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Träfflista för sökning "L4X0:1403 2465 ;pers:(Sterner Thomas 1952)"

Sökning: L4X0:1403 2465 > Sterner Thomas 1952

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1.
  • Bonilla, Jorge, 1975-, et al. (författare)
  • Synergies and Trade-offs between Climate and Local Air Pollution: Policies in Sweden
  • 2012
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In this paper, we explore the synergies and tradeoffs between abatement of global and local pollution. We built a unique dataset of Swedish heat and power plants with detailed boiler-level data 2001-2009 on not only production and inputs but also emissions of CO2 and NOx. Both pollutants are subject to strict policies in Sweden. CO2 is subject to multiple levels of governance using environmental instruments such as the EU ETS and Swedish carbon taxes; NOx – as a precursor of acid rain and eutrophication – is regulated by a heavy fee. Using a quadratic directional output distance function, we characterize changes in technical efficiency as well as patterns of substitutability in response to the policies mentioned. The fact that generating units face a trade-off between the pollutants indicates a need for policy coordination.
2.
  • Bonilla, Jorge, 1975-, et al. (författare)
  • Diffusion of NOx abatement technologies in Sweden
  • 2014
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This paper studies how different NOx abatement technologies have diffused under the Swedish system of refunded emissions charges and analyzes the determinants of the time to adoption. The policy, under which the charge revenues are refunded back to the regulated firms in proportion to energy output, was explicitly designed to affect investment in NOx-reducing technologies. The results indicate that a higher net NOx charge liability, i.e. a reduction in tax liabilities net of the refund due to the new technology, increases the likelihood of adoption, but only for end-of-pipe post-combustion technologies. We also find some indication that market power considerations in the heat and power industry reduce the incentives to abate emissions through investment in postcombustion technologies. Adoption of post-combustion technologies and the efficiency improving technology of flue gas condensation are also more likely in the heat and power and waste incineration sectors, which is possibly explained by a large degree of public ownership in these sectors.
3.
  • Carlsson, Fredrik, 1968-, et al. (författare)
  • A Fair Share : Burden-Sharing Preferences in the United States and China
  • 2010
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Using a choice experiment, we investigated preferences for distributing the economic burden of decreasing CO2 emissions in the two largest CO2-emitting countries: the United States and China. We asked respondents about their preferences for four burden-sharing rules to reduce CO2 emissions according to their country’s 1) historical emissions, 2) income level, 3) equal right to emit per person, and 4) current emissions. We found that U.S. respondents preferred the rule based on current emissions, while the equal right to emit rule was clearly least preferred. The Chinese respondents, on the other hand, preferred the historical rule, while the current emissions rule was the least preferred. Respondents overall favored the rule that was least costly for their country. These marked differences may explain the difficulties countries face in agreeing how to share costs, presenting a tough hurdle to overcome in future negotiations. We also found that the strength of the preferences was much stronger in China, suggesting that how mitigation costs are shared across countries is more important there.
4.
  • Carlsson, Fredrik, 1968-, et al. (författare)
  • Discrimination in Scientific Review - A natural field experiment on blind versus non-blind review
  • 2009
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This paper analyzes the impacts of gender, as well as other author characteristics, on reviewers’ grading of papers submitted to an international conference in economics in Sweden in 2008. Correcting for other variables, including country and research field as well as researcher academic level, we focus on the difference in grades between blind and non-blind review treatments. We find little effect of non-blind reviewing and no significant evidence of gender or any other type of discrimination. Furthermore, we do not find any significant difference between the average grading by female and male reviewers.
5.
  • Carlsson, Fredrik, 1968-, et al. (författare)
  • Is Fairness Blind? - The effect of framing on preferences for effort-sharing rules
  • 2010
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • By using a choice experiment, this paper focuses on citizens’ preferences for effort-sharing rules of how carbon abatement should be shared among countries. We find that Swedes do not rank the rule favoring their own country highest. Instead, they prefer the rule where all countries are allowed to emit an equal amount per person, a rule that favors Africa at the expense of high emitters such as the U.S. The least preferred rule is reduction proportional to historical emissions. Using two different treatments, one where the respondents were informed about the country names and one where the country names were replaced with anonymous labels A-D, we also test whether people’s preferences for effort-sharing rules depend on the framing of the problem. We find that while the ranking of the principles is the same in both treatments, the strength of the preferences is significantly increased when the actual names of the countries are used.
6.
  • Carlsson, Fredrik, 1968-, et al. (författare)
  • Paying for Mitigation: A Multiple Country Study
  • 2010
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Unique survey data from a contingent valuation study conducted in three different countries (China, Sweden, and the United States) were used to investigate the ordinary citizen’s willingness to pay (WTP) for reducing CO2 emissions. We find that a large majority of the respondents in all three countries believe that the mean global temperature has increased over the last 100 years and that humans are responsible for the increase. A smaller share of Americans, however, believes these statements, when compared to the Chinese and Swedes. A larger share of Americans is also pessimistic and believes that nothing can be done to stop climate change. We also find that Sweden has the highest WTP for reductions of CO2, while China has the lowest. Thus, even though the Swedes and Chinese are similar to each other in their attitudes toward climate change, they differ considerably in their WTP. When WTP is measured as a share of household income, the willingness to pay is the same for Americans and Chinese, while again higher for the Swedes.
7.
  • Carlsson, Fredrik, 1968-, et al. (författare)
  • The Truth, the Whole Truth, and Nothing but the Truth - A Multiple Country Test of an Oath Script
  • 2010
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Hypothetical bias is one of the main issues bedeviling the field of nonmarket valuation. The general criticism is that survey responses reflect how people would like to behave, rather than how they actually behave. In our study of climate change and emissions reductions, we took advantage of the increasing bulk of evidence from psychology and economics that addresses the effects of making promises, in order to investigate the effect of an oath script in a contingent valuation survey. The survey was conducted in Sweden and China, and its results indicate that an oath script has significant effects on respondent behavior in answering willingness-to-pay (WTP) questions, some of which vary by country. In both countries, the share of zero WTP responses and extremely high WTP responses decreases when an oath script is used, which also results in lower variance. In China, the oath script also reduces the average WTP, cutting it by half in certain instances. We also found that the oath script has different impacts on various respondent groups. For example, without the oath script, Communist party members in China are more likely than others to have a positive WTP for emissions reductions, but with the oath script, there is no longer any difference between the groups.
8.
  • Coria, Jessica, 1979-, et al. (författare)
  • Biodiversity Conservation and Ecosystem Services Provision: A Tale of Confused Objectives, Mulitple Market Failures and Policy Challenges
  • 2012
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Most research and funding in conservation has been oriented toward biodiversity per se. Until recently there has been little tangible effort in linking conservation to ecosystem service provision. Nevertheless, this trend seems to be changing due in part to the relative success of payment mechanisms that provide funding for the conservation of ecosystem services – defined as discrete and identifiable end-products. This paper describes the features of optimal policies to protect (i) biodiversity vs. (ii) ecosystem services and analyze to what extent the criteria in (i) and (ii) set against each other or create synergies. We also analyze how payments for ecosystem services affect the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem services conservation.
9.
  • Coria, Jessica, 1979-, et al. (författare)
  • Natural Resource Management: Challenges and Policy Options
  • 2011
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Much of the improvement in living standards in developed and developing countries alike is attributable to the exploitation of nonrenewable and renewable resources. The problem is to know when the exploitation occurs at rates and with technologies that are sustainable. If they are not sustainable, this state of affairs presents a serious problem for the future. A long-term management perspective is needed in order to avoid irreversible degradation of renewable resources. This paper examines major challenges to natural resource management as well as policy options.
10.
  • Coria, Jessica, 1979-, et al. (författare)
  • To Trade or Not to Trade: Firm-Level Analysis of Emissions Trading in Santiago, Chile
  • 2009
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Whether tradable permits are appropriate for use in transition and developing economies—given special social and cultural circumstances, such as the lack of institutions and lack of expertise with market?based policies—is much debated. We conducted interviews and surveyed a sample of firms subject to emissions trading programs in Santiago, Chile, one of the first cities outside the OECD that has implemented such trading. The information gathered allow us to study what factors affect the performance of the trading programs in practice and the challenges and advantages of applying tradable permits in less developed countries.
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