aids such as accessible GPS devices. The white cane is the quintessential aid and is much appreciated, but solutions trying to convey distance and direction to obstacles further away have not made a big impact among the visually impaired. Onefundamental challenge is how to present such information non-visually. Sounds and synthetic speech are typically utilised, but feedback through the sense of touch (haptics) is also used, often in the form of vibrations. Haptic feedback is appealing because it does not block or distort sounds from the environment that are important for non-visual navigation. Additionally, touch is a natural channel for information about surrounding objects, something the white cane so successfully utilises. This doctoral thesis explores the question above by presenting the development and evaluations of dierent types of haptic navigation aids. The goal has been to attain a simple user experience that mimics that of the white cane. The idea is that a navigation aid able to do this should have a fair chance of being successful on the market. Theevaluations of the developed prototypes have primarily been qualitative, focusing on judging the feasibility of the developed solutions. They have been evaluated at a very early stage, with visually impaired study participants.Results from the evaluations indicate that haptic feedback can lead to solutions that are both easy to understand and use. Since the evaluations were done at an early stage in the development, the participants have also provided valuable feedback regarding design and functionality. They have also noted many scenarios throughout their daily lives where such navigation aids would be of use.The thesis document these results, together with ideas and thoughts that have emerged and been tested during the development process. This information contributes to the body of knowledge on dierent means of conveying information about surrounding objects non-visually.
  • Ali, Ammar (författare)
  • Three Dimensional Hydro-Morphological Modeling of Tigris River
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The River Tigris is a major river in Iraq. It divides Baghdad, the capital of Iraq, in two parts. The reach of the river within Baghdad is about 60 km long. The climate change within the region and the construction of hydraulic structures upstream of Baghdad has reduced the water discharge of the river by 44%. Despite the fact that huge volumes of sediment have been trapped in the constructed headwater reservoirs, substantial changes have occurred in the topography of the Tigris River within Baghdad City and the number of depositions is increasing. The debris of the destroyed bridges from the wars of 1991 and 2003 and their subsequent reconstruction have contributed to the development of these depositions. As a consequence, the ability of the river to carry the peak flood waters has been reduced. This has led to a potential increase of flooding in parts of the city. To predict the maximum flood capacity for the river, the bathymetric survey that was conducted for 50 km of the Tigris River by the Ministry of Water Resources in 2008 has been used with the one-dimensional flow model “HEC-RAS”. Calibration of the model was carried out using field measurements for water levels along the last 15 km of the reach, and the water level observations at the Sarai Baghdad gauging station for the last 10 years were used to validate the model. The model showed a significant reduction in the river’s capacity compared with what the river had carried during the floods of 1971 and 1988. This result agrees with previous surveys conducted on the same reach indicating that the ability of the river to convey high water has decreased. To overcome this problem, dredging operations started along most of the Tigris River inside Baghdad City to remove many islands and side bars, as well as cleaning water intakes. An examination for the dredging plan currently in progress and two additional proposed plans was conducted using the ‘HEC-RAS’ model for the 50 km long river reach to investigate whether the designed flooding capacity of the river can be recovered and how much it can be improved. Comparing the historical records of water level and discharge for the last three decades, some improvement of flood capacity was achieved. Cautions about the water intakes should be considered to maintain their functionalities with the expected drop in water levels due to dredging operations. Bathymetric and land surveys were conducted for the northern Tigris River reach (18 km length) in Baghdad, producing 180 cross sections. A riverbed topography map was established from these cross sections. Sediment transport rates and bed composition were investigated by collecting three different types of sediment samples at the quartiles of 16 cross sections along this reach. The Helley-Smith sampler was used to collect 288 bedload samples, a suction pump was used to collect 212 suspended load samples from different depths. The Van Veen grab was used to collect 46 bed material samples. The velocity profiles and the water discharges were measured using ADCP at the sampling sections. Bed sediment compositions were investigated by analysing the collected bed material samples. It was noticed that fine sand dominated the riverbed (90.74%). The average median size within the reach was 2.49 phi (0.177mm) whilst the mean size was 2.58 phi (0.16mm). In addition, the sediments were moderately sorted, fine skewed and leptokurtic. The size of the bed sediment relatively decreased compared to older investigations due to the decrease of the competence of the river. The bed elevation had increased compared to previous surveys. It was noticed that dredging operations and obstacles (e.g. fallen bridges and islands) disturbed the flow of the river and the sediment characteristics in several sites. Bedload rates were computed using the weights of the collected bedload samples. The spatial distribution of sampling cross sections took into consideration the variance of river topography where 7 meanders, 2 islands and several bank depositions characterize the geometry of the river reach. Twenty bedload predictors were applied to the same reach. The annual transported quantities of the bedload were estimated to be 36 and 50 thousand tons in 2009 and 2013 respectively. The total load discharge rate in the northern reach of the Tigris River was computed using the sediment concentrations of the collected suspended load samples after adding the bedload rate at each of the sampling cross sections. The results indicated that the suspended load is the dominant mode in the total load with a minimum percentage of 93.5%. The total load ranged from 29.1 to 190.3 kg/s. A total load rating curve of the power function was established. The associated errors from using the proposed rating curve are within reassuring levels and less than the errors produced from most of the other twenty-two total load formulas, which were applied to the same reach. The scattering of the results from the other formulas can be attributed to the spatial variance in the topography of the riverbed. According to the final results obtained, it is recommended to use the proposed procedure for establishing a spatial total load rating curve to estimate sediment rates for morphologically complicated rivers. The annual transported quantities of the total load were estimated at 2.47 and 4.23 million tons for 2009 and 2013 respectively. The three-dimensional morphodynamic model (Simulation of Sediment movements In water Intakes with Multiblock option - SSIIM) was used to simulate the velocity field and the water surface profile along the northern reach of the Tigris River using the findings of the current bathymetric survey of the river. The model was calibrated for the water levels, the velocity profiles and the sediment concentration profiles using different combinations of parameters and algorithms, those available in the model. The set of parameters that gave a minimum root mean square error (RMSE) was used for the validation process using another set of field measurements. The calibration and the validation results showed good agreement with field measurements, and the model was used to predict the future changes in river hydro-morphology for a period of 14 months. The results of the future predictions showed increases in depositions on the shallow part of the cross section having lower velocity and, on the other hand, the river deepens the incised route to fit its current hydrologic condition leaving the former wide section as a floodplain for the newer river. The net deposition/erosion rate was 67.44 kg/s in average and the total deposition quantity was 2.12 million tons annually. The locations of depositions are compatible with those of the river in the real world. An expansion in the size of current islands was predicted. An indication of the potential threats of the river banks’ collapse and the bridge piers’ instability was given by high erosion along the thalweg line.Keywords: Flood capacity, Dredging, HEC-RAS, Bathymetric survey, Bed sediment, Bedload, Total load, Helley-Smith sampler, Sediment transport, ADCP, Prediction formulas, 3-D morphodynamic model, Bed changes, SSIIM, underfit river, regulated river, Tigris River, Baghdad.
  • Amiri, Kaveh (författare)
  • Experimental investigation of a Kaplan runner under steady-state and transient operations
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Hydropower is a key part in electricity production nowadays. Hydropower electricity production rose to 3579.5 TWh in 2013, ranked as the second source of electricity production in the world after fossil fuels. It is the principle source of renewable electricity production, producing 16.2% of the electricity in 2013, accounting for 78% of the renewable electricity production in the world. Specifically in Sweden, hydropower is the main source of electricity production producing 47.5% of the required electricity. Nuclear, biomass, and wind placed in the following positions in the ranking in 2013 with 38.4%, 6.5%, and 4.3%, respectively.Besides meeting electricity demand with an environmental-friendly method, hydropower has a unique and important role which is grid regulation: balancing electricity production and consumption. Gas turbines and hydraulic turbines called “Primary reserves” are the only electricity production systems that can be used for fast regulations due to their short start-up time from 1 to 60 s. The obvious environmental problems, air pollution, and costs associated with gas turbines make hydropower a prime alternative whenever applicable. In Sweden, the share of fossil fuels in electricity production is small; 2.8% in 2012 with an average annual growth of -0.7% in the period 2002-2012. Hence, hydropower is practically the only available source used to regulate the grid fluctuations resulting from deregulated market and fast growth of intermittent power generation systems, i.e., solar and wind energy. Hydraulic turbines are subject to frequent off-design and transient operations because of their grid regulation responsibility. Such operating conditions decrease turbine’s efficiency and affect its lifetime significantly. Off-design and transient operation of hydraulic turbines may induce unpredicted pressure fluctuations on the stationary and rotating parts of the turbine. Special attention should be dedicated to the effects of such phenomena on the runner blades because of their importance on the efficiency of the turbine, and their vulnerability to the pressure fluctuations.This thesis presents an experimental investigation on the effects of off-design and transient operation of an axial hydraulic turbine on velocity fields and pressure fluctuations exerted on the runner and the draft tube of a turbine. The investigation was performed on a 1:3.1 scaled model of a Kaplan turbine known as Porjus U9. The main objective was to investigate the effect of operating point on pressure and velocity fluctuations in the runner and the draft tube. Another objective was to study the effect of transient operation on pressure fluctuations exerted on the runner and the draft tube, to investigate the formation and mitigation process of a rotating vortex rope (RVR) within the draft tube. Finally, the effect of the swirl leaving the runner and the draft tube bend on the performance of the turbine was investigated. The study involves pressure measurements on the runner blades and draft tube walls of the turbine, laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) measurements within and after the runner, and particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements within the draft tube.The pressure and LDA results acquired during steady state operation of the turbine showed different sources of fluctuations on the runner at different operating points resulting in symmetric and asymmetric fluctuating forces on the runner. The pressure measurements during transient operating conditions exhibited pressure fluctuations exerted on the runner during load variations and elucidated some aspects of formation and mitigation process of RVR within the draft tube. The PIV measurements performed after the draft tube bend of the turbine focuses on the physical phenomena resulting in flow asymmetry after the draft tube bend of hydraulic turbines affecting their efficiency.
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